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Full text of "Creative Computing Magazine (March 1983) Volume 09 Number 03"

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March l'JX.< 

vol 9, nn i 

$2.95 



I 



I 



the #1 magazine of computer applications and softwar 



In-depth Evaluations: 

■ 14 Printers 

■ Microfazer 

■ Word Processors for 
Color Computer 

~olor Computer 
isk Drive 

ata Factory 

■ Color Computer 
Games 

■ TRS-80 Games 
aint 



n*I:i F: 1 



k Behind 
The Scenes 

hael Crichtoi 
dieting 
i Future 

me 
rary 
talog 
iram 





►einr stw 96oaaAdx wio *2928s ( 



'no; 



T. 



« 



Columns: 

■ Graphics 
- TRS-80 

Apple 

Atari 
go 







^ 




Man has only recently tested the waters of the home 
computer age. and he has found the waters to his liking. 
But with a Drain capable of storing several trillion bits of 
information, he will be continually pushing his new found 
toy to greater limits. Will his machine live up to this 
challenge? 

Sadly, many personal computers will become tomorrow's 
Junk in the attic. The SV-318 Is one that will not. Because as 
you get better, it gets better. It does so because of its 
capability and expandability— both far beyond those of 
any other affordable computer. 

CAPABILITY. The SV-318 isn 'tjust more capable. Its much 
more capable. No other computer at even twice the price 
combines all these extraordinary features: 32K ROM 
expandable to 96K; 32K RAM expandable to 144K; 
Extended Microsoft Basic (the industry standard); even 
Standard CP/M BOcolumn capability so you can 
immediately utilize over 10,000 existing software 
programs. The SV-318 also has a unique built-in joystick/ 
cursor control— an immeasurably useful feature when it 
comes to playing your favorite video game. 

expandability. As you become more and more skillful 
with computers, you'll love how the SV-318 "stretches" to 
meet your demands (and actually leads you in fascinating, 
new directions). For one thing, all eleven of our important 
peripherals are available immediately. With most other 
models, you have to wait months. For another, the SV-318 is 
beautifully designed to interface with new options as they 
become available. 

AFFORD ABILITY. The SV-318 is not only eminently afford- 
able, It's the first true bargain of the computer agel Besides 
home budgeting, business applications, word processing, 
programming and self-teaching, the SV-318 is the best 
entertainment value in town. Not only can you use it with 
your TV to play hundreds of different video games, you 
can also use your SV-318 with a TV as a drawing tablet or 
music synthesizer. In play, as in work, the SV-318 will 
continually expand to meet your potential. 

Whether you're just wetting your toes in computers, or 
fully asail on the waters, the SV-318 is a computer that will 
serve you for many, many years. You see, we believe that 
even in the computer age, you don 't become an object of 
real value unless you're around for a while. 



SPECTHAVIOEO SV 318 COMPUTER COMPARISON CHART 



use met 



COLOR COtAPUTER 



COMPUTING POWER FEATURES 
BUKT IN ROM 
EXPANDABLE TO 
BURT M EXTENOC 
BUILT IN RAH 
EXPANDABLE TO 



ADDITIONAL COST 



ADDITIONAL COST 



'[rBOAADFEAIUAES 

NUMBER OF HtY» n 

USER DEFINE FUNCTIONS lO 

SRECIAL WORD PROCESSING rES 

GENERATED GRAPHICS (FROM « E TBOARD) TIS 
U PRE A* OWE R CASE 



GAMEjAUOrO FEATURES 

SEPARATE CARTRIOGE SLOTS 

BUILT IN JOYSTICK 

COLORS 

RESOLUTION IRIIELSI 

SRAJTES 

SOUND CHANNELS 

OCTAVES PER CHANNEL 

AOSR ENVELOPE 

PERIPHERAL SPECIFICATIONS 
CASSETTE 
AUDIO IO 

BUILT Ml MMC 

WW DRIVE CAPACITY 

HOW PROFILE) 



. ..*'.M 



CPiM COMPATIBILITY ( BO column programs) 
CRAA- 21 



lits 
| hondlly 

J con record 
undonrhe 
lie of cossette 
|<n language 
l-an be used 
i'iii continue to 

l it you 

idoto 

r mic to help 
■grams 




SV 902 FLOPPY DISK DRIVE 

This extremely compact, low profile unit uses 
standard 5 '/• * flexible diskettes Its single side 
double density configuration allows a capacity of 
2S6K bytes of data (unformatted) Linked to me 
Super Expander, the SV 902 is your key to the 
virtually unlimited scope of CP/M 0/S os wen as o 
complete variety of program languoges such os 
LOGO. PASCAL FORTRAN. COBOL and Pl-1 



1 ^)X!L1HT1I//0&l7 




PERSONAL COMPUTGR 

SPECTRA VIDEO INC. 39 W. 37th Street. New Yortc. NY. 10018 
CIRCLE 261 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



* IWjVJ-tlMwW^ 'Wc/efAC tuM(0>1 



' *MM » cm ¥Xm "MM 40 or M cokjw CP'M U-trw* -, 
- Corwnottort M accapB « co*ww.CP/M 






THE REMARKAE 
SV-318 PERSONAL COl 

You'll grow into it, not o 




« 1963 SPECTTtA VIDEO. INC 




SV-601 SUPER EXPANDER 

The not voiue in ony computer system ke» m *% 
ability to accommodate a large variety ol Input/ 
output devices simultaneously With me addition ol 
the SV-601. the SV-318 con Interlace with os mony 
as seven different devices ot one time Although 
lightweight, me SV-601 con support 15 ' IV. 
monitor Speclol front view slots hove been 
designed to monitor the operation ot me diflerent 
interlace cords mot ore connected to me system 




SV 903 DATA CASSE I 

This leature packed data cassette drj 
power irom me SV 318, to which it is I 
connected By using a stereo head, y] 
data on one channel. and voice or srl 
other This greatly enhances me usoil 
stored dota Programs such as lorei(| 
tutorials and voice assisted training <1 
and data stored The data cassette *l 
be an integral part ol your system evl 
choose to expand into a disk drive Tl 
cassette even hos a built-in condensl 
you write your own voice support pre J 



■ 



ANNOUNCING 
THE END OF 

THE DISPOSABLE 

COMPUTER. 



ARE YOU SIIU. LETTING YOUR PRINTER TIE UP TOUR COMPUTER? 



While your printer is running, your 
computer is tied up. You can't use it 
for processing, computing, data entry. 
Nothing. All you can do is twiddle 
your thumbs until the program is 
finished. 

Pretty ridiculous. 

MKROBUFFER ALLOWS YOU 

TO PRINT AND PROCESS 

SIMULTANEOUSLY. 

You just dump your printing data 
directly to Microbuffer, whoosh!, and 
continue processing. No waiting. 

Microbuffer accepts data as fast as 
your computer can send it. It stores 
the data in its own memory buffer 
then takes control of your printer. 

It's that easy. 

THERE IS A MKROBUFFER 

ESPECIALLY FOR YOUR APPLE. 

Microbuffer II (just one in the full line 
of Microbuffers) is designed to be 
specifically compatible with an Apple II 




computer. An intelligent interface card 
with up to 32K of RAM for data buffer- 
ing, Microbuffer II features on-board 
firmware for text formatting and 
advanced graphics dump routines. 
Both serial and parallel models have 
energy-efficient low power consump- 
tion coupled with a high data transfer 
rate. Print formatting functions include 
Basic listing formatter, self-test, buffer 
zap, text screen dump, fully program- 
mable control characters and 
transparent and maintain modes — 



to name only a few. 

Microbuffer II is simple to install — 
being slot-independent, it slips directly 
inside the Apple II in any slot except 
zero. The 16K model is priced at $259 
and the 32K, at $299. 

Other Microbuffer models include 
Microbuffer/ E for Epson printers and a 
stand-alone, in-line Microbuffer unit to 
untie virtually any computer/ printer 
combination. 

MKROBUFFER FROM 
PRACTICAL PERIPHERALS. 

So what are you waiting for? Write to 
us for more information or ask your 
dealer for a demonstration. 

When you see how much freedom 
Microbuffer will allow, you'll 
understand why it's so silly to be 
without one. 

PRACTICAL PERIPHERALS, INC.™ 
31245 LA BAYA DRIVE 
WESTLAKE VILLAGE, CA 91362 
(213) 991-8200 

MKROBUFFER FREES COMPUTERS. 

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VINYL PROTECTIVE DISK SLEEVES 



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COLOR CODED. Murti-cotor DwcSavers ' are designed 
for easy cecognrttan of individual disks with your own 
color-keyed Wing system Idea) tor office or home use. 

PROTECTIVE: Custom grain vinyl provides added 
protection for magnetic disks by guarding against 
common handling hazards. 

ATTRACTIVE: DiscSavers provide a handsome and 
professional method of single disk storage and 
enhance the look of your hardware while protecting 
your valuable software. 



DURABLE: Rigid vinyl construction protects against 
constant handling to ensure long wear and tear 

PORTABLE: DiscSavers are the only portable vinyl 
disk sleeves tor use wrth a single diskette (hat bear the 
RockRoy mark at quality. 



Compute' PrcxJncte O . 



7721 E Gray Road 
Scottsdale, Arizona 85260 
(602) 998-1577 
Tgfl-Free 800-528-2361 



CJRCLE 229 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



; issue*. .in this issue... id this 



evaluations & profiles 



Printers and Word Processing 



Ahl 



1 9 Buying A Printer 

How to decide which one is for you 

OQ Printer Evaluations Anderson and Linzmayer 

** w We evaluate and rate 14 printers 



64 Mlerofazar From Quadram 

"^ Data buffer saves time 



Ahl 



TO Printer Update Linzmayer 

Newest printers on the market 

Q 1 Word Processing 

° ' With Apple, Diablo And WordStar Mar 

Some do's and some don ts 

QQ Thro* Word Processors 

w ** For TRS-80 Color Computer Norman 

Telewriter. C.C. Writer and Color Scripsit 



Ahl 



1 fj-l Epson HX-20 
1 v ' Good things come in small packages 

■lift Apple lie Goodman 

A firsthand examination 

1 OO Color Computer Disk Drive Steiner 

1 '**■ Getting serious with the Color Computer 

1 1ft °« ta Factory ORourke 

■ W Foolproof, flexible database management 

■1 AA Electronic Canvas Anderson 

* ^^ Paint, a graphics composer for the Atari 

4 CO TRS-80 Arcade Games Linzmayer 

* ** fc Six of the best we've seen 

1 ftn Color Computer Games Linzmayer 

■ wv Bugs, spaceships and raquetball for the Color Computer 



Cover illustration by Pat Ruggero. 



G3 V&£ 



articles 

1 68 Tna D,rk Crystal Anderson 

A look behind the scenes 

1 78 HowTo 8oh,e ,! Piele 

' * ° Beyond turtle graphics 

1 87 Logo Ideas Lawler 

' " Variables and Abstraction 



March, 1983 
Volume 9, Number 3 

Creative Computing (ISSN 097-8140) is published monthly by Ahl Computing 
Inc a subsidiary ot Ziff-Davis Publishing Company David Ahl. President. Elizabeth 
B Staples Vice President; Selwyn Taubman. Treasurer; Bertram A Abrams. 
Secretary PO Box 789-M Morristown. N J 07960 Second Class postage paid at 
New York NY 10001 and at additional mailing offices 

Copyright ©1983 by Ahl Computing. Inc All rights reserved 

Editorial offices located at 39 East Hanover Ave . Morris Plains. NJ 07950 Phone 

Domettic^Subscriptions 12 issues *24.97. 24 issues *4397. 36 issues $57 97 
POSTMASTER send address changes to Creative Computing. PO Box 5Z14. 
Boulder. CO 80321 Call 800-631-8112 toll-free (in New Jersey call 201-540- 
0445) to order a subscription 



applications & software 

1 88 Predicting The Future Crichton 

A program to cast the I Ching 

204 TRS-80 Graphics Made Almost Painless Crew 

■ iv ^ Part two: vector plotter 

214 Computer Art For The Tektronix Jacobson 

*" Sinusoidal loop no. 2 

2"! ft Library Catalog Hellman 

Create a computer based home library catalog 



departments 

6 Input/Output Readers 

8 Notices F oe 

1 Seven Years Ago Ahl 

258 Qr " Dn Paper Lubar 

****** Part nine: the wrap-up 

265 New Products Staff 

272 Apple Cart Adams 

A speech synthesis program 

27fi Outpost: Atari Anderson 

■" v Light pens to buy and make 

284 IBM '"woo* Fasf/e 

*-**^ Most frequently asked questions answered 

294 TRS-80 Strings Gray 

*-^^ Spectrums, spirals and Tandyvision 

30Q Book Reviews Gray 



March ig83 e Creative Computing 



staff 



Founder/Editor-in-Chief 



David H. Ahl 



Editor 

Managing Editor 
Associate Editor 
Editor-at-Large 
Contributing Editors 




Editorial Assistants 
Secretary 



Elizabeth B. Staples 

Peter Fee 

John Anderson 

Ted Nelson 



Dale Archibald 
Charles Carpenter 
Thomas W. Dwyer 
Will Fastie 
Stephen B. Gray 
Glenn Hart 
Stephen Kimmel 
Harold Novick 
Peter Payack 
David Small 
Alvin Tottler 
Gregory Yob 
Karl Zinn 



Owen Linzmayer 
Chris Vogeli 

Andrew Brill 
Laura Gibbons 



Nina Zollo 



Art Director 
Assistant Art Director 
Artists 

Typesetters 



Patrick Calkins 

Chris DeMilia 

Diana Negri Rudio 
Eugene Bicknell 

Karen Brown 
Renea Cole 



Advertising Director 



Jeff Weiner 



Creative Computing Press Laura Conboy 
Claudette Moore 



Operations Manager William L. Baumann 

Comptroller Patricia Kennedy 

Accounting Jennifer H. Shaler 

Bookkeeping gthel Fisher 

Retail Marketing Jennifer Burr 

Fulfillment Frances Miskovich 

Rosemary Bender 

Linda Blank 

Pat Champion 

Susan DeMark 

Elsie Graff 

Gail Harris 

Linda McCatharn 

Bridget Maher 

Joanne Sapio 

Carol Vita 

Barbara Werry 

Jim Zecchin 

Shipping S Receiving Ronald Antonaccio 

Mark Archambault 

Bill Thomas 

Scott McLeod 

MlkeGribbon 

Strawvey Montgomery 



advertising sales 

Advertising Director 

Jeff Weiner 
Creative Computing 
Ziff-Davis Publishing Company 
One Park Avenue 
New York, NY 10016 
(212)725-7957 

Advertising Coordinator 

Ruth Darling 

Creative Computing 

Ziff-Davis Publishing Company 

One Park Ave 

New York. NY 10016 

(212)725-3446 

Northern California, Northwest 

Jules E. Thompson. Inc 

1290 Howard Ave . Suite 303 

Burhngame. CA 94010 

(415)348-8222 

From Colorado (303) 595-9299 

Southern California, Southwest 

Tom Whiteway 

Ziff-Davis Publishing Company 

3460 Wilshire Blvd. 

Los Angeles. CA 90010 

(213)387-2100 

New England 

CEL Associates. Inc. 
27 Adams Street 
Braintree. MA 02 184 
(617)848-9306 

Midwest 

The Pattis Group 

4761 W. TouhyAve. 

Lincolnwood. IL 60646 

(312)679-1100 

Mid-Atlantic 

Larry Levine 

Ziff-Davis Publishing Company 

One Park Ave. 

New York. NY 10016 

(212) 725-7668 

Southeast 

Browning Publications 
PO Box 81306 
Atlanta. GA 30366 
(404)455-3430 

Canada 

The Pattis Group 
1623 YongeSt 
Toronto. Ontario M4T 241 
(416)482-6288 



micwcfcpm 

Creative Computing is available on per- 
manent record microfilm. For complete 
information contact University Microfilms 
International. Dept. FA. 300 North Zeeb 
Road, Ann Arbor, Ml 48106. or 18 Bedford 
Road. London WC1R 4EJ. England, and 
Micro Photo Division of Bell & Howell 
Company. Old Mansfield Road. Wooster 
OH 44691 



where to send it 

All editorial material, including article 
submissions, press releases, and products 
for evaluation should be sent to: 

Creative Computing 

39 E. Hanover Ave. 

Morris Plains. NJ 07950 
Correspondence regarding other Creative 
Computing products and publications 
should also be sent to the Morris Plains 
address. 

Correspondence related to advertising, 
including ad copy, questions on billing, and 
requests for rates, should be sent to. 

Advertising Department 

Creative Computing 

Ziff-Davis Publishing Co. 

One Park Ave. 

New York. NY 10016 
Correspondence regarding subscriptions, 
including orders, changes of address, and 
problems should be sent to: 

Creative Computing 

P.O. Box 5214 

Boulder. CO 80321 
Your help in choosing the correct address 
for your correspondence is appreciated. 
An incorrectly addressed letter or package 
can take as long as several weeks to reach 
its proper destination. 



subscriptions 

All subscriptions orders and other corre- 
spondence related to subscriptions 
should be addressed to: 

Creative Computing 

P.O. Box 5214 

Boulder. Colorado 80321. 
Foreign subscriptions must be accom- 
panied by payment in U.S. currency. 
Subscription prices: 
US. Canada Foreign 

1 year $24.97 1 year 29 97 1 year 34 97 

2 years 43 97 2 years 53 97 2 years 63 97 

3 years 57 97 3 years 72 97 3 years 87 97 

Airmail delivery on foreign subscriptions 
is available for a one-year period only at 
$75.00 additional for mail to Asia and 
Australia, and $50.00 additional for all 
other foreign. 

Subscribers in the United Kingdom 
may send payment in sterling to: 

Hazel Gordon 

27 Andrew Close 

Stoke Golding 

Nuneaton, CV13 6EL 

Please allow at least eight weeks for 
change of address. Include old address 
as well as new— enclosing if possible an 
address label from a recent issue. 



attention authors 

Creative Computing will not be responsible 
for the return of unsolicited manuscripts, cas- 
settes, floppy disks, program listings, etc not 
submitted with a self-addressed, stamped 
envelope. 



March 1983 c Creative Computing 



PERIPHERAL VISION 

Floppy Disk Seivices. Inc. is a contracted SIEMENS drive dealer. Do not let the prices fool you. we buy in very 
large quantities to get the best price and pass that savings on to you! All systems are of the highest grade 
components and our cabinets are custom designed with you in mind! If not 1 00% satisfied, call us and we will 
promptly refund your money, t 

We carry Add-on drives for IBM, Radio Shack. Heath. Apple and most other microcomputers. 



Apple II Add on drives $329.00 

Apple 8 inch controller 365.00 

Apple 80 track dual system 1395.00 

Apple dual 8 inch system w/ controller 1250 00 

FDD-100-5b ■flippy' exact HEATH add on 235.00 

FDD-200-5 double sided 40 track drive 250 00 

FDD-111-5 5ms step IBM or MOD 3 Add on 24500 

FDD-221-5 5ms step 80 track DD/DS 35000 

TEC SFD-51B 5ms 5V* 48TPI 215.00 

FDD-100-8d 8 inch single side DD drive 340 00 
FOD-200-8p Double sided 8 inch drive 445.00 
Custom 8 inch and 5Vi inch enclosures Call 



System packages available for all drives . . . 

Dual 8 inch system with EVERYTHING 935.00' 

Dual double sided 8 inch system 1125.00' 

Single 5Vi Heath or MOD I Add on w/ case 285.00' 

Dual 5V4 Heath or MOD I 585.00' 

10mb Hard Disk for any computer 2700.00' 
CDR controller, allows any combo 8 and 5V* inch drives to 
be added to your H88 or H89 Call 

' 8 inch systems require minor assembly. Ada $100.00 A8iT 

All 5'A inch systems come assembled and tested, 
t Equipment must be in same condition as you received it. 



WE HAVE ZENITH Z- 1 00 SYSTEMS IN STOCK. 

Have a disk drive in need of repair? We have expert techs ready to optimize your drives! 

Call us for info. 



Jf T FLOPPY Disk Services, we not only sell 
^\ drives, we also sell custom enclosures 
^1 Our cabinets are designed by our 
experts to be functional and attractive And our 
quantity pricing is so attractive, we invite 
dealers and large group purchasers to call 

609-799-4440 




I: 



■ F you don t see what you want, give us a call between 9 am * 5 pm (EO 
Chances ate well nave what you need for your system at youipnce Due to 
A production deodlines toe advertising, prices in this ad are 2 months old. so we 
encourage you to call us tot current prices and new product information 

PAYMENT POLICY We accept Mastercard. VISA, personal checks & MO We 
reserve the right to wait 10 working days tor personal checks to clear your bank 
before we ship All shipping standard UPS rates plus shipping & handling NJ 
residents must add 5% sales tax 



FLOPPY 



741 ALEXANDER ROAD 
PRINCETON, NJ 08540 




PRCES & SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE 



INC. 

MOD I II III. CP/M are trademarks of Tandy and Digital Research respectively 



CIRCLE 167 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



tput . . . input /output . . . inpu 



A Small Disagreement 

Dear Editor: 

I disagree with a statement which appeared in the August. 
1982 issue in the column "Outpost: Atari." 

David and Sandy Small were discussing the speed of the 
Atari disk drive. They stated that the serial bus cable and the 
write-with-verify slowed down the disk drive access. They 
recommended turning off the read-after-write feature of 
DOS. 

The Smalls state that they have never had an error message 
that means the read-after-write failed. 

They stated that many of their associates have had errors, 
but only on defective disk drives. I find this hard to believe. It 
may be that errors have occurred to the Smalls, but DOS was 
able to recover, which means that an error message would 
never be displayed. The Smalls also stated that the time 
spent waiting for the Atari to verify data just isn't worth it 
This is not true. 

As with many features of the Atari hardware and software, 
the DOS was designed to be easy to use and as transparent as 
possible. By providing automatic error detection and correc- 
tion logic to DOS. this has been accomplished. DOS will retry 
I/O operations 10 times. If the problem still is not corrected 
on the tenth try, then an error message is displayed. 

Atari includes a section in their manual which tells you 
how to turn off the read-after-write feature, but the Smalls 
are wrong in recommending this practice to unsuspecting 
users. 

If the Smalls never have problems with their disk files, then 
they are either very lucky or don't do a large amount of 
writing to disk. 

Bob Duke 

1619 -71st St. 

Darien, IL 60559 



Munching Out 



Dear Editor: 

While Robert Cashman has described Munch Man in fine 
style, I would like to offer him and other users of this TI game 
directions to access the Test Model /which should provide 
(provoke) even greater enjoyment. 

To access the Test Mode, you have 3-seconds from the 
time the Munch Man screen appears to type *#*. (Hint: 
When the screen says, "Press any key to begin," hold the Shift 
key down and type 8, 3, S//*ff). 

You know when you're in the Test Mode when the screen 
changes and the first prompt asks which round you'd like to 
play in. When "RND(0-2)" appears on the screen, type either 
0,1, or 2. 

The second prompt asks you which screen you'd like to 
play. When "SCN(0-19)" appears, type your choice (from 
through 19). 

The third (and, last) prompt asks you for the number of 
Munch Men you'd like to play with. 



When "MM( 1-9)" appears, type your choice (from 1 through 
9). Note: the computer expects you to type "9" and has 
strategy to deal with this choice as you'll quickly learn. 

These three-prompts appear on the same screen in the 
order described. Be quick about typing your choices for the 
three-prompts or the timing will advance the game auto- 
matically for you. 

And. for those who have difficulty counting (as initially I 
did) remember that for the first- and second-prompts, 0= 1 ! 

As long as you "win" at any level the game continues to the 
next higher level screen (a total of 60). Whenever you do 
NOT win, Munch Man automatically reverts to the first- 
screen— or, if you want to access any higher levels, you 
repeat the procedure to access the Test Mode. 

When you "play" the 20th-screen (type 19, please), be 
prepared. Irrespective of the Round (RND 0, 1, or 2) chosen, 
you'll be at the supercalifragilisticexpialidocious level! 

J. L. Vaughn 

Texas Instruments Product 

Support Representative 

1 16 N. 8th St. 

DeKalb, IL60U5 



A Pound of Cure 

Dear Editor: 

A few months ago I wrote to you, to tell your readers that I 
was interested in compiling a book of listed programs for use 
in Microcomputer Applications in Medicine. You kindly 
published the letter. I had no idea of the response that might 
deluge me. I received letters from all parts of America, 
Canada, South America, Europe, Israel, South Africa and 
even a letter from China. There were early morning phone 
calls, picture postcards, packets of discs, bundles of listings, it 
was a tremendous response. 

Several publishers wrote or telephoned me stating their 
interest in publishing the book. 

The outcome is that the book is now published by Medical 
Software Co., Box 874, Center Moriches, New York 11934 
price $80.00 

The volume contains medical application programs for 
patient scheduling, record retrieval, simple billing, utilization 
of equipment, simple statistics; standard deviation calculations 
and curve fitting routines. 

Programs are still coming in and are being reviewed for the 
second volume which should be ready in April 1983. 1 want to 
thank everyone again for the tremendous response. 

Derek Enlander, M.D. 

Associate Director 

Division of Nuclear Medicine 

Associate Professor of Radiology 

New York University Medical Center 

560 First Avenue 

New York, NY 10016 



March 1983 c Creative Computing 



FIRST 

FROM 

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Write for new tecmar Information Kit 

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Phone 216 464 7410 Telex 241735 



complete with 
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This is the breakthrough in 
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Tecmar engineering keeps 
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• the new SyQuest 

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PC-MATE FLOPPY 

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(ices . . . notices . . . ootid 



Source Code for Authoring Languages 



I would like 10 thank the many people 
who have written me concerning my Pilot- 
to-Basic translator. As I discussed in my 
article the translator was created to pro- 
vide teachers at a teachers' convention 
with a hands-on introduction to Pilot and 
not as a full version of Pilot. 

Many of the writers have asked for 
information concerning source code to 
allow Pilot to run on other machines. The 
following is a list of the information on 
some suppliers. Since I have had no 
opportunity to review their products, I 
am unable to make any comment on the 
various implementation. 

Free or Nearly Free 

These versions of Pilot are translator 
programs that take Pilot and turn it into 
either Pascal or Basic. They do not sup- 
port storage of student information. 

1. Pascal version of Pilot. Program 
given in July 1980 Byte article called 
"Pilot/P: Implementing a Language in a 
Hurry" by D. Mundie. 

2. Apple version of Pilot. Program pub- 
lished in Creative Computing, October 
1982 and on in article called "Pilot-to- 
Basic Translator" by M. Smith. 

Send $5 plus a disk and a SASE (or 
$2.50 postage) to: 
M. Smith 

304 - 86th Avenue S.E. 
Calgary. Alberta 
Canada T2H 1N7 

3. Apple/Atari version of Pilot. Pro- 
grams published in September through 
November 1982 Compute! in articles 
called "Turtle Pilot" by A. Poole. 

Send $3 plus a disk and an SASE to: 
Alan Poole 
4728 King Rd. 
Loomis. CA 95650 

Commercial Sources 

These appear to be full versions of Pilot 
or Pilot-like languages. 

I. Cast — written in C and supported 
under the Unix operating system. Docu- 
mentation seems to indicate that the 



license for use includes the source code. 
Cost. $795 plus relevant taxes and hand- 
ling. 

David Clark 

UNIX Application Manager 

Measurement Concept Corporation 

1721 Black River Boulevard 

Rome, New York 13440 

(315)337-1000 

2. Pascal source code (UCSD). Has 
been successfully used on DEC and CDC 
according to advertisements. Cost, $495 
plus relevant taxes and handling. 

George Gerhold 
MicroPi 
P.O. Box 5524 
Bellingham. WA 98227 
(206) 733-9265 

3. IBM compatible assembly language 
code— can be customized to any IBM 
360/370/4300 compatible system and any 
time-sharing monitor (such as TSO) 
according to advertisements. Requires 
installation by a system programmer. 
Cost, $495 plus relevant taxes and hand- 
ling. 



George Gerhold 
MicroPi 
P.O. Box 5524 
Bellingham. WA 98227 
(206) 733-9265 

There are probably many other 
sources, so ask the manufacturer of your 
favorite flavor of Pilot. If those manu- 
facturers would drop me a line, I would 
be more than willing to generate an article 
describing their products and comparing 
the described features, especially in the 
area of graphics and user documentation. 
Send the information to: 

Dr. M. Smith 

Department of Electrical Engineering 

The University of Calgary 

Calgary, Alberta 

Canada T2N 1N4 

Common Pilot Users Group 

This is a group interested in the devel- 
opment of C.A.I, using Pilot as a medium. 
Provides a list of all members. Contact: 

Larry Kheriaty 

CPUG 

Computer Centre 

Western Washington University 

Bellingham. WA 98225 

(206)676-3501. 

-M.R. Smith 



X i ■ ' ■/C-irV '. f-- r - ■ -r- 

Wi i';>f ,- 

' T J -r-« — r ' - f * ~ f AOI -i — T n 'r u r. - 




March 1983 e Creative Computing 



THE LEADIN 



ONE GREAT LINE. ONE GREAT WARRANTY. 

Finally, there's one full family of printers that covers every business or word processing application- 
all fromC. Itoh, a company known for packing more product into less price, and all distributed 
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All inty from Leading Edge. ITry that on any other line of printers.) 

J THE PRO'S. 

The Prowriters: business printers-and more. The "more" is a dot-matrix process with mor< gives you dei 

correspondence quality copy las opposed to business quality copy, which looks like a bad job of spray-paintingl. 
Prowriter : 120 cps. 80 columns dot matrix compressable to 136. 10" carriage. Parallel or serial interface. 
Prowriter 2: San xcept 15" carnage allows full 136 columns in normal print mode. 

Parallel or serial interface. 




PROWRfTK2 



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THE STAR. 

The Starwriter F-10 In short lor more precisely in a sleek 6" high. 30-pound unitl. it gives you more 
of just about evervthing-except bulk and noise-than any other printer m its price range. Its a 40 cps letter-, 
daisy-wheel with a bunch of built-in functions to simplify and speed up word processing. 
It plugs into almost any micro on the market, serial or parallel. 



SlARWRfTB?F-10 




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The Printmaster F-10. Does all the same good stuff as the Starwriter except, at 55 cps. the Master does it faster 



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in 
creative 
computing 

The lead article in the January 1976 
issue was titled "Building A MITS Altair 
8800." We noted that we got into trouble 
because the solder pads were too close 
together on the PC board and because of 
the 66 wires which must be soldered one- 
by-one to the display /control board. We 
criticized MITS for providing only two 
programs, one to add and the other to 
multiply binary numbers. 

Despite our criticism of the Altair we 
concluded that "unless some other com- 
pany can fight this already well- 
established computer kit with a bigger 
and better advertising campaign (and not 
necessarily with a better computer kit), 
then the 8800, the 680 and future Altair 
computers will give MITS the micro- 
equivalent of IBM's continuing and over- 
whelming success." 

We had an article, "Beating the Game" 
which discussed Edward Thorp's card 
counting system for playing blackjack. 
This was years before Ken Uston used a 
similar method to win millions in Las 
Vegas and Atlantic City. 

An article on magic squares showed 
how to construct n x n squares with many 
different properties. 

A section on computer chess discussed 
different techniques and a tough match 
played between International Master 
David Levy and a program called Ostrich 
which runs on a CDC Cyber 175. Levy 
finally won. 

A huge 15-page section of the issue had 
107 puzzles and problems, many of which 
were suitable for computer solution. And 
the issue had seven challenging games 
including Wumpus-2, Chase and Road- 
race. 

The back cover ad was for the MITS 
Altair 680 ($345 for the kit with IK of 
memory). At the other end of the spec- 
trum was an ad from Educomp for a DEC 
PDP-8 multi-user system for $31,240. 

Our new products section had an- 
nouncements of three new magazines. 
Computer Notes, The Computer Hobby- 
ist, and Byte. Although some people con- 
sider Byte the grandaddy of personal com- 
puting magazines. Creative predates Byte 
by nearly a year. fj 



March 1983 c Creative Computing 



WORD PROCESSING 
HAS NEVER BEEN SIMPLER 




Broderbund's Bank Street 
Writer turns your Apple or Atari computer into a powerful 
word processor, with many of the advanced features youd 
expect to find only in an expensive business system. Powerful, 
yet purposefully simple, Bank Street Writer has no complex 
codes to memorize. The screen 
guides you every step of the 
way. It's everything you're ever 
likely to need in a word proces- 



sor at a price you can afford. 
Here are just a few of its many 
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• Universal search and replace, ♦ Automatic centering and 
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format routines all in memory, • Disk storage and retrieve 



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functions with password pro- 
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of unlimited length, • Page headers and automatic page 
numbering-top or bottom, •Highlighting of text, • Upper 
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Braderbund's Bank Street 
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Student approved, the en- 
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CIRCLE 117 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



■■ 



Buying a Printer 



Background 

Back in 1976, we did our first printer 
review for the January 1977 issue. It was 
of the Teletype Model 43 terminal. In 
those days, selecting a printer wasn't too 
difficult. You either bought a used Tele- 
type ASR-33 (upper case only, clunk, 
clunk, clunk), a new Teletype 43 (dot 
matrix, buzz, buzz, buzz) or you jury- 
rigged something between your com- 
puter and a used printer from a mini or 
mainframe. 

By the time we did our first printer 
roundup (December 1979), it was get- 
ting more difficult to choose a printer. 
Both dot matrix and fully-formed 
character units were available in a price 
range attractive to the personal com- 
puter user. Nevertheless, prices were 
high by today's standards. The least 
expensive printer on the market was the 
Integra! Data IP125 at $799, and from 
there the prices rose quickly to $2995 for 
a Qume Sprint 5. 

Subscribers to Creative will remember 
that our review was quite critical. Qume 
wouldn't talk to us for ages after the re- 
view appeared and Malibu wasn't too 
happy either. Qume has its act together 
today and the Sprint 5 that we berated in 
1979 is still in daily service. One could 
conclude that it has passed the test of 
time. 

Those of you who have followed our 
printer reviews over the years have un- 
doubtedly noticed two things. First, the 
reviews have never pulled any punches. 
We feel our first responsibility is to the 
reader and, in the long run, honest, in- 
depth reviews are in the best interest of 
everybody — even though some manufac- 
turers might be temporarily upset. Sec- 
ond, choosing a printer is an 
increasingly complicated task. 

Part of the reason the choice of a 
printer is so complex is that the choice is 
so wide. Today over 90 printers are 
available in the under $5000 range, and 
75 can be had for $3000 or less. Indeed, 
narrowing the field to units under $1000 
still gives one a choice of 25 or so print- 
ers (compared to just two in 1979). 



David H. Ahl 



But price is not the only variable. One 
must consider print quality, print type, 
paper type, speed, noise, controls, graph- 
ics capability, interfacing, servicing and 
longevity. 

Unfortunately, this last characteristic, 
longevity, is extremely important, but 
nearly impossible to measure when a 
printer is new or nearly new. Moreover, 
a sample of one or two is not sufficiently 
large to derive frequency of repair or 
length of service figures. Therefore, one 
must make some informed judgments in 
the area of longevity based on manufac- 
turer history and reputation, design of 
the unit, number of moving parts, and 
the like. 

The large number of printers available 
and the many more being introduced ev- 
ery month make it nearly impossible to 
review all of them or even a majority in 
one issue, or even 12 issues. Hence, we 
chose to review a cross-section of print- 
ers, several with new design features, in 
this issue. As we have in the past, we 
will continue to review printers through- 
out the year, sometimes singly and 
sometimes in a group. 

To select a printer, you should famil- 
iarize yourself with printer types, 



capabilities, and features. Then when 
you see a printer in a store or advertise- 
ment you will be able to make an intelli- 
gent evaluation of it, both compared 
with others in the field, and, more im- 
portant in terms of meeting your needs 
and budget. 

Here we present a discussion of vari- 
ous features that will help you to eval- 
uate printers. 

Type of Print 

Basically, type of print falls in one of 
two groups: dot matrix or fully formed 
characters. 

A dot matrix printer uses a vertical 
row of wires which strike the ribbon as 
the printhead travels across the page. 
The printhead usually has either seven 
or nine wires. A character is formed 
from a matrix of dots, usually 5x7(5 
dots wide and seven high) or 7 x 9. 
Increasingly, manufacturers are using 
other arrangements to produce a more 
attractive character set. One novel ap- 
proach uses seven wires which are 
slightly staggered. 

Although dot matrix printers today 
are a considerable improvement over 
those of just two or three years ago, they 
still fall a bit short of what most people 
consider "letter quality." Even the best 
dot matrix printers cannot produce a 
character as precise in detail as a good 




Modern dot matrix printers 

are compact and reasonably quiet. 

12 



March 1983 c Creative Computing 



stake a Claim cm tne most 
exciting New Game for your 



Atari Home Computer 



I 



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r M 



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.e programming 
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"Robot Attack". "Defense 
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100% machine language 
16K ROM Cartridge, the 
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Written specifically for the 
Atari* — not a converted 
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Ten different rounds 
Difficulty adjustment 
High score table 
Demo mode 
Spectacular sound and 
graphics 
Runs on any 
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at least 1 6K 
memory 
Only $49.95 







«^ 



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Introducing Snooper Troops" 

detective series. 

Educational games that turn ordinary 

homes into Sherlock homes. 



Where can you find educational 
games that your kids will really enjoy 
playing? 

Elementary, my dear Watson. From 
Spinnaker. 

Our Snooper Troops detective games 
are fun, exciting and challenging. And 
best of all, they have real educational 
value. 5o while your kids are having 
fun, they're learning. 

As a 5nooper Trooper, your child 
will have a great time solving the 
mysteries. But it will take some 
daring detective work. They'll 
have to question suspects, talk to 
mysterious agents, and even search 
dark houses to uncover clues. 

The Snooper Troops programs are 
compatible with 





Apple,® IBM® and >^ 
Atari* computers and^^^^^v 
provide your kids with everything they 
need: a SnoopMobile, a wrist radio, a 
5noopNet computer, a camera for taking 
Snoopshots and even a notebook for 
keeping track of information. 

Snooper Troops detective games help 
your children learn to take notes, draw 
maps, organize and classify information 
and they help develop vocabulary and 
reasoning skills. All while your kids are 
having a good time. 
^ 5o if you want to find educational 
games that are really fun, here's 
a clue: 5nooper Troops games are 
, available at your local software 
<i ^^ ! store, or by writing to: Spinnaker 

Software, 215 First Street Cam- 
bridge, MA 02142. 



C 5ptnnaker Software Corp 1982 



Spinnaker's early learning 

games will help make your children 

as smart as you tell everyone they are. 









YoufWds are pretty smart 
After all, they're your kids. 

Spinnaker can help make them even 
smarter. With a line of educational software 
that kids love to play. 

5plnnaker games make the computer 
screen come to life with full color graphics 
and sound. And they're fun. Lots of fun. But 
they also have real educational value. 

Some of our games help exercise your 
child's creativity. Others improve memory 
and concentration. While others help to 
Improve your child's writing vocabulary, 
and spelling skills 

And every Spinnaker game provides 
familiarity with the computer and helps your 
children feel friendly with the computer. 
Even If they've never used a comput- 
er before. 

And 5plnnaker games are compatl 
ble with the most popular computers: 
Apple* Atari* and IBM* m •JjSsJ 

Our newest game, KlnderComp™ 
(Ages 3-8) is a collection of learn- M££ 
Ing exercises presented In a fun 
and exciting manner. 



Rhymes and Riddles'" 
(Ages 4-9) is a letter guess- 
ing game featuring kids' 
favorite riddles, famous say- 
ings and nursery rhymes. 
5tory Machine'" (Ages 
i-9) lets children write their 
own stories and see them 
r" come to life on the screen. 

And EACEMAKER'" lets your 
children create their own funny 
faces and make them wink, smile, 
wiggle ears (not your kids' ears, 
the ears on the screen), etc. 
And we're intro- 



ducing new games 
all the time. 

5o look for Spinnaker 
games at your local 
software retailer, or by 
writing to: Spinnaker 
Software, 215 First 5t, 
Cambridge, MA 02142. 
And show your kids 
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AMM. On and W ...qpemd HWnM o. AKM Corw*.. «. mwnwoo* (>,««. r«n«>C«p ««».«. r««ct«S, 






Buying a Printer, continued... 

typewriter can produce. On the other 
hand, many dot matrix printers produce 
print good enough for routine 
correspondence, memos, internal prod- 
ucts, program listings, financial print- 
outs and the like. 

A printer with fully formed characters 
is sometimes called "letter quality," 
meaning that it is suitable for most for- 
mal business correspondence. Essen- 
tially, it is equivalent to an electric 
typewriter. 

However, just because a printer uses 
fully formed characters does not auto- 




Do/ matrix print element has a pair of 
wires leading to each of seven solenoids 
corresponding to seven striker pins. 

matically mean that it is better (or even 
that it produces a better-looking docu- 
ment) than a good dot matrix printer. 
Just as electric typewriters run the 
gamut from cheap home portables to top 
quality office units, so do printers, but 
even more so. 

This wide range of quality is due 
mainly to the print mechanism. These 

Print samples. 



Fully formed characters 
10 characters per inch 

Fully formed characters 
12 characters per inch 

Dot matrix printing 
10 characters per inch 

Dot M.trix Prlntin* 
12 ChUrActt^ Per lt»eh 

Dot Matrix Printing 
17 characters per inch 

Dot matrix printing 

Full descenders 

The gypsy queen jumps 

Dot !M.t»*ix Printing 

No dtcewdtr* 

The <*vP%v Queen jumps 




Daisy wheel print mechanism with ribbon 
cartridge in place. 

are of four types. First is the mechanism 
found on manual and older electric type- 
writers in which each letter is on the end 
of a typebar. This is a cumbersome 
mechanism and, because of carriage 
movement at the end of each line, is not 
suitable for continuous forms. Few, if 
any new printers are being produced us- 
ing this mechanism — and with good 
reason! 

Second is the typeball mechanism pio- 
neered by IBM on the Selectric type- 
writer. Some typeball printers are simply 
office electric typewriters with solenoids 
installed to pull down the keys. These 
are not designed for continuous duty 
even though outwardly they look virtu- 




Side view of dot matrix print head shows 
pins. 

ally identical to IBM units built for use 
as terminals. Although a few new 
typeball printers are being built today, 
most are either modified IBM office 
electrics or reconditioned (i.e., used) 
IBM terminal units. 

A third, and perhaps the most popu- 
lar, mechanism is the daisy wheel — so 
called because it looks like a black plas- 
tic (or metal) daisy. (Actually, it looks 
more like a chrysanthemum, though I 
can well understand why it was not 
called a chrysanthemum wheel.) This lit- 
tle 4" diameter wheel with molded 
characters on the end of each spike con- 
stantly spins, and a solenoid strikes the 
correct character when it is at the 12 
o'clock position. The wheels come in 
plastic and metal. The metal ones have a 
longer life (and cost more). 

A variation on the daisy wheel is the 

16 



An older design of daisy wheel print 
mechanism. 

thimble design. A type thimble looks 
like a daisy wheel that has had its petals 
bent down over a small Dixie cup. (I'd 
hate to meet the person with a finger big 
enough to use one of these babies as a 
thimble.) The striker mechanism is simi- 
lar to that in a daisy wheel printer. 

Print Quality and Style 

As suggested above, the print quality 
of a dot matrix printer is not as good as 
that of a fully formed character printer, 
but it is quite adequate for many pur- 
poses. Since not all manfacturers use the 
same dots within the matrix to form the 
same character, personal preferences 
come into play. Look especially at the 
following letters on different dot matrix 
printers to see which you prefer: 

W,a,f,gj,k,p,q,r,w,f,4,5,*,@,$,& 

Perhaps the most important element 
of print quality, if you are considering 
using your printer for outside correspon- 
dence, is lower case descenders. Many 
people find the absence of descenders 
objectionable, and a document produced 
without them is noticeably more difficult 
to read than one with descenders. How- 
ever, if price is your most important 
consideration and you use mostly words 
without g, j, p, q, and y . . . 

In addition to printing the original, 
printers are often called upon to make 
carbon copies. Like typewriters, some do 
this considerably better than others. In 
general, on fully formed character print- 
ers, a metal daisy wheel, thimble, or 
typeball will produce better carbons 
than a plastic one. Dot matrix printers 
do not count among their strong points 
the ability to produce good quality or 
large numbers of carbon copies. 

You may also wish to look at print 
samples on different types of paper. For 
example, rag bond watermarked paper 
has more texture than "normal" com- 
puter paper; this affects the amount of 
ink transferred to the paper, sometimes 
causing the type to look uneven. If much 
of your work will be on paper of this 
type, be sure to try it out. 
On individual characters, you might 

March 1983 c Creative Computing 





You havenl lived until youve died in space. 



n .1 mi .11 1 

IIHHII 



And here's your chance. 

Software author Peter Fokos has created 
Alien Ambush, a space age nightmare. It's a hi-res, 
full-color arcade game, fiendishly written to give 
those nasty aliens every advantage. 

So if you have access to a 48K Apple* with 
DOS 3.3 or a 16K Atari 400/800" with a disk 
drive, and you're hot for some new thrills, Alien 
Ambush was written for you. But be warned: it just 
got a lot tougher to survive in space. 



•Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. "Atari, Atari 400 and Atari 800 are trademarks of Atari, Inc. 
Distributed exclusively by Micro D, 17406, Mt. Cliffwood Circle, Fountain Valley, Ca. 92708 (714) 540-4781 

CIRCLE 219 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Buying a Printer, continued... 



Glossary 



Bi-directional: the ability to print with 
the printhead moving right to left, as well 
as left to right. Eliminates need to repo- 
sition printhead to left margin for every 
line. 

Buffer, the area in which excess data 
are stored until the printer is ready to 
print them. This area is described by 
amount of memory (less than IK is very 
small, with 2K about average). 

Characters per second, or cps: the num- 
ber of characters that a printer is capable 
of printing in one second. 

Character set: the style of type output 
by the printer, also known as the type 
font. 

Descender: the portion of a letter that 
trails below a line. The lower case letters 
g, j, p, q, and y and sometimes the upper 
case have descenders. The fonts on 
inexpensive printers often lack true de- 
senders. 

Dot matrix: a method of printing where- 
in each character is composed of an array 
of dots, as opposed to fully formed char- 
acters. 

Electrostatic print: when characters are 
etched onto paper using a small electrical 
charge. 

Friction feed: when the paper is ad- 
vanced and held in place by friction be- 
tween two rollers. This allows for the use 
of single cut sheets of paper. 

Fully formed characters: when the 
character is formed all at once, upon 
impact of a striker, through a ribbon, 
onto the paper. This category includes 
daisy wheel, typeball, and thimble 
printers. 

Graphics: the ability to print specific 

graphics characters in addition to text. 

An increasingly necessary printer 

feature. 

Hard copy: a printout. 

Horizontal tabulation: the ability to let 



the user specify, through hardware or 
software, the number of columns per 
line. 

Impact print: when print is obtained by 
the impact of a striker through a ribbon. 
This category includes fully formed char- 
acter printers as well as many dot matrix 
printers. 

Ink jet: a new technology wherein a 
printhead blows small streams of ink onto 
the paper to form the characters. 

Laser printing: a state-of-the-art tech- 
nology which uses a laser to burn print 
onto the page. 

Letter quality: an abused term which 
once simply meant print quality indisting- 
uishable from correspondence prepared 
by traditional (typewritten) methods. 
Once no dot matrix printing was con- 
sidered to be letter quality; new tech- 
nology and recent advertising have work- 
ed to change this. Undoubtedly the qual- 
ity of letter quality is in the eye of the 
beholder. 

Line spacing: the number of lines per 
inch. 

Logic-seeking: the ability of a printhead 
to discern the quickest route to its next 
printing position. 

Multipass: the ability for a printhead to 
be controlled, through hardware or soft- 
ware, to remain on the same horizontal 
line, and print on top of existing copy. 

Noise: quite simply, the sound a printer 
makes. This varies greatly from printer to 
printer, and may be significant not only 
when a printer is printing, but when it is 
waiting to print. 

Out-of-paper warning: a small but con- 
venient feature of some printers to signal 
that the paper supply is out. 

Parallel interface: a method of sending 
printing codes from a computer to a print- 
er or other device, wherein typically one 
entire byte of information is sent simul- 
taneously. A majority of microcomputer 
printers use this approach. 

Pin-feed: a method of paper transport 
in which paper is pulled through the print- 



er by a sprocket with pins, fitting perfora- 
tions punched in the paper. Same as 
sprocket feed. 

Plain paper: usually refers to regular 
cut sheet bond, as opposed to roll, fan- 
fold, or treated electrostatic and thermal 
papers. 

Print density: the size of the matrix 
used for each character. The more dots 
per character, the better the character 
will look. 

Printhead: the device which houses the 
printing mechanism. As opposed to port- 
able and older office typewriters, the 
paper moves only vertically, while the 
printhead usually moves from side to 
side. 

Print quality: refers to how the char- 
acters actually look on paper. 

Proportional spacing: refers to the 
spacing of individual characters. The font 
you are reading now is proportional: an i 
is narrower than an m. Printers with pro- 
portional spacing capability can create 
more professional output. Most daisy 
wheel printers, like most typewriters, do 
not offer this feature. 

Self-test: many printers have this built- 
in test feature which simply spurts out the 
entire character set. 

Serial interface: a method of sending 
printing codes from a computer to a print- 
er or other device, wherein one bit of 
information is transferred at a time. This 
is usually slower than parallel interfacing, 
and commonly makes use of an RS-232 
port. 

Thermal print: requires special heat- 
sensitive paper that darkens when a hot 
printhead "burns-in" the dot matrix. Simi- 
lar to, though quieter than, electrostatic 
printing. 

Tractor feed: very much like pin or 
sprocket feed, with pins revolving on a 
tractor tread. 

True descenders: see descenders. 

Vertical tabulation: allows the user to 
specify the number of lines to be printed 
on a page of paper. —OWL 



want to examine ink density, edge defi- 
nition, and "fuzziness" with a low- 
power magnifying glass. Also, look at 
density at both the top and bottom of 
the page. Print the same line or short 
paragraph for a page or two; the last 
lines should look the same as the first. 

On fully formed character printers, 
look at a dense letter such as a capital M 
next to a small character such as a pe- 
riod or comma. A good quality printer 
will automatically adjust the striking 
force so the ink density is the same on 
both characters. Beware if the M looks 
light compared to other letters and the 
periods and commas make the back of 
the sheet feel like Braille. 



A popular misconception is that all 
characters should be in a perfect line. 
This is not true. In most character sets, 
round letters such as c, e, and o are 
slightly larger than "square" letters such 
as r, n, and u. The lower case t is not as 
high as h or 1. A good fully formed 
character printer preserves these nu- 
ances, which contribute to a pleasing vi- 
sual impression. Since the dots in a dot 
matrix printer are always in exact align- 
ment, the print lines will be evenly- 
printed, uniform, and somewhat boring. 

Print Speed 

If you are buying a printer for a com- 
pany or if you are a very prolific author 

18 



with a print requirement of a million 
sheets per month, a very high speed 
printer (900 lines per minute or more) 
will be needed. In general we are not 
considering these units here, and for 
buying advice we recommend you turn 
to Datamation or another DP managers' 
magazine. 

A high speed printer with a print 
speed in the 300 line per minute 
neighborhood is suitable for volumes of 
50,000 sheets per month. 

For people who require fewer than 
50,000 sheets per month, slower printers 
are quite satisfactory. 

Some manufacturers publish print 
speeds in lines per minute and others in 

March 1983 e Creative Computing 



COSMIC COMPUTERS 




|qppkz !AATARI 

^800 (48K) 



APPLE' COMPATIBLE COMPUTER 
AN ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE 

SYSCOM 2 
$699 



DISK DRIVES 

MICRO SCI RAN* 

A2(w/cont) $369 Elite I (w/cont) $399 

A40 (w/cont) $435 Elite II (w/cont) $539 

A70 (w/cont) $555 Elite III (w/cont) $679 

FOURTH Super (w/cont) $385 

APPLE SOFTWARE 

BEAGLE BROS. PEACHTREE 

DosBoss $17 AllSeries Call 



Alpha Plot $28 

Utility City $21 

TipDisk#1 $15 

Apple Mechanic $21 
BROOERBUNO 

Choplitter $25 

Star Blazer $23 

Davids Midnight $25 

Apple Panic $21 

Alien Rain $18 
CONTINENTAL 

Home Accountant $53 

Home Money Minder $25 

1st Class Mail $53 

DATAMOST 

Snack Attack $21 

EDUWARE 

Spelling Bee 

w/Read Prim $28 

Algebra I $28 

Rendevous $28 

HAYDEN SOFTWARE 
Sargonll $25 

INFOCOM 

Zork I $28 

Zorkll $28 

Zork III $28 

Starcross $28 

Deadline $35 

LOTUS 

Exec Brief Sys $137 

MICROSOFT 

Basic Compiler $270 

MultiPlan $190 

MUSE 

Robot War $28 

Castle Woltenstem $21 

ONLINE 

Wi* & Princess $24 

Cranston Manor $25 

Time Zone $70 

Maurauder $25 

Frogger $25 

Cannonball Blitz $25 

Screenwriter Prof $135 



SENTIENT SOFTWARE 
Congo $25 

SIRIUS SOFTWARE 
Gorgon $28 

Sneakers $21 

Kabul Spy $25 

Bandits $25 

Way Out $28 

SIRTECH 

Wizardry $35 

SOFTWARE PUBLISH. 
PFS: Report $67 

PFS: Filing $87 

PFS Graph $87 

SPINNAKER 

Snooper Troops #1 $32 

Snooper Troops #2 $32 

Story Machine $25 

Face Maker $25 

STONEWARE 
OB Master $158 

DB Master Util Hi $70 

Graphics ProcSys $42 
STRATEGIC SIM. 
Computer Baseball $28 
Cytron Masters $28 

Guadalcanal $42 

Galactic Gladiators $28 
Battle ot Shiloh $28 

Tigers in Snow $28 

Cosmic Balance $28 

SUBLOGIC 

Flight Simulator $27 

Space Viking $35 

Saturn Navigator $27 

VISICORP 

Visicalc33 $175 

MISCELLANEOUS 
Human Fly $21 

Master Type $28 

New Step by Step $57 

Sam(w/DAC) $87 

Ultima $28 

Zoom Graphics $28 

Sensible Speller $85 



PRINTERS 



CITOH 

Prowriter $439 

Prownter II $649 

Starwriter $1325 

Pnntmaster $1599 

STAR MICRONICS 

Gemini 10 CALL 

Gemini 15 CALL 



NEC 

8023 AC $465 

3510 $1375 

3530 $1595 

35500BM) $1829 

7710/7730 $2319 

SMITH CORONA $589 

AXIOM GP 100 $269 



MONITORS 



NEC 

12"GRN(JB1260) $115 
12"GRN(JB1201M) $155 
12" Color Composite $329 
12'ColorRGB $689 

USI (Amber) CALL 



AMOEK 

V300 $139 

V310IGRN IBMl $169 

V310 A (Amber IBM) CALL 
COLOR I $310 

COLOR II $650 



MODEMS 



HAYES 

Micromodem II 
Stack Smartmodem 
Smartmodem 1200 . 



NOVATION 

$269 Apple Cat M $299 

$215 212 Apple-Cat $589 

$519 DCat $155 

$79 



ANCHOR AUTOMATION Signalman I or II 

ACCESSORIES 

Wico(Joy) $23 Wico(TBall) $49 d 



810 DISK DRIVE $428 

410 RECORDER $74 

850 INTERFACE $164 

400 COMPUTER $219 

Entertainer $66 

Communicator $298 




:® 



$499 



32K (RAM) (Mosaic) $99 

32K RAM (Inttc) $69 

32K MICROTEK $75 

48K (lnttc/400) $139 

Educator $112 

Programmer $52 



PERQOM 



Single Density Master $399 

Double Density Master $559 

Double Density Dual $659 

Dbl Sided Dbl Oensity Master $659 

EDUWARE 



ADVENTURE INT'L 

Rear Guard (D) $18 

Saga 1 12 each |D) $28 
Adv. t 12 each (C) $18 

Preppie(C/D) $21 

APX 

Outlaw/How (C/D) $17 

Eastern Front (C/D) $23 

Fam Cash Flow(D) $17 

747 Land. Sim (C/D) $17 
ATARI INC. 

Galaxian $33 

Defender $33 

ET $36 

Microsoft Basic |D) $65 
Macro Ass & Edit (O) $65 
Assembler Editor (R) $45 
Basic Cartridge (R) $45 

PacMan(R) $32 

Centipede(R) $32 

Caverns of Mars ID) $28 
Missile Command |R) $27 
Star Raiders (R) $32 

Conv Lang Ea (C) $44 

Music Composer (R) .... $31 
Super Breakout (R) $27 
My First Alphabet (D) $26 

Prog 2&3(ea.)(C) $21 

Word Processor (D) $107 
Pilot (Educ) $98 

Touch Typing (C) $19 

Home File Mngr(D) $37 
AUTOMATED SIMUL. 
Invasion Orion (CD) $18 
Rescue at Rigel (C/D) $21 
Temple of Aps (C/D) $28 
Star Warrior (C/D) $28 

Datestnsof Ryn(C/D) $15 
Dragon's Eye (D) $21 

AVALON HILL 
Empire of Over (D) $25 

Bi Nuc Bomber (C) $13 
BRODERBUNO 
Apple Panic (C/D) $21 

Star Blazer $23 

Choplitter |D) $25 

Davids Midnight (D) $25 
Deadly Secrets (D) $25 
Steiler Shuttle (C/D) $21 
DATA SOFT 

Text Wizard 11(D) $73 

Canyon Climber (D) $21 

Pacific Coast Hwy(D) $21 

Clowns & Balloons (D) $21 

KBYTE 

Krazy(each) $34 



CompuRead(D) $21 

Compu-Math Fr (D) $28 
Compu-Math Dec (D) $28 
INFOCOM 

Zorkl(D) $28 

Zorkll(D) $28 

Zorklll(D) $28 

Starcross $28 

Deadhne(D) $35 

JV SOFTWARE 

Action Quest (C/D) $21 

Ghost Encount. (C/D) $21 

ONLINE 

Mouseattack(O) $24 

WizS Princess (Dl $24 

Crosslire(C/D) $21 

Frogger(CZD) $25 

Threshold (D) $28 

Ultima 1(D) $28 

Ultima 11(D) $44 

Jawbreaker (C/D) $21 

The Next Step (D) $28 

Crossfire(R) $28 

ROKLAN 

Gorf(D) $30 

Gorf(R) $33 

Wizard ot Wor (D) $30 

Wizard of Wor (R) $33 

SIRIUS 

Space EggslD) $21 

Sneakers (D) $21 

WayOut(D) $28 

Bandits(D) $24 

STRATEGIC SIM. 
Shattered Alliance (D) $28 
Tigers In Snow (C/D) $28 
Battle of Shiloh (C/D) $28 
SYNAPSE SOFTWARE 
Fil.Mngr»O0+ (Dl $73 
Protector II $24 

ShamuslC/Dl $24 

NautiluslC/DI $24 

Claim Jump (C/D) $24 

MISCELLANEOUS 

AhBaba(D) $24 

Miner 2049er(R) $35 

Jumbo Jet (R) $37 

Kid Grid (C/D) $21 

Pool 1.5(D) $24 

Raster Blaster (0) $21 

Sam(D) $42 

Galactic Chase (C) $17 

Warlocks Revenge (0) $24 

Visicalc(D) $175 

3D Supergraph (C/D) $28 
StarbaseHyp(D) $17 



Radio /hack 



TRS-80 



TRS-80 Model III .... 
2 Drives 



48K 



VIC 20 $177 

1541 DISK DRIVE $298 
1525 PRINTER $296 



1530 RECORDER $59 
1600 MODEM $87 



L 



COLUMBIA 



DATA PRODUCTS. INC 



IBM P/C COMPATIBLE 

CALL FOR LOW PRICE 

IBM ACCESSORIES 



AMDEK 

Color II $650 

Color III CALL 

3" Drives $689 

V310GRN $169 
NEC 

Color RGB UC1203) $689 

3550 Printer $1829 
MICROTEK 

64KW/Panty $235 

128KW/Panty $345 

192KW(Panty $449 

256K W/Panty $559 



MICROSOFT 

64KRAM $255 

256KRAM $629 

64K RAM Chip Set $135 

PERCOM 

SS/DO External Drv $319 

DS/OD External Drv $379 

5M Hard Disk $1849 

10M Hard Disk $2250 



IBM Joystick (TG) $44 

IBM Joystick (Kraft) $48 



Visicalc (256K) 

Easywriter II $249 

Home Acct Plus $105 

1st Class Mail $85 

Wordstar $239 

Mail Merge $75 

Spellstar $125 

Supercaic $215 

Easy by Denver $529 

Tax Manager $179 

T I M II $339 

Money Decisions $132 

Desktop Plan I $225 

Data Reporter $170 



IBM SOFTWARE 

$175 1.2.3(Lotus) $339 

Visitrend/Plot $225 

Visidex $175 

Visitile $225 

Visischedule $225 

Bus. Forecast Model ... $75 
Peachtreea CALL 

Zork I. II, III $28 

Starcross $28 

Deadline $35 

Temple of APS $28 

Frogger $25 

Snooper Troop I $31 

Snooper Troop II $31 



COMPUTERS 



802 



TELEVIDEO 

. $2595 802H $4445 



$1699 



Qz. commodore 
^1064 CALL' 



NEC 

PC-8001 Computer $709 

PC-8012 I/O Unit $469 

PC-8031 (Dual Drive) $709 

NORTH STAR 

Advantage $2595 

Advantage (5M ByteH.D.) $3799 

EAGLE 

Eagle II $2329 Eagle IV $4299 

COSMIC i 

COMPUTERS 

UNLIMITED 

THE ABOVE PRICES ARE FOR PREPAI0 ORDERS 
ORDER LINES OPEN MON-FRI 9 am - 6 pm 

(714) 861-1265 

228 N. PROSPECTORS RO. 
DIAMOND BAR, CA 91765 

Add $2 00 Shipping per software order anywhere in US 
Add $5 00 Shipping per software lor non-U S orders. 
P Box or FP0-AP0 Call for cost of Hardware shipping 
Caiit residents add 6V>% sales tax Cashiers Checks or 
Money Orders filled same day Personal checks require 4 
weeks to clear Millar Card and Visa OK tor software 
only, add 3% surcharge include card no . expiration 
date and signature Prices subiect to change 

APPLE IS A TRADEMARK OF APPLE COMPUTER. INC 

ATARI IS A TRADEMARK OF ATARI INC 

IBM IS A TRA0EMARK OF 

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORP 

TRS 80 IS A TRADEMARK OF RADIO SHACK 



CIRCLE 148 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Buying a Printer, continued... 

characters per second. There is good rea- 
son for this since some printers print an 
entire line at a time, and, whether the 
line consists of one character or 120, it 
takes the same amount of time to print 
it. 

On the other hand printers which 
print a character at a time can rush over 
a single character line and get on to the 
next one lickity quick. So, it is difficult 
to compare the true speed of a line 
printer with a character printer. In gen- 
eral normal business correspondence 
and reports have 60 characters per line. 
A little arithmetic leads to the "rule" 
that, for a 60-character line, lines per 
minute equals characters per second. 

But what does this mean? Well, a typ- 
ist working at 60 words per minute is 
typing about 6 cps. A double-spaced 
page contains about 250 words. Thus a 
60 wpm typist could type such a page in 
a bit over four minutes. A 100 cps or 100 
lpm printer ought to be able to produce 
the same page about 17 times as fast as 
our typist, or in about 15 seconds. 

Oh, that it were so simple. But at least 
it is a good starting point. Complicating 
things is the fact that the published 
manufacturer speed rating is usually 
considerably faster than what a printer 
produces in actual service. This is due to 
linefeeds, carriage returns, computer 
"handshaking," and perhaps even some 
just plain exaggerated claims. Neverthe- 
less, since all manufacturer figures tend 
to be high by roughly a factor of two 
compared to actual service speed, they 
provide at least a comparative measure 
of speed. 

As with cars, package delivery ser- 
vices and running shoes, higher speeds 
cost more money. However, it is prob- 
ably worthwhile to look for a printer 
that is somewhat faster than you need 
today. There are two reasons for this. 
First, inevitably, your print require- 
ments will increase. Yes, you read about 
an all-electronic, paperless society, but 
somehow it always seems to be in the 
future. 

The second reason to look for a faster 
printer than you "need" is that most 
printers are not built for continous duty. 
A 100% duty-cycle means operating 
hour after hour producing pages filled 
solidly with letters and numbers. Print- 
ers that are run beyond their duty-cycle 
capabilities will suffer greatly increased 
malfunctions and breakdowns. While 
many (all?) manufacturers claim "long 
life" for their machines, duty-cycle rat- 
ings are often not clearly stated. Ask 
about them. 

Bi-directional Printing 
and Print Buffers 

Some printers are designed to print 
from right to left as well as from left to 




A good quality dot matrix printer can produce excellent graphic images 



right. This saves time in that the 
printhead does not have to return to the 
left side of the page at the end of each 
line. While it sounds like a neat capabil- 
ity, the real time saving is fairly small. A 
typical printhead return is accomplished 
in about the time it takes to print three 
characters, so if you are printing lines of 
75 characters, the time saving is about 
four percent. 

In order to print in both directions, a 
printer must have a buffer to store tem- 
porarily the line that is to be printed 
"backwards." In some printers, this is 
useful beyond permitting bi-directional 
print capability, as the buffer is able to 
accept data from the computer at a high 
speed and with less "handshaking" than 
is required without such a buffer. In gen- 
eral, this leads to more accurate 
transmittal of data. It also lets the 
printer proceed steadily at its own speed, 
when the information coming from the 
computer arrives faster or slower than 
the pace of printing. 



The size of the buffer indicates 
whether it will store just one line for bi- 
directional printing (buffer size = 
length size, say 100 or 150 characters) or 
if it will store a page or so. A 2000 
character storage capability (about 1-1/3 
double-spaced pages) is common. 

Characters, Lines, and Spacing 

Different printer uses require different 
character sets (letters, numerals, sym- 
bols). Most printers provide character 
sets (or fonts) that include both upper 
and lowercase letters, the number to 9, 
and a set of symbols. Frequently the 
print symbols will not match those on 
your computer keyboard. For example, 
an up arrow on the keyboard may print 
as a left bracket, and so on. 

Be sure that the character set on the 
printers you are considering will meet 
your needs. While print wheels can be 
changed to provide a different character 
set, you do not want to have to do this in 
the middle of a document. 



20 



March 1983 c Creative Computing 




Pascal 

Basic 

Cobol 

Forth 

Pilot 

Fortran 

Spread Sheet 

Inventory 

Logo 



Data Base Management 

Word Processor 

Communication Utility 

Accounts Receivable 

Accounts Payable 

Engineering Utility 

General Ledger 
Mailing List 
Macro Assembler 
Education 




TRSDOS 




CP/M' 



Open your doors to a world of SOFTWARE with LNW 
computers. You'll get MORE PERFORMANCE' than with 
the IBM PC? the Apple II? TRS80 MODEL II or TRS80 
MODEL III 4 along with software support of TRSDOS or 
CP/M, the TWO MOST WIDELY USED OPERATING 
SYSTEMS. This means you, the user, can select from the 
largest base of business or personal software. 
Standard Features: A serial RS232 communication 
port, parallel printer port, Hi-Resolution (480x192) 
B/W and COLOR graphics, an 80 character-per- 
line screen display along with Quad -density 
interface for 5" or 8" floppy disk storage 
offering immediate access to 3.5 million 
characters, or optional Hard disk 




interface to 5 or 10 million characters. 
Standard Software: LNWBASIC and DOS PLUS operat- 
ing system packages, commanding all the above features, 
are included. 

The LNW computer will be the key to your success 
with the starting price at $1695.00, along with a full 6 
month warranty. 

Dealers: You too can open the door to a successful 
product. Call for our special dealer programs: 
(714) 544-5745 



LNW Computers 

2620 Walnut Avenue 
Tustin, California 92680 
(714) 544-5744 



CIRCLE 197 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




•TRSDOS is a trademark ot Tandy Corp 

T^mar^s^ 

2 IBM PC is a trademark ol IBM CORP 

I ?££ ,'s tE^VgEF™** '-na-onal orders r^ease ,n<, U ,re lor pnc.no./sh.pp.ng cos, 



VdlFOnTH for Atari* 400 800 wALPAn ^ 

Professional Software for the Hobbyist | |\|T E R INI /\T" I O l\l «A LJ 

FORTH has been used for years by ATARI' and others in programming their arcade games FORTH is fasf, 1 5- 20 
times faster than BASIC, and can make use of every capability for your computer And it's no longer the province^^ 7 
of the professional programmer' With valFORTH and the additional packages described below, you can 
create programs in an afternoon that would previously have taken weeks of hard work 1 Y 

WHAT? YOU DON T ALREADY KNOW FORTH? 

Then take advantage of our special offer on Starting Forth by Leo Brodie Widely acclaimed as the best vl 
book available on the subject, this entertaining treatment of Forth will make you comfortable with this vT~~" 
exciting language quickly and easily. When you order Starting Forth, you get a free copy of our "Notes 
for the valFORTH User, " including references, by page, to Starting Forth. 



I These are the utilities developed by Valpar Internationals software 
specialists and used to create our commercial software products 



Va/LQAfi© NEW' By Popular Demand 1 

valDOS Now you can use your valFORTH system to read and write 
normal Atari DOS Files created with valDOS or other sources Also in- 
cludes valDOS File Editor for creating and reading FORTH Source 
Code without "screens " (Not a general file editor ) 
(Over 25 pages of documentation Requires valFORTH ) 



valFORTH 



Package contains: fig-FORTH kernel with mathematical and stack op- 
erations machine-coded for higher speed than normal fig-FORTH; line 
editor AND screen editor, debugger, sound and graphics commands, 
floating point, advanced 6502 assembler, diskcopiers, and much more! 
(Over 1 10 pages ot documentation) 




GENERAL 
UTJUTJES AIT 

WDEQ EDJTQ 



Utilities: 4 array types, 4 case types, text on graphics 8, extensive string 
manipulation and keyboard input, STICK & PADDLE, randoms, bit 
manipulation, and much, much more 

Editor: fast, powerful, complete valFORTH screen editor 1 1 A profes- 
sional-quality tool that makes editing a pleasure 
(Over 60 pages of documentation Requires valFORTH.) 



Zr\zlj\jlCt£j\ 

- ^uijjuju surra? 



Player-Missile: Create, move, color, change images of and bound 
players and missiles with high level commands Full support of 5th 
player, multicolor players, etc. etc All critical sections in machine code 
Character Editor: Compose character sets with joystick Simultaneous 
display of created characters Make images for players and missiles 
Sound Editor Simple independent control of all four voices (one joystick 
per voice) and audio-control register Create any single-setting sound 
with graphical and tabular readout 

(Over 35 pages of documentation Requires valFORTH.) 



VALPAR INTERNATIONAL. 

3801 E. 34"< STREET 
TUCSON, ARIZONA 85713 

Call Toll-Free 800-528-7070 In Arizona call (602) 790-7141 



Coming Attractions 



* TARGET COMPILER 

* 3D WORLD 




For more information fast and a |4THy IF HONK THEN| 
bumpersticker, send 25« and a self-addressed, stamped envelope 

DISPLAY FORMATTER 

Fast, simple creation of all types of display lists, with automatic 4K 
boundary jumping Automatic or user controlled memory allocation, and 
formatting tor horizontal and vertical scrolling, and display list interrupts 
(Over 30 pages of documentation Requires valFORTH.) 



Kill 
(GRAPHICS. 






All graphics modes supported — even GTIA and "7 + ". Draw and fill 
commands taster and smarter than Basic "Turn-toward" for "chasing" 
and vanishing point eflects; point labeling, etc Also SIN, COS, ATN. 
ATN2, etc. added to floating point 
(Over 35 pages ot documentation Requires valFORTH .) 

Text Compression and Aoto Text Formatting 

A unique, two-part utility! 

• Text Compression allows the packing of text into much less space 

than normally required Useful for wordy Adventure games, "artificial 

intelligence," etc .! 

Auto Text Formatting takes both normal and compressed text and 

routes it to the video screen "windows." 
(Over 20 pages of documentation. Requires valFORTH.) 



valFORTH alone requires 24K 

valFORTH plus one or more packages requires 32K minimum 

Memory requirements include 10-12K working space 

All products are now on non-protected disks 

Over 350 pages of detailed documentation! 

valFORTH $45.00 

General Utilities and Video Editor 40.00 
Player Missile Graphics. Character Editor, and 

Sound Editor 40.00 

Display Formatter 35.00 

Turtle and valGraphics and Floating Point Routines 45.00 

Text Compression and Auto Text Formatting 35.00 

valDOS and valDOS File Editor 45.00 
Heavy-Duty Professional Binder (provided free when 

ordering 3 or more packages at one time) 1 3.00 

Starting Forth 15.95 



Principal Software Authors Stephen Maguire and Evan Rosen 

Alan is a tradumark ol Alan Inc a division of Warner Communications 



CIRCLE 281 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Plus Shipping and Handling 
VISA and MASTERCARD accepted 



Buying a Printer, continued- 
Dot matrix printers, because of the 
way they produce characters, can theo- 
retically produce any character at all. 
However, certain characters are "built- 
in;" these comprise the character set. 

Some dot matrix printers have an op- 
tion which permits making characters 
double size, bold, italic, compressed, or 
otherwise enhanced. This can be done 
during printing by having the computer 
send the printer the appropriate non- 
printing character. For example, an 
ASCII 14 turns on double width mode 
on the Epson MX80. This sounds like a 
wonderful capability (and it is!) but un- 
fortunately some word processing soft- 
ware packages are unable to generate or 
process the required control characters. 
Hence, you should be sure that the 
printer you are considering is compatible 
with the word processing package and 
other software you are using or plan to 
buy. 

Pitch is the number of characters 
printed per horizontal inch (cpi) in the 
"normal" or default mode. In general 
this will be 10 or 12. A higher cpi, say 
1 3.2 as found on the Teletype 43, results 
in more words fitting on a page but may 
also result in lower readability. 

Many printers offer the option of 
selecting different cpi spacings. In some 
cases, cpi can be changed while printing 
by means of a control character (which 
your word processing software may or 
may not be able to send). In other cases, 
cpi can be changed with a switch on the 
outside of the printer. On other printers, 



I — 



Typical printer controls on the outside of 
the housing include reset, line feed, form 
feed, on/off line and, sometimes, test. 



this switch is inside and accessible by 
raising the cover or front panel. The 
least satisfactory arrangement is a DIP 
switch in the guts of the printer acces- 
sible only by removal of the bottom plate 
or back panel. But before worrying 
about the convenience of changing cpi, 
ask yourself if you really need to do it at 
all. 

Printers are also rated in lines per 
inch (lpi) which is the number of lines 
printed per vertical inch. Standard type- 
writers print six lines per inch; both six 
and eight lpi are commonly found on 
computer printers. As with cpi, many 
printers permit spacings other than the 
standard. 

Paper Size, Feed and Movement 

For various purposes, printers may be 
required to handle paper of different 
widths, continous forms, multi-copy pa- 
per, envelopes, labels, etc. Figure out 
what you need before you go on your 
printer quest. 

Fast becoming the standard for per- 
sonal computers is continous feed paper 
measuring 9-1/2" x 1 1". When the strips 
on each side with the sprocket holes are 
torn off, the resulting sheet is a standard 
8-1/2" x 11". 

However, some printers accept only 
paper that is 8-1/2" wide. Continous 
feed paper measuring 8-1/2" x 11" does 
not have perforations that allow the 
sprocket holes to be removed; this is un- 
satisfactory for all but the most informal 
of applications. 

There are two types of feed mecha- 
nism, friction and tractor. Although 
sprocket feed and tractor feed are not 
the same, the differences are not worth 
worrying about. As the name implies, 
with friction feed the paper is moved 
through the printer by friction against 
the carriage and pressure rolls in much 
the same way as in an electric type- 
writer. This can result in an uneven feed, 
particularly when continuous form pa- 




For tickets and multiple part forms, a 
specialized printer may be required. 

per must be pulled from a box on the 
floor. Thus manufacturers of many fric- 
tion feed printers offer an optional trac- 
tor feed mechanism for use with 
continous forms. 

Another optional feed device available 
for some printers is an automatic single 
sheet handler. This allows several hun- 
dred sheets of paper or letterhead to be 
stacked and then fed automatically, one 
at a time, into the printer. 

Envelope handlers operate in much 
the same way as single sheet handlers, 
feeding envelopes, one at a time, from a 
stack. 

It is more difficult to use letterhead or 
envelopes in a tractor or sprocket feed 
printer. One approach is to attach in- 
dividual sheets of stationery to sprocket 
feed computer paper and then load it 




Additional controls on many printers are found below the top 
or front panel. 

March 1983 c Creative Computing 



Sometimes switches are hidden beneath the bottom or back 
panels. You can hope these are rarely needed. 



23 




64K Ram 

780 KB Disk Storage 

Word Processing, Ultracalc CP/M 

C-Basic Software 

Smith Corona TP 1 

Letter Quality Printer 

SS995.DO 

Retail Value $4896 00 

EAGLE 1600. ..CALL 




NEC 

COMPUTERS 

8001* $7 29 00 

8031 $729 00 

80' 2 $54900 

PBINTEOB 

8023 $499 00 

7710/7730 $238800 

3510/3530 $158800 

MONITORS 

JB 1260 $12800 

JB 1201 $15800 

JC-1201 $31800 

JC-1203 $72800 



IBM' 





3BBO PRINTEB. . . ■BOBS 

MRCOM DRIVES 
SV1 60K Disk Drive $248 00 

5'-.' 320K Disk Drive $288 00 

AMOEK 

310A Amber Monitor $17800 

310G $17800 

Amdiek (3'V Drive) $72800 

OXY Plotter $75800 

Color II $68800 

SOFTWARE 

I US Eaaywriter II $?49 00 

i US Eaayspeiier $128 00 

PeechPackageiGL/AP/AR| $41800 

PROFESSIONAL 

SOFTWARE 

IBM/PC Word Processing $31800 



TELE VIDEO TERMINALS 

•'0 $57800 

812C $68800 

920C $74800 

925C $74800 

850 $85000 
TILEVIOEO COMPUTERS 

800A $1318.00 

802 $264800 
802H $468500 
806 $548500 
816 $848500 

803 CALL 
'803 CALL 




TIMEX SINCLAIR 

$89.99 



yxtm$& 



16K Memory Module $44 95 

Vu-Calc $17.85 

Super Math $12.85 

Check Book Manager $1385 

The Organizer .$14.85 

The Budoeter $13.85 

Stock Option $1485 
Loan S Mortgage Amortuer $12 85 



PRINTERS 
SMITH CORONA 

Tp ' $58800 

C. ITOH (TEC) 

StarwriteriFto 40CPS) $138800 

PnntmasterlFtO 55CPSI $174800 

Prownter 80 Col (Parallel) $48800 

Prownter 80 Col (Serial) $629 00 

Prownter 2 (132 Col) $78800 

OKIOATA 
82A $428.00 

83A $65800 

84 (Parallel) $107800 

84(Senal) $118800 

• OS 

MicroPrism $648.00 

132 (Fully Configured) $158800 

80 (Fully Conligured) $1 388.00 

Call for other configurations 

■TAR 

Gemini 10 $37800 

OAIBYWRITER 

Letter Quality 1 049 00 

DIABLO 

620 $117800 

630 81848.00 

mputer m 



MONITORS 

AMOEK 

100 B1W $74 85 

3000 $169 00 

300A $17800 

Color I $338.00 

Color II $68800 

Color II A $78800 

Color III $388.00 

Color IV CALL 

■MC 

12" Green $7889 

13" Color 1401 I Mid Res I $36800 

8181U13" $32800 

ZENITH 

ZVM121 $8800 

SHARP 

Sharp 1 3 Color TV $275.00 

PANASONIC 

TR 120MIP (High Res Green) $158.00 
CT 160 Dual Mode Color $289 00 



HEWLETT 
PACKARD 



m 



41 CV 





HP41C $149 00 

HP IOC $6800 

HP 11C $7800 

HP12C $114.00 

HP ISC $10800 

NEW16C $114.00 

PERIPHERALS 

HP41 Card Reader $144.00 

HPIL Module $88.00 

HPIL Cassette $448.00 

HPIL Printer $418.00 

Quad Memory Module $64.00 

Time Module $64 00 

Extended Function Module $64 00 



CE 1 50 Printer, Plotter and 
Cass. Interface Unit. . . SI 72.00 
CE 1 52 Cass. Recorder. . . $69.00 
CE 1 55 8K Ram 
Expansion Module $94.00 

MODEMS 

Smart $238.00 

Smart 1200 (1200 Baud) $548.00 

Chronograph $1 88.00 

Micromodem II (with Term) $30800 
Micromodem 100 $309 00 

NOVATION 

Cat $144.00 

0-Cel $15900 

212 Auto Cat $58800 

Apple Cat II $2 79 00 

212 Apple Cat II $60800 

CALL for Price and Availability on 

New novation Cat 103. 103/212 

and J-Cat. 

ANCHOR 

Merk I (RS 2321 $78 00 

Mark II (Alan) 7 B0 

Mark III (Tl 99) 109.00 

Mark IV (CBM/PET) $12500 

Mark V (OSBORNE) $95.00 

Mark VI (IBM-PC) $178.00 

Mark VII (Auto Anewer Call) $1 18.00 
TRS 80 Color Computer $88 00 

8 Volt Power Supply $800 




HPt85 81969 

HP 125 $188900 

HP85 16K Memory Module $169.00 

5% Dual Floppy Disk $1799.00 

Hard Disk w/Floppy $4349 00 

Hard Disk $354900 

"Sweet Lips' Printer $121900 

80 Column Printer $649 00 



8032 $1039.00 

CBM64 CALL 

<032 $74900 

8096 Upgrade Kit $369 00 

Super Pet $149900 

2031 $46900 

8250 Dbl Sided Disk Drive $169900 
09060 5 Meg Hard Diak $2399 00 
090607 5 Meg HardO.sk $2699 00 

8050 $1299.00 

♦040 $969 00 

8300 (Letter Quality) $ 1 548.00 

8023 $599.00 

*022 $39900 

NewZRam. Add»CP/M«64K $54900 
The Manager $209 00 

M«0'» CALL 

Word Pro 5 Plua $31 900 

Word Pro 4 Plua $299 00 

Word Pro 3 Plua $1 99 00 

The Administrator $379.00 

Info Pro Plua $219.00 

Power $79.00 

CBM 8032 Ouat Cover $1499 

CBM 8050/4040 Ouat Cover $1089 



ail order east 



IN 



PA. CALL (Tl 7J3B7-SB7B. 477 ■THIRD ST.. WIU.IAMSPORT. PA. 1 7701 



.",r.d *i\™^^ 

availably ,~ I « Tchanoe^oT- £ it^T . ?' "!~J '"" """"^ °" "' C °° "" C ""« C * rd °"*~ NV "* P * '—••><• •"> «*" '•« « *•"» «*PW to 
availability and pnc. change NO T.. W. .lock manufacturer-, and th.rd parly aottw.r. for moat all computer, on the market. CALL TODAY FOR OUR NEW CATA. OfiUF 



I computere on the market' CALL TODAY FOR OUR NEW CATALOGUE 




ACE 1000 

ACE 10 with Controller Card 
ACE Writer Word Processor 

CALL... 

FOR SYSTEM PRICE! 
ACE 1200 CALL 



VIBICORP 
(or Apple. IBM & Franklin 

Visidex $18900 

Visitile $189 00 

Visiplot $15900 

Visitsrm $8900 

Visitrend/Plot $229 00 

Vis.Schedule $22900 

Desktop Plan $18900 

VtecatctApple II Atan.CBM.IBM) $179.00 
Visrcorp prices tor IBM may vary slightly 

CONTINENTAL 
Hom« Accnt ( Apple/F rsnklin) $59 00 
Home Accountant (IBM) $1 1900 

1st Class Mail (Apple/Franklin) $59 00 

8IRIUB 

Free Fall $24 00 

Boer Run $24 00 

Snake Byte $24 00 

Space Eggs $2400 

Sneakers $24.00 

Bandits $2800 

BROOERBUND 

Apple Panic $23 00 

David's Magic $27 00 

Star Blazer $25 00 

Arcade Machine $3400 

Choplifter $27 00 

Serpenline $27 00 

INFOCOM 
Deadline $35 00 

Star Cross $29.00 

Zork I $29 00 

Zork II or III $29 00 

MPC 

Bubdisk|128K Rami $71900 

AXLON 
Ram Disk (Apple/Franklin) CALL 



OIBK DRIVE 






AT 88 SI 


$399 00 


AT88-A1 


$28900 


RFD40S1 


$539.00 


RFD40A1 


$32900 


RFD40-S2 


$86900 


RFD44S1 


$85900 


RFD44-S2 


$99900 




RAMA DISK DRIVES 
Call for price and availability on the 
new Rana Disk Drives for The Apple 
and Franklin Computer Systems 



u-sa 




ICRO-BCI 
OIBK DRIVES FOR 

APPLE & FRANKLIN 
A2 $299.00 

A40 $349.00 

A70 $45900 

C2 Controller $79.00 

C47 Controller $89 00 



FLOPPY DISKS 

MAXELL 

MD I (Box ol 101 $32 00 

MD II (Box ot 101 $4400 

FD I (8") $40.00 

FD II (8" 00) $50 00 

VERBATUM 
Ms" SS DO $26 00 

M" OS DD $3600 

ELEPHANT 

5VSSSD $19 99 



Call for Price on 
VIC 6* 

Peripherals and Software 
PROFESSIONAL SO FTWARI 

Word Processing tor VIC 64 $7995 



VIC so 
$179. 




VIC 20 Oust Cover $9 99 

VIC 1 530 Datassette $69.00 

VIC 1 540 Disk Drive $339 00 

VIC 1541 (64K Disk Drive) CALL 

VIC 1 S2S Graphic Printer $339 00 

VIC 1210 3K Mem Eip $32 00 

VIC 1110 8KMem Exp $53 00 

VIC 1111 16K Mem Exp. $94 00 

VIC 1011 RS232CTerm Interface $4300 

VIC 1 1 1 2 IEEE 488 Interface $86 00 
VIC 121 1 Super Expander $5300 

VIC Mother Board $9900 



M HOMECOMPUTERS 

ATARI' 




•too 

16K SI! 

32K 887*0 

4BK 8369° 

•Non-Atari Ram 
410 Recorder $7400 

810 Disk Drive $429 00 

822 Printer $26900 

825 Pnnter $589 00 

830 Modem $15900 

820 Printer $259 00 

850 Interface $16900 

CX40 Joy Sticks (pair) $1 8 00 

CX653 Atari 16K Ram $77 95 




New low price effective January 1 . 1 963 

Call for Price and 
Availability of the NEW 

64KATARI 1200 

Axlon Ramdrsk 1 1 28KI $429 95 

Intec 48K Board $15900 

Intec 32K Board $7400 

One Year Extended Warranty $7000 

CX481 Entertainer Package $6900 

CX482 Educator Package $1 3000 

CX483 Programmer Package $54 00 

CX484 Communicator Package $34400 



BOFTWARE 



Pac Man $3300 

Centipede $33.00 

Caverns ol Mars $32 00 

Asteroids $29 00 

Missile Command $2900 

Star Raiders $35 00 

Galaxian $33 00 

Defender $33 00 

ON-LINE 

Jawbreaker $27 00 

Softporn $27.00 

Wizard and the Princess $29 00 

The Next Step $3400 

Mission Asteroid $22 00 

Mouskattack $31.00 

Frogger $31 00 

Cross Fire (ROM) $36 00 

BYNAPBE 

File Manager 800 < $69.00 

Chicken $26 00 

Dodge Racer $26 00 

Synassembler $30 00 

Page6 $1900 

Shamua $26.00 

Protector $26 00 

Nautilus $26.00 

SUme $2600 

Disk Manager $24.00 

DATABOFT 

Pacific Coast Highway $2500 

Canyon Cumber $25.00 

Tumble Bugs $25.00 

Snooting Arcade $25-00 

Clowns and Balloons $25.00 

Graphic Master $30 00 

Grapfirc Generator $1 3.00 

Micro Painter $25.00 

Test Wizard $79.00 

Spell Wizard $64 00 

Bishop's Square $25 00 

Sands of Egypt $25.00 



FOR ATARI 

APX 

Text Formatter $18 50 

Family Budgeter $18 50 

Eastern Front $2400 

Family Cash $18 50 

Jukebox $13 00 

Downhill $18.50 

Outlaw $1850 

Holy Grail $24 00 

Player Piano $16 50 

Keyboard Piano $18 50 

Number Blast $1300 

Frogmsster $18.50 

747 Land Simulator $18 50 

Word Processor $4000 

IPVX 

Crush. Crumble & Chomp $24 00 

Crypt of the Undesd $24 00 

Curse of Rs $16 00 

Datestones $ Ryn $ 1 6.00 

Invasion Orion $19 00 

King Arthur's Heir $24.00 

Mortoc's Tower $ 1 6 00 

Rescue at Rrgel $24 00 

Ricochet $1600 

Star Warrior $2900 

Temple of Aspnai $2900 

Upper Reaches of Apshai $16.00 

caa 

K razy Shoot Out $32 00 

K razy Krrlters $3200 

Krazy Antics $32 00 



K-star Patrol 



•V 



$32 00 



STICK 
STAND 



Arcade Action from your 
ATARI or VIC Joy Stick 



computer mail order west 

800-648-331 1 

IN NV. CALL [70B]BBB-n8B4, P.O. BOX BBBB, BTATELINE. IMV. BB448 

iNTiaNATioNAL osoiasi All shipments outside continental United States must be pre-paid by certified check only' include 3«Wminimum $300) shipping snd handling 
■ ducational oiscountsi Additional discounts are available from both Computer Mail Order locations to qualified Educational Institutions 



CIRCLE 138 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Buying a Printer, continued.. 




A single sheet feeder can be attached to 
some tractor and pin feed printers. 

into the printer. Peel-off envelopes, 
which can be attached to continous feed 
paper, are also available. This approach 
is anything but convenient and has 
driven more than one user to buy two 
printers. 

A small handful of printers allow 
printing subscripts and superscripts. To 
do so involves vertical movement of less 
than a full line and then a return to the 
main print line. This requires control 
characters from the computer on both 
sides of the sub- or superscript. This 
capability is rarely worth the effort and 
expense. 

Noise Control 

Printers are rather noisy creatures 
since in most a piece of type or a group 
of pins are striking a piece of paper with 
a roller behind it. Those with typeballs 
or metal daisy wheels are especially 
noisy. 

There is no common industry 
measurement of printer noise (like deci- 
bels three feet in front of the printer), so 
most manufacturers simply claim their 



printers are "quiet." Some manufac- 
turers have gone to great effort to keep 
their printers as quiet as possible by lin- 
ing the case with layers of acoustic foam 
while others have achieved quietness by 
virtue of clever printhead design. Still 
others have ignored the problem 
entirely. 

We recommend listening to various 
printers in a store before buying one. But 
bear in mind that it will always sound 
noisier in your office or home (one of 
Murphy's unstated laws). 

Interface 

Most printers have either a parallel or 
serial interface, and many have both. 
This does not mean that you can nec- 
essarily plug a Brand X printer into a 
Brand A computer just because they 
both have a parallel interface. Would 
that it were so simple! 

Two parallel interface standards are in 
common use, one established by 
Centronics and the other by 
Dataproducts. But many computer and 
printer manufacturers think they have a 
better way and do not adhere to either of 
these standards. 

Serial interfaces also come in two ba- 
sic flavors, the old 20 ma current loop 
interface started by Teletype Corp. and 
the RS-232C interface. 

The IEEE also has an interface stan- 
dard which is beginning to be offered by 
some manufacturers; other groups also 
have proposed standards. However, at 
the moment there is virtually no 
industry-wide agreement. 

Further complicating the situation is 
the interface cable. On various comput- 
ers you will find a huge variety of 
connectors — dual 17-pin flat, 5-pin 
DIN, 40-pin connector, A-800, C-130, 
and on and on. There is less variety on 




Some printer ribbons are in easy-to-change cartridges. Others use typewriterlike 
spools that are more difficult to change. 

26 



printers, but the point is that you will 
need a cable to go between your printer 
and your computer, and it doesn't gen- 
erally come with either unit. Unless you 
are quite comfortable reading schematic 
diagrams and soldering tiny pins, we do 
not recommend making your own cable, 
even though you may save more than 
half of the typical S2S to $50 cost of a 
cable. 

Service and Maintenance 

There are no perfect printers. AH of 
them require service and maintenance 
sooner or later. However, a well-de- 
signed printer is easy to maintain and 
should require only infrequent service. 
Nevertheless, it is important to realize 
that occasionally it will be out of service. 
Unlike an office typewriter for which 
there can usually be found a spare 
around, it is unlikely you will have a 
spare printer in reserve. 

When the ribbon or paper runs out, or 
when the paper feeds incorrectly or 
jams, a well-designed printer will stop by 
itself and alert the operator with some 
sort of audible alarm, visual indicator, or 
both. Lightweight paper is more likely to 
jam due to enlargement and tearing of 
the sprocket holes. If you intend to use a 
lightweight 15# paper, be sure to try it 
in the printers you are considering. 

A printer should be cleaned and vacu- 
umed out periodically depending upon 
its frequency of use. Paper dust is an en- 
emy of the precision gears in the 
printhead and paper movement mecha- 
nisms and can even hamper the opera- 
tion of the solenoids in the printhead. A 
$24.95 hand vacuum is well worth the 
investment if it saves just one service 
call. 

When you purchase your printer, it is 
probably worth getting two or three ex- 
tra ribbons at the same time. Although 
ribbons dry out if they are left too long 
on the shelf, they come in sealed plastic 
packages which should keep them fresh 
for at least six months. Nothing is more 
maddening than trying to print a fin- 
ished business document to send to 
somebody important and suddenly 
realizing that your ribbon can produce 
only a light shade of gray. (We receive 
scores of articles from prospective au- 
thors printed in light gray. Frankly, they 
don't get as careful a reading as those 
printed with a good, black ribbon. Per- 
haps we unconsciously feel that the care 
taken in appearance reflects the care 
taken in writing.) 

As might be expected, all manufac- 
turers claim that their printers are 
highly reliable. Unfortunately, there is 
no industry standard for measuring 
mean time between failure, percentage of 
up time per thousand hours, etc. Thus, 
manufacturer reputation comes into 

March 1983 e Creative Computing 




tnat stand in a ciass Dy uieinseive*: 
programs for your home from 
Computer-Advanced Ideas. 

For The Fun Of It 

As professional educators and 
programmers we've been proving 
for over a decade that motivated 
learners do best. Featuring full-color 
graphics, our animated learning 
games are fun. They talk like a 
friend, play like a teammate and 
teach like a tutor. And they stimulate 
eager young minds. 

Partners In Learning 

CAI programs come with a library of 
knowledge for your child to explore. 
But that's just the beginning. They 
aiso feature a unique authoring 
system that lets you create lessons 
on any subject, tailoring the 
program to your child's needs. No 
knowledge of computers is required. 
Our programs make sense to people 
— from 4 to 94 — and grow right 
along with your child. 

A Success In Schools 

Over 1800 school districts have 
chosen CAI programs to teach 
essential vocabulary and logic skills 
in a full range of topics. Our products 
get recognition— because they work. 

Head Start 

Your child's future begins with 
opportunities you create at home. 
Choosing resources that are 
stimulating, challenging and fun can 
be one of the best decisions you 
make. Ask your computer retailer 
for a demonstration of CAI 
programs and see for yourself how 
enjoyable a good education can be. 




ail 



Computer 
Advanced 
Ideas 

Bringing Ideas wHome 

1442 A Walnut Street, Suite 341 
Berkeley. CA 9-i709 (415) 526-9100 

For the Appb* 11/ He 

CIRCLE 293 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



e MultiMode Printer with 
The Magnificent Fonts 




MultiMode Printer 
Offers Flexibility 



The"Beautiful"Font 




CIRCLE 235 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



... At a Sensible Price— $1,995 (Qty. 1) 

"Flexibility" means instantaneous call up of any of this trend- 
setting machine's many features whether for word processing, 
data processing, graphics or forms generation. Using either of the 
two built in interfaces, an external keyboard or downloading 
from your computer, you can program the Qantex Model 7030 to 
do more. 

Compare the "Beauty" of our printed letters for the word process- 
ing fonts which include Cubic, Trend, Spokesman, Courier, Italics, 
Script, OCR-A, APL, Scientific plus downloaded fonts from your 
computer. Draft copy modes include 8 resident fonts — U.S., 
U.K., German, French, Spanish, Swedish, Finnish, Norwegian and 
Danish. 

Other features include high resolution graphics — 144 x 144, 
single pass and double pass word processing, and 180 cps data 
processing modes and user defined formats. 

Operator initiated, the MultiMode printer provides a complete 
printed status report of operating parameters and diagnostics. 
For more information, or a demo, call us about the new Qantex 
Model 7030 MultiMode Printer. 

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VvOfllGX Division of North Atlantic 

60 Plant Avenue, Hauppauge, NY 11788 

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•Registered Trademark of North Atlantic Industries 



Buying a Printer, continued... 

play, but even that is a less than perfect 
guide since new manufacturers have no 
reputation, good or bad, to go by and 
established manufacturers may in- 
troduce a new design significantly better 
or worse than past ones. 

We recommend gathering as much 
information as possible about reliability 
and service from stores, friends, clubs, 
magazine reviews, and manufacturer lit- 
erature before plunking down your 
money for a printer. On a new printer 
today, it is reasonable to expect that out- 
side service should be necessary no more 
than twice a year — assuming, of course, 
that the printer is suitable for your vol- 
ume of work. 

However, you will inevitably need 
some outside service sooner or later. 
Find out in advance where the printer 
must go, or whether someone is avail- 
able to come to your premises. Some 
manufacturers provide service at re- 
gional depots, others depend upon the 
local dealer, while still others recom- 
mend a "third party" maintenance 
organization such as Sorbus or RCA. 

Color Printers 

During the past two years, six dot- 
matrix printers have been introduced ca- 
pable of printing multiple colors. These 
use a variety of different printing tech- 
niques. One has a ribbon with the first 
quarter impregnated with red ink, the 
second quarter with yellow, the third 
with blue and the last with black. A page 
is printed with the first color, then the 
feed is reversed and the sheet brought 
back to the top and printed with the sec- 
ond color and so on. Another approach 
uses a wide ribbon with four colors on it 
in horizontal stripes; a ribbon position- 
ing mechanism is used to place different 



colors under the printhead. 

Color ribbons are generally available 
in both black plus the three primary col- 
ors (red, yellow, blue) and black plus the 
three primary printing colors (magenta, 
yellow, cyan). The first is best for pure, 
solid colors (graphs and charts), while 
the second is better for color mixing to 
produce full-color effects (pictures). 

No color printer will produce an im- 
age as good as a photograph or printed 
picture. However, they are excellent for 
producing business charts and rudi- 
mentary graphics. 

Non-Impact Printers 

All the printers discussed thus far 
have been impact printers of one sort or 
other. There are, however, many print- 
ers that produce output without using 
any kind of mechanical impact, relying 
instead on a variety of clever, non- 
impact techniques. 

Few of these printers have received 
wide acceptance, but each has its follow- 
ers and devotees. 

Thermal and electro-sensitive printers 
share many characteristics. Both types 
use sensitized paper usually on a roll 
rather than single sheets or fanfold. Both 
can produce only one copy at a time. 
They are very quiet and relatively 
inexpensive. 

Thermal printers use heat sensitive 
paper which is activated by heat wires or 
pins that press against the paper to form 
characters. These printers are generally 
relatively slow (30 to 120 cps). But for a 
basic utility printer in applications 
where roll paper and modest print qual- 
ity are acceptable, a thermal printer may 
fill the bill. 

In a similar manner, electro-sensitive 
printers use a paper with a special metal- 




Ink jet print element has seven tubes leading from the ink reservoir to the jets. 
March 1 983 e Creative Computing 29 



lie coating. These are faster than thermal 
printers (speeds up to 225 cps), and pro- 
duce a slightly better quality copy al- 
though other metallic objects (coins, 
letter opener, pencil, clip, etc.) will leave 
marks on the sensitized paper. 

The price of ink jet printers has been 
plummeting recently, putting some of 
them within reach of personal computer 
users. These machines literally squirt 
characters onto paper from specially de- 
signed ink nozzles. The speed and price 
range is extremely wide — speeds from 30 
cps to 3000 1pm (yes, lines per minute!) 
and prices from around $2000 to over 
$30,000. Characters are generally pro- 
duced in the form of a dot matrix, al- 
though ink jet printers tend to use more 
"dots" and thus produce a slightly better 
result than a standard dot-matrix 
printer. 

There is at least one ink jet color 
printer on the market. It produces a 
somewhat more satisfactory image than 
the output from dot matrix impact 
printers. 

There are three other technologies 
used in high end printers: lasers, electro- 
static toner (like a Xerox copier), and 
magnetic image transfer. Printers using 
these technologies generally sell for 
$10,000 and up (far up — one laser 
printer goes for $300,000) and are aimed 
at specialized, high-volume operations. 

In Summary 

When selecting a printer, the first 
thing to do is analyze your needs. What 
quality do you need—draft, correspon- 
dence, or letter? What volume do you 
expect to print, i.e., how fast a printer do 
you need? Do you need extra character 
sets such as Greek letters, mathematical 
symbols, italics, or extended letters? Do 
you expect to output graphics? What 
kind, graphs or "pictures"? Will your 
printer have to handle single sheets, 
continuous feed paper, forms, envelopes, 
labels or wide paper? Will it be located 
in a relatively quiet place where you and 
others are working? What kind of com- 
puter and software do you expect to use 
with it? How much time can you afford? 

When you have answered the above 
questions, you should start gathering as 
much information as you can from as 
many sources as possible — friends, 
clubs, magazine reviews, advertisements, 
trade shows, stores. Try to narrow your 
choice to two or three acceptable print- 
ers. Then determine for each an accept- 
able maintenance arrangement; this is 
generally more important than the pur- 
chase price. 

Remember, in purchasing a printer, 
the true cost includes not only the pur- 
chase price, but supplies, technical sup- 
port, routine maintenance, repairs, and 
down time. 









equipment 
evaluation 



Print About Printers 



So you want to buy a printer, eh? Well 
you are not alone in that. Nor are you 
alone in your probable confusion con- 
cerning which printer to buy. Printers are 
the fastest-growing peripheral market in 
the microcomputer industry today. It 
seems as if a new crop of them appears 
every six months or so. Print quality and 
extra features continue to improve, while 
prices continue to fall. That is, on the 
whole, quite good news, but it makes the 
job of deciding on a printer really tough. 
"If I just hold out," you may be saying to 
yourself, "I'll be able to get more for 
less." And though salespeople may deny 
it. you'll be right. But you'll be hurting if 
you hold out too long, for every day you 
hold out is another day without a printer. 
Read on, and decide how long you can 
wait. 

Just two years ago, a serviceable dot 
matrix printer cost about $1000 and need- 
ed service on an average of twice a year. 
Then the $500 Epson MX-80 made its 
debut and changed everybody's expec- 
tations. It was quiet, affordable, reliable, 
easy to use, and produced nice copy. It 
remains one of the most popular micro- 
computer printers. 

As Dave stated in the preceding article, 
the most important consideration a buyer 
can make about a printer is one any 
reviewer has a justifiably hard time evalu- 
ating: reliability. Until at least a few 
months have passed, it is nearly impos- 
sible to make a fair judgment regarding 
the reliability of a printer. As opposed to 
a computer, which seldom has any moving 
parts aside from its keyboard, a printer is 
a mechanical contrivance, and therefore 
heir to all the potential problems mechan- 
ical devices can suffer. It is fair to expect 
that a printer will receive at least annual 
service, even if it is running just fine. In 
that way the owner may ensure that it will 



John J. Anderson 



continue to do so. 

There are certain judgments that can 
be made upon first inspection of a print- 
er—and, in selecting the right machine, 
you must choose the right criteria on 
which to base your decision. Here we 
look at 13 machines, judge them in terms 
of several criteria, and draw overall con- 
clusions concerning what a consumer can 
expect from a printer within a selected 
price range. 

To get a firm idea of what one should 
judge in a printer, let's first examine the 
criteria themselves. 

Type: By this we mean the method of 
printing the machine uses. Categories 
here are daisy wheel, dot matrix, and ink 
jet. Your decision here will depend on 
what quality of print you need, and at 
what speed you want to produce it. We 
will pass no judgment on this criteria, 
though we will consider no thermal or 
electrostatic printers. The price of impact 
dot matrix printers has dropped to a point 
where thermal and electrostatic printers, 
which require specially treated papers and 
are typically lacking in print quality, now 
have a markedly decreased appeal. 

Feed: This indicates the means by 
which the paper is propelled through 
the printer. If you are interested in using 
bond or letterhead paper, you will require 
a friction-feed machine, which handles 
paper the way a typewriter does. Tractor- 
pin-, and sprocket-feed machines will, in 
contrast, allow the use of continuous form 
paper, in roll or fan-fold format. 
Obviously a continuous format will be 
more convenient for high volume printing, 
unless you are prepared to pay for a 

30 



machine that offers automatic single sheet 
feed. This option is generally only avail- 
able on machines costing over $2000. 

Speed: An underscored caveat should 
be posted here. Just as the EPA ratings 
for automobile mileage in no way reflect 
actual road conditions, the speeds claimed 
for printheads in no way reflect actual 
print conditions. For comparison, how- 
ever, the numbers can be helpful in deter- 
mining the actual "throughput," or true 
speed at which work is turned out by the 
machine. Fully formed character printers 
such as daisy wheel printers are the slow- 
est, typically having speeds of less than 30 
characters per second (cps). Dot matrix 
printers can produce rates up to 200 cps, 
with print quality decreasing inversely. 
The ink jet printer we tested has been 
rated at 270 cps, which is quite fast. 

Interface: This criterion takes into con- 
sideration how easy (or difficult) it is to 
hook the machine up for use. Since noth- 
ing remotely resembling an industry stand- 
ard has yet been adopted, getting a printer 
up and running can sometimes be a dra- 
matic challenge. The closest thing to a 
standard currently available is the famed 
"Centronics-compatible" connector for 
parallel connection (curiously, no longer 
used by Centronics printers), and the 
time-honored DB-25 connector for serial 
connection. These are the connectors I 
am happiest to see when I look at the 
hind side of a printer. I am quite fre- 
quently disappointed, however. One can 
only pray that some time soon a standard 
will be agreed upon. 

Density: This refers to dot matrix and 
ink jet printers only, and specifies the 
maximum number of dots that can be 
printed horizontally and vertically. The 
more dots that are available in a dot 
matrix, the better the quality of the print. 
Specifications are sometimes given by the 

March 1983 e Creative Computing 



FIRST THINGS FIRST. 
LEARN ALL ABOUT IT! 



When you don't know the first thing about your new 
^pple II* you need a friendly, cheerful, easy going teacher at 
r side. And the ELEMENTARY APPLE is just that kind of 
Dk. 

It sweeps away the confusion— explains your Apple in 
Lveryday language— shows you how to hook it up, how to use 
the keyboard and work on the screen. 

Gently and carefully it gives you an understanding of all 
ie things your Apple can do. And then, it even shows how 
„asy it is for anyone to write a simple program— provides 
common sense answers about graphics, utility programs, and 
ne how and why of word processors, business programs and 
nardware like printers. 



VISA/MASTERCARD accepted. $2.00 shipping/handling charge. 
I (Catttornia residents add 6%** sales tax) 
'Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computers. Inc 



Yes, there's a lot of information. But, not one chapter or 
one word is dull or difficult to follow or complicated. Prove it to 
yourself. Visit your computer store. Open the ELEMENTARY 
APPLE. Read a page of the introduction, then flip it open 
anywhere and read a paragraph or so. You'll find it's as 
understandable, as helpful and as marvelous as we say. 

If you, or a member of your family, is an Apple beginner, 
this is the book you need. It'll teach you everything you want to 
know, in the way you want to learn. 
Only $14.95. At computer and book stores, or 



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CIRCLE 153 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Printers, continued... 

character, sometimes by the inch. A mini- 
mum matrix is composed of 5 x 7 dots. 

Graphics.: Again, a consideration only 
for dot matrix and ink jet printers. Gener- 
ally a yes or no question, it indicates 
whether dots in a matrix can be addressed 
individually to create graphics displays. 
Think carefully before you dispense with 
this capability — the time will probably 
come when you will miss it. For example, 
without graphics capability you will have 
trouble listing programs that include con- 
trol characters. 

Character sets: Again, a feature perti- 
nent only to dot matrix and ink jet 
printers. Specifies the number of built-in 
fonts the printer can generate. Typically 
fonts are distinguished by their varying 
pilches, meaning their widths, which are 
measured in characters per inch, or cpi. 
Buffer: The amount of text which can 
be stored in printer circuitry prior to 
actual printing. Some printers offer buf- 
fers up to 48K, so that an entire document 
can be dumped to the buffer, freeing the 
microcomputer to go on to other tasks 
while the printing takes place. 

Logic-seeking: The ability of a printer 
to exercise some flexibility in advancing 
to the next printing position. Rather than 
an unwavering carriage return and line- 
feed at every end of line, a logic-seeking 
printer will determine which way is fast- 
est, and then take that way. Bidirectional 
printing means the printhead can print 
from right to left as well as left to right. 
This does not always ensure a faster route, 
however, as in the example of a list of 
numbers running down the left-hand 
margin. A "smart" bidirectional printer 
would not make a mistake in this case, 
but rather print unidirectionally from the 
left-hand margin. 

Noise: Another warning is in order 
here. For purposes of comparison, we 
used a noise level meter to measure the 
noise in decibels, during printing, one 
meter from each printer. We placed each 
printer on a noise-deadening mat of foam, 
as we assume the noise-conscious con- 
sumer would do. The numbers presented 
here indicate the results. They are best 
used for purposes of comparison only. 

Price: This in all cases indicates the list 
price of the unit. Quite frequently the 
printer can be purchased for substantially 
less than the manufacturer's list price, 
however. 

Overall rating: We have given each 
printer a rating of 0-4 stars, based on the 
ratio of its performance to its price. This 
approach has its faults, but it accurately 
reflects our opinion about the hardware. 
A rating of one star is fair-poor, two stars 
fair-good, three stars good-very good, and 
four stars very good-excellent. 

With these explanations in mind, let's 
take a close look at some printers. Hold 
on to your fonts, folks. 




The Seikosha GP-2S0X: trade-offs for a price. 



Seikosha GP-250X 

Full Features at a Discount Price 

The Seikosha GP250X is an example 
of the new under-$500 generation of print- 
ers. It offers a tolerable dot matrix print 
quality with built-in graphics capability, 
and the capacity for paper widths up to 
10 inches. 

With a claimed speed of 50 cps, the 
GP-250X is not a speed demon, but it 
does offer a bi-directional, logic-seeking 
printhead. We dare say that speed will 
not be a major consideration for buyers 
of this printer. What will be a major 
consideration is that the Seikosha offers 
many of the features of much more expen- 
sive printers at quite a low price. 

Dot-addressable graphics, for example, 
are standard, and resolve to 480 x 8 per 
horizontal row. A position feature allows 
multipass capability. 

Indicator lamps signify power on and 
error conditions, while pushbutton con- 
trols are limited to stop and reset controls 
only. One serious omission is the lack of 




an online/local switch, which would allow 
the printer to remain on but disabled. 
Whether the printer is on or off, may be a 
moot point, however, as paper, once fed 
forward, cannot be fed in the reverse 
direction. This is annoying, and takes 
some getting used to. 

On the positive side, the printer does 
offer serial and parallel connection. The 
serial connection is via a 5-pin DIN con- 
nector, while the parallel connection is 
Centronics-style. A mode selection switch 
on the back of the printer selects for 
serial, parallel, or self-test mode. 

Commodore offers a version of this 
printer as its new 1525 printer for the 
VIC-20 and Commodore-64 users. VIC 
and 64 owners should be aware, however, 
that the unconventional configuration of 
the Commodore 5-pin DIN is not compat- 



The GP-250X printhead. 
32 



creative computing 

PRINTER PROFILE 
Printer: Seikosha GP-250 X 
Type: Dot matrix 
Feed: Pin 
Speed: 50 cps claimed 

Interface: Parallel/serial (Centronics 

+5-pin DIN) 
Density: 480 x 8 
Graphics: Yes 
Character Set: 4 
Buffer: 480 bytes 
Logic Seek: Yes, bidirectional 
Summary: Some trade-offs, but still 

a good value 
Price: $499 
Manufacturer: 

Axiom Corporation 
1014 Griswold Ave. 
San Fernando, CA 91340 
(213) 365-9521 



March 1983 e Creative Computing 



V 






iftrthur^ 



RETURN THE SCROLL and claim Camelot's Crown! 

King Arthur has made you his heir. 

But, gallant knight, to prove 

your worth, you must first 

journey forth 

AND DEFY ALL PERILS! 

Slay dragons; bargain 

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explore magic kingdoms 

and enchanted forests; 

defeat the evil of Mordred . . . 

FIND AND RETURN 

TO ARTHUR 

THE SCROLL OF TRUTH! 



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CIRCLE 165 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




* ATARI 4001800 is a trademark of ATARI INC. 



Printers, continued. 




The Okidata Microline 92: a winner, 



ible with the orthodox pin array on the 
Seikosha machine, and so a custom cable 
will be required. 

The GP-250X offers one English char- 
acter set, with the option to expand it 
horizontally and vertically. It also offers 
special British, German, and Swedish 
characters. 

As stated earlier, the printer is slow, 
and slow form feed bogs it down yet 
further. The lack of a linefeed button was 
also missed. 

The unit is quite compact, and really 
quite stylish, though it suffers from a 
severe case of "plasticitis." Don't drop 
this baby on a concrete floor— you'll be 
sweeping it up with a broom. In all fair- 
ness—you cannot expect such an inex- 
pensive unit to be housed in a super- 
durable case. 

The printer ribbon is in cartridge form, 
but the cartridge is one of the harder 
ones to change that we have seen. For- 
tunately, the manual is quite clear on the 
steps involved in changing the ribbon 
cartridge. In fact the documentation in 
general is very professional, and much 
better than we might have expected with 
such a unit. 

As far as noise goes, the unit came in 
with a quite noisy 69 dB. It has a char- 
acteristic raspy quality to it as well, which 
was judged to be quite annoying. But this 
is nothing compared to the paper empty 
warning buzzer, which sent us running in 
all directions, to duck and cover. That 
was a feature we could have done 
without. 

This review may seem highly critical, 
and though the Epson MX-80 probably 
remains a better $500 buy, the Seikosha is 
not a bad machine for the price. It merits 
a rating of two stars. 

CIRCLE 400 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



M PI Print Mate 99: made in U.S.A. 



I wanted to acknowledge the help of Owen 
Linzmayer and Bob Beckman in the prep- 
aration of this article. 



Okidata Microline 92 

A Price/Performance Leader 

One of the leading producers of small 
personal computer printers is Okidata. 
Their newest offering, the Microline 92, 
is a compact model which is nicely suited 
to household computer use. 

The Microline 92 has a base unit sticker 
price of $699, making it a reasonably 
priced printer considering its performance 




Under the hood. 



capabilities. The basic printer has four 
built-in character sets and a 2K print 
buffer, and boasts a top print speed of 
160 cps. 

When using the 92, you select between 
pin and friction feed. If you are using the 
pin feed rollers, the printer will accept 
only 10" fan-fold paper. The printer can 
be loaded from the top as well as from 
underneath. There is a small bracket 
located on the top of the unit which keeps 
the paper from wrapping back down 
inside of the feed slot— a common prob- 
lem with other printers. 

34 



Hooking up the Microline 92 to your 
computer is very easy. The printer can be 
ordered with either a serial or a parallel 
interface. The one we reviewed had a 
Centronics parallel connector located on 
the back of the unit. 

One thing that annoys me about the 
Microline 92 is that the entire casing must 
be removed to gain access to the DIP 
switch on which you select the various 
print options. Granted, there are only two 
screws that must be taken out, but we 
would rather not have to tear the printer 
apart every time we want to change an 
option. 

The printhead has a density of 13 x 7 
and can print 160 cps in the data pro- 
cessing mode, 50 cps in correspondence 
mode. The Microline 92 prints bidirec- 
tional and has true logic-seeking func- 
tions. Many people believe that these two 



creative computing 

PRINTER PROFILE 
Printer: Microline 92 
Type: Dot matrix 
Feed: Pin/friction 
Speed: 160 cps 

Interface: Edgecard or Centronics 

parallel 
Density: 13 x 17 
Graphics: optional 
Character Sets: 4 
Buffer: 2K 

Logic Seek: Yes, bidirectional 
Summary: An excellent value. 
Price: $699 
Manufacturer: 

Okidata Corporation 
1 1 1 Gaither Dr. 
Mount Laurel, NJ 08054 
(609) 235-2600 



March 1983 6 Creative Computing 




g^o^D 



Take your marble to 

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and let it drop. Hope 

for a flip instead of a 

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the fun never stops! 

It's FLIP OUT — a 

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you drop causes a 

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and you'll flip, if you 

didn't you Flip Out! 



It is up 
to you to stop the 
invasion of the evil 
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Repton. You are armed 
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Nuke Bombs, a Radar 
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and an Energy Shield. 
You'll need them all! 
You'll be attacked by 
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must avoid Spye 
Satellites and deadly 
Dyne-Beam Shooters 
and you must stop the 
Draynes from deplet- 
ing the Reptonian 
power supply. Repton 
is a battle so thrilling 
you'll be relieved to 
find out you're still on 
earth when it's over! 




Turn your keyboard 
into a typing arcade! 
You can blast attack- 
ing letters and words 
right out of the sky. 
Type Attack was 
designed by a profes- 
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the fast action game 
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features 39 pre- 
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and 60 user defined 
lessons. Great sound, 
graphics and a real- 
time words per minute 
bar make improving 
your typing skills fun! 



Talk about adventure 
on the high seas! 
You're blasting away 
at a squadron of 
enemy bombers and 
Kamikaze fighters from 
the deck of your P.T. 
boat. Suddenly you 
notice the sea is 
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an Exocet missile is 
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on the horizon. Instinc- 
tively you jerk the joy- 
stick to the starboard, 
keeping your thumb on 
the fire button. Phew 1 
That was close! Some- 
times it's hard to 
believe Wavy Navy's 
just a video game. 



New Games For Your Apple II From Sirius 



TM 



Tvoe Attack Wavv Navy Flip Out and Repton packages, programs, and audio visuals ( 1982 Sinus Type Attack. Wavy Navy. Flip Out. Repton and 
■ yu» m.aws. r g^ ^ , rade marks ot Sinus Software. Inc. Apple is a trademark ot Apple Computer. Inc. 

For mor* inlormation contact your local Sirius dealer or distributor or contact us at 10364 Rockinaham DriT«, 

Sacramento. CA 95027, (916) 366-1195. 



CIRCLE 269 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Printers, continued... 

features make a printer fast, but the speed 
of a printer is really determined by how 
well it handles paper during throughput. 
The Okidata performs well in this area. 

On the front panel of the Microline 92 
there are four buttons, three lights, and a 
rotary dial. All of these are clearly 
labeled. The button second from the left 
is the •select" button. Hitting it switches 
you between on-line and local modes. To 
set the top of form, hold the TOF button 
down and move the paper manually to 
the desired position. Hit the form feed 
button at any time while you are in the 
local mode to advance the paper to the 
top of the next page. The rightmost but- 
ton is the linefeed button. 

If the printer runs out of paper, a red 
light on the front panel lights up and the 
printer stops. When the unit is on-line. 
the light above the select button is lit. So 
that you don't have to guess whether the 
printer is on. there is an easily visible 
power indicator located on the front 
panel. As long as the unit is plugged in 
and current is running through it. this 
light remains lit. The rotary length dial 
can be set to any one of ten positions, 
bser-selectable form lengths range from 
.V'to 14V 

The dot matrix print quality is very 
nice compared to other printers in the 
same cps range. There are four character 
sets, each with % characters, and the 
lower case letters have true descenders. 
In correspondence mode, the dots that 
make up each character are very close 
together, almost giving the appearance of 
fully formed characters. This printer uses 
an open spool ribbon which is difficult to 
thread and not as easy to handle as a 
cartridge ribbon found on other units. 

For a printer of its small size, the Micro- 
line 92 is rather noisy. The Okidata clat- 
tered in with a raspy 72 dB noise level 
while printing. Although this is acceptable 
for a home environment, we wouldn't 
want to be on the phone in an office 
while it was printing. When the Okidata 
is turned on and waiting for you to use it. 
it makes no noise whatsoever. This is an 
appealing factor to those who like quiet 
while working on their computers. 

The Okidata Microline 92 is basically 
an enhanced version of the Microline 82 
with the control codes of the Microline 
84. Special features such as super- and 
sub-scripting make the 92 a perfect printer 
for the serious beginner. The printer is 
light-weight and very compact, and has a 
solid build. Its main market will probably 
be the home computer owner, since it has 
only limited office features. If you are 
looking for a reliable, quality printer for 
under $700, check out the Microline 92. 
It rates four stars. 

CIRCLE 401 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MPI Print Mate 99 

It Can Still Happen in the USA 

The list price of the PrintMate 99 from 
Micro Peripherals Incorporated is $749. 
That it packs many features and has nice 
print quality for the price is all the more 
remarkable when you consider that its 
place of manufacture is not Osaka, but 
Salt Lake City. The PrintMate 99 proves 
that this country can remain highly com- 



/T*TTf^ m> 




Under the hood. 



petitive in the microcomputer printer 
contest. 

The printer is an impact dot matrix 
type with a maximum resolution of 17 x 9. 
It has a claimed speed of 100 cps and 
features a tractor feed. The paper loads 
from the bottom rear, and is more than a 
bit difficult to thread. It does not, how- 
ever, require a slotted printer table. 



creative computing 

PRINTER PROFILE 
Printer: MPI PrintMate 99 
Type: Dot matrix 
Feed: Tractor 
Speed: 100 cps 

Interface: Parallel Serial, custom cable 
Density: 17x9 
Graphics: Yes 
Character Sets: 2 
Buffer: IK 
Logic Seek: Yes, bidirectional 

Summary: Good quality text, graphics, 
and workmanship 

Price: $749 

Manufacturer: 

Micro Peripherals. Inc. 
4426 South Century Dr. 
Salt Lake City, UT 

(800)821-8848 




36 



MPI self-portrait. 

Unfortunately, interfacing to your spe- 
cific machine may be tricky. Serial and 
parallel connection is offered, but only 
through a highly unorthodox internal con- 
nector. Apple owners will note with 
interest that MPI sells a cable, card, and 
software kit tailored specifically for con- 
nection to the Apple. This makes parallel 
connection a snap. MPI also offers a serial 
interface adapter. Our advice would be 
to forego the excitement of wiring this 
yourself. Take advantage of the ability to 
buy it directly from MPI. 

The print quality of the PrintMate 99 is 
about average, but the graphics capability 
is well above average. The printer seems 
to have been designed with graphics ap- 
plications in mind. The documentation is 
especially thorough in discussing graphics 
options. 

As for its noise reading, the MPI unit 
turned out to be among the noisiest we 
tested. If a printer came in under 70 
decibels, it passed our informal noise test. 
At 71 dB, the PrintMate 99 is among the 
four printers that failed, gaining the label 
"really pretty noisy." It is the kind of 
printer that stops arguments, shortens 
phone calls, and sends the cat into 
another room. This is its most disappoint- 
ing feature. 

The cartridge-based ribbon is not too 
difficult to replace, and the change can 
be made straightforwardly, without inking 
up fingers. The buffer is a slightly shrimpy 
IK. We rated the unit at three stars. 

CIRCLE 402 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

8510A Prowriter 

The Competition Is Running Well 

If any low priced printer has a real shot 
at the reputation of the Epson, it is the C. 
Itoh Prowriter, and it is catching on fast. 
The unit we received several months ago 
quickly became the favorite of one of our 
colleagues. We can comment on the reli- 
ability of this machine: in four months of 
heavy use, it has yet to exhibit the slightest 
problem. The Prowriter is a real work- 
horse, deserving of its growing 
reputation. 

Though we are not wholly sure it lives 

March 1983 e Creative Computing 










TBc— 



■""" tm 




^^^^_ 


j 


^^^^M t^SMM ~ 



- 



S'EC 



Ounn 



Give your IBM system some NEC, 
and watch its performance soar. 



Peripherals from NEC can make almost any 
computer system better. 

Our sparkling new JC1203 color 
monitor is plug and pin compatible with the 
16<olor IBM a PC, and delivers the bright, 
sharp, clear, and stable screen image for 
which the entire NEC line has 
long been famous. Similar com- 
patibility is available to 
owners of Apple II", Radio 



Shack " , and Atari § computers, not to men- 
tion our own outstanding NEC PC-8000 
series. Also available is a brand new, ex- 
tremely low cost, NEC green monochrome 
monitor, the JBI260, perfect companion 
for an Osborne H , for instance. 

Ask your dealer for a dem- 
onstration. Or write us 
at 1401 Estes Avenue, Elk 
Grove Village, IL 60007 



Productivity 

At your fingertips 



NEC 



NEC Home Electronics (U.S.A.). Inc. 
Personal Computer Division 

Nippon Electric Co . Ltd.. Tokyo. Japan 

CIRCLE 215 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




8510A Prowriter: drew raves. 



up to its maker's claims of up to 120 cps, 
we can report that it is faster than most 
other impact dot matrix printers in its 
price range. At this speed, it delivers a 
crisp and classy 7x9 character set (but 
one of seven it can produce). It also offers 
bit addressable graphics. 

The unit we received had a Centronics- 
standard parallel connector, and was 
quite simple to get going. A self-test fea- 
ture is another added convenience. The 
cartridge ribbon is easily replaceable, and 
paper handling is about average, with 
familiar pinfeed, or friction feed for single 
sheets. 

The Duffer comes with a slightly paltry 
IK standard, and the option to go to 3K. 
Front mounted LEDs indicate power on, 
paper empty, and on-line status. Push- 
buttons allow for manual selection of on- 
line/local status, linefeed, and top-of-form 



IDS480 Microprism: impressively quiet. 



creative coiRpating 

PRINTER PROFILE 
Printer: 8510A Prowriter 
Type: Dot matrix 
Feed: Pin/friction 
Speed: Up to 120 cps 
Interface: Centronics parallel 
Density: 7x9 
Graphics: Yes 
Character Sets: 7 
Buffer: IK, with option for 3K 
Logic Seek: Yes 
Summary: Sturdy, serviceable, 
heavily discounted 
Price: $795 
Manufacturer: 

C. Itoh Electronics 
5301 Beethoven St. 
Los Angeles, CA 90066 
(213) 306-6700 



access. These features add to the ease of 
use of the unit. The Prowriter is a sturdy 
machine, designed to keep costs low while 
maximizing reliability. Reliability is a fea- 
ture that can't be ignored. The noise level 
of the Prowriter was measured at 69 dB, 
which is noisy but tolerable. 

The documentation is unfortunately 
somewhat lacking. Its outward appear- 
ance is professional-looking, but the in- 
formation it contains is spread all over 
the place, in a rather unorganized man- 
ner. We will say that nearly everything 
you need to know is in there somewhere 
(along with lots you'll never need to 
know), but good luck finding it when you 
want to. It could have been done much 
better. 

It is probably somewhat unfair of us to 
site the reliability of this machine, in light 
of the fact that the other printers have 
not been around long enough to allow us 
to pass similar judgment. But in our opin- 
ion it is a judgment worth passing on, and 
worth four stars in the bargain. We like 
this machine, and recommend it. 

CIRCLE 403 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



IDS 480 Microprism 

Talk About a Look-Alike 

Isn't that an MX-80 sitting there? Nope, 
wrong. It's a Microprism 480 from Integral 
Data Systems, better known as IDS. And 
at a list price of $799, it offers yet another 
alternative to its Japanese twin. 

The 480 offers most of the same fea- 
tures as the Microline 92, MPI 99, Pro- 
writer, and oter machines in the same 
price range. It features parallel and serial 
connections available on a single DB-25 
connector. With a matrix density of 24 x 
9, the print is very clear and pleasing. We 
like a font that includes serifs, as it more 
closely resembles fully formed character 
type. The Microprism default character 
set, while clearly dot matrix, does begin 

38 



to approach that most famous of printer 
buzzwords: letter quality. And it does so 
at claimed speeds of up to 1 10 cps. 

Single sheet friction feed, as well as pin 
feed are available on the 480. While single 
sheets feed well, we found the pin sprock- 
et clamps awkward and liable to an occa- 
sional jam with fan-fold paper. Perhaps 
the paper we were using was simply too 
light for this machine. 

The unit is a serviceable home printer, 
but certainly not a machine one would 
place in a busy office environment. It is 
on the "plasticky" side, and unlikely to 
survive extended abuse of any kind. 
Again, these are comments we would 
probably make of our venerable mea- 
suring stick, the MX-80, as well. 

The Microprism was rated at 66 dB, 
which puts it among the quietest of the 
printers we tested, and makes it far and 



creative computing 

PRINTER PROFILE 

Printer: IDS 480 Microprism 

Type: Dot matrix 

Feed: Pin/friction 

Speed: Up to 1 10 cps 

Interface: Parallel/serial 

Density: 24 x 9 

Graphics: Yes 

Character Seta: 3 

Buffer: I.4K 

Logic Seek: Yes 

Summary: An Epson look- and work- 
alike. 

Price: $799 

Manufacturer: 

Integral Data Systems 
Route 13 

Milford, NH 03055 
(603) 673-9100 



March 1983 e Creative Computing 



BASF QUALIMETRIC 

ATOTALLY NEW DIMENSION OF QUALITY. 




From BASF comes a totally new 
level of excellence in magnetic 
media - the Qualimetric stan- 
dard, a standard so advanced 
that BASF FlexyDisks' are confi- 
dently backed by an extraordi- 
nary new lifetime warranty* 
The Qualimetric standard is 
maintained without compro- 
mise through every step of BASF 
design, production, inspection, 
and testing. ..reflecting an 
unwavering BASF commitment 
to media fidelity and durability. 

Our FlexyDisk jacket incorpo- 
rates a unique two-piece liner 
that not only traps damaging 
debris away from the media 
surface, but also ensures pre- 
cise media-to-head alignment. 
The result-certified 100% 
error-free performance, backed 
by BASF's exclusive lifetime 
warranty. * 

For information security, 
tomorrow and beyond, look for 
the distinctive BASF package 
with the Qualimetric seal. Call 
800-343-4600 for the name of 
your nearest supplier. 




ENTER TOMORROW ON 

•Conuct BASF for minwMy cfeM'b C 1982.BASF SyOtm Corpontmn. Bedford. MA 
CIRCLE 113 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



BASF TODAY 



• BASF 



Drawattentiontoyourself. 

(Write a program for the IBM Personal Computer.) 



Let your imagination take wing. 

Think charts. Graphs. Shapes. Images. 

Use originality, creativity and color in programs 
that entertain. Educate. Organize. Analyze. And 
programs that get down to business. 

Maybe you've written software like that. Or 
perhaps you're thinking about it. 

If so, consider this. 

•You could draw attention to yourself by writing 
programs/*- the IBM Personal Computer on the 
IBM Personal Computer. Because all our advanced 
features (see the box at right) make it faster and easier 

to do so. 

Enhanced BASIC already in ROM, for example, 
has graphics commands already built in. 

And if you write a program using our Advanced 
BASIC, you'll find the DRAW command 
particularly appealing. It's virtually a separate 
graphics language within a larger language. 

Put your visual together with any of the 128 
characters and symbols in ROM for a simultaneous, 
text-and-graphics mix. 

Have musical accompaniment as well. 

It's easy, because BASIC controls the built-in 
speaker with a single command. 

Utilize the ten, programmable 
function keys. Try F3 to paint. 
F4 for lines. F5 for circles. Or 
F6 for boxes. 



IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER SPECIFICATIONS 



User Memory 

16K512K bytes* 
Microprocessor 

l6-bit.80B8* 
Auxiliary Memory 
2 optional internal 
diskette drives. SV4" 
160K bytes or 320K 
bytes per diskette 
Keyboard 
83 keys. 6 ft. cord 
attaches to 
system unit* 
10 function keys* 
10-kev numeric pad 
Tactile feedback* 



Display Screen 

High-resolution* 

80 characters x 25 lines 

I'pper and 1* «w r OM 

Green phosplxir acfecn* 

Operating Systems 

D08,UCSOp-Syaem, 

(IVM86T 
Languages 
BASIC. K-scal, FORTRAN. 

MACRO Assembler. 

COBOL 



Kmer-on self testing* 
Parity checking* 



All points-add rcss.:ble 
graphics capability 
Bidirectional* 
80 characters/second 
18 character styles 
9x9 character matrix* 



Permanent Memory 

(ROM)40 bytes* 
Color/Graphics 

jfrxf mode 
Id a 'I' >rs* 
2 V> i ■haractcrs and 
symbols ill ROM* 

Gniphta limofe 

•» color resolution 

320h x 200v* 
Black K white resolution: 

b40hx200v* 
Simultaneous graphics & 

text capability* 
Communications 
RS 232 C interface 
Asynchn m his or SDLC 

prorocotl 
L'p t< > 9600 bits per second 




•ADVANCED FEATURES FOR PERSONAL COMPUTERS 

I 

Remember that these function keys make your 
program more "friendly" to the user and, therefore, 
more appealing to us. 

In fact, if you're interested in licensing your 
software, we could be interested in publishing it. 

We could also be interested even if it runs on 
another computer. If we select your software, we'll 
ask you to adapt it to our system. 

So if you think your software is close to 
picture perfect, consider sending it in. 

For information on how to submit 
your completed program, write: 
IBM Personal Computer, 
External Submissions, Dept. 765 PQ_ 
Armonk, New York 10504. -j-^-^' 



The IBM Personal Computer 
Atool far modern times 



For more information on where to buy the IBM Pet*>na. Omputer. call ■00-44^700. In AUska or Haw*,. 8O0-447-O890. 
tuaDr-Sr*™,...^™^^ 

CIRCLE 182 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Printers, continued. 




Smith-Corona TP-1: disappointing. 



away the quietest printer we tested that 
lists for under $1000. This is probably the 
strongest point of the machine. 

IDS offers a number of printers, and 
this one is not its strongest entry, as we 
shall soon see. 

We might have rated the Microprism a 
bit more harshly, but the low noise rating 
succeeded in keeping the printer in the 
three star range. 

CIRCLE 404 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MPI Print Mate 150G: programs easily. 



Smith-Corona TP-1 

Hey, Where's the Rest of My Typewriter? 

At a list price of $895, which can be 
heavily discounted, the SCM TP-1 is one 
of the least expensive daisy wheel printers 
on the market today. Question: How have 
they managed to do it? Answer: By creat- 
ing a typewriter with a microcomputer 
interface instead of a keyboard. And in 
doing so, some very significant trade-offs 
were made. 

Let's get the bad news right out into the 
open, then present the positive side. We 
are unhappy about a number of things 
concerning the TP-1 -things that make 
its use somewhat less than enjoyable. 

First, is its infernal racket. Our mea- 
sured rate of 71 decibels does not suffi- 
ciently impart the sense of dread that 
quickly overcomes anyone in the same 
room with a printing TP-1. At first it 
reminded us of the old clacking teletype 
in the city room, with Perry White shout- 




ing "Great Caesar's Ghost" over the din. 
This image was short-lived, however. 
Within minutes it had dissolved into the 
roar of machine gun fire as our boys 
clawed inch-by-inch up hill 479. If you 
live in an apartment, running this printer 
for more than five minutes at a clip will 
constitute grounds for eviction. 

Ah, and we're only getting started. 
Unavoidably tied to this slight problem is 
another, the extremely slow speed of the 
TP-1. Remember how we mentioned 
above that manufacturers tend to exag- 
gerate speed claims concerning their 
machines? Well Smith-Corona claims no 
more than 12 cps for its machine, and 
that in itself is generous. So you see, you 
must add to the infernal din the eternity it 
will take to stop. 



Under the hood. 



creative computing 

PRINTER PROFILE 
Printer: SCM TP-1 
Type: Daisy wheel 
Feed: Friction 
Speed: 12 cps 

Interface: Specify serial or parallel 
Density: n/a 
Graphics: n/a 

Character Sets: replaceable elements 
Buffer: 120 bytes 
Logic Seek: Yes 

Summary: Only if you must have 
letter quality at a rock- 
bottom price. 
Price: $895 
Manufacturer: 

Smith-Corona 

Consumer Products Division 

65 Locust Ave. 

New Canaan, CT 06840 

(203) 972-1471 



A single-page, single-spaced letter will 
take up all of the five minutes allotted to 
an apartment dweller before the neigh- 
bors organize a vigilante group. Printing 
a 40-page document would most certainly 
qualify as cruel and unusual punishment. 
Taken together, the problems of noise 
and slow speed create quite a serious 
disadvantage. Though we joke here, in 
the long run it is really not very funny. 

Then there are the petty problems. Like 
the fact that the printer is noisy even 
when it is waiting because of a low quality, 
high RPM fan that runs continuously. 
Like the fact that the printer can't run 
with its cover down. Like the fact that 
the unit throws off a lot of RFI (radio 
frequency interference). Like the fact that 
the unit cannot really handle continuous 
form paper, must be ordered in either 10 
or 12 pitch models, and has a buffer of a 
measly 120 bytes. 

Isn't there anything positive we can say 
about the TP-1? Yes, there certainly is. 
The print quality is impeccable— no dot 
matrix printer at even four times the price, 
yet comes close to the print quality of the 
TP-1. If fully formed character quality is 
what you are after, and you cannot afford 
anything else, then the TP-1 is the 
machine for you. 

The cartridge ribbon is a snap to 
change. It is about the easiest changing 
ribbon we have seen. Likewise, changing 
print wheels is quite simple. 

Daisy wheel printers are as a rule nois- 
ier and slower than dot matrix printers. 
They need not be nearly as slow or as 
noisy as the TP-1, but for the price, the 
unit still merits two stars. 

CIRCLE 405 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



42 



MPI PrintMate150G 

Salt Lake Strikes Again 

At a list price of $995, the PrintMate 
150G is the last printer listing for under 

March 1983 c Creative Computing 



DOZEN 



f 



13 Good Reasons to Buy 
the 



ii 






f. Apple* It-compatible 

2. CP/*f®-compatible 

3. 128ft of RAM 

4. Built-in floppy disk drive 

5. Disk controller 

6. 80 column card 
Serial interface 

8. Parallel interface 

9. Upper and lower case 
ro. VlslCalc® keys 

Cursor control pad 
Numeric pad 
Auto repeat keys 



Extras can more than double the price of your per- 
sonal computer. Not so with the Franklin ACE 1200. 
It's the professional computer system that includes 
the extras— and a long list of exclusive Franklin 
features that make it the most extraordinary value on 
the market today. 

The ACE 1200 has everything you'll need 
to add a color or black and white monitor. , 

modem, printer, back-up disk drive and m 
other accessories. You can choose from I . 
theenormous selection of Apple programs I U 
and peripherals because the ACE 1200 is I I 
hardware- and software-compatible with I J 



the Apple II. And, with the built-in CP M card, you 
can run both Apple II and CP M programs. Franklin's 
CP/M operates three times as fast as many com- 
peting systems, drastically reducing processing 
time for most business applications. 

The Franklin ACE 1200— the most extraordinary value 
-- on the market today. Call or write today for 

u the name of your local authorized Franklin 

dealer. 

' Franklin ACE is a trademark of Franklin Computer Corporation 

Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer Inc 
CP M is a registered trademark ot Digital Research Inc 
VisiCalc is a registered trademark ot Visi Corp 



FRANKLIN 

COMPUTER CORPORATION 

7030 Colonial Highway. Pennsauken. NJ 08109 609-488-1700 

CIRCLE 168 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






Printers, continued... 

$1000 we shall consider here. It is in large 
part the 15" version of the PrintMate 99. 
and rather than repeat the same informa- 
tion, we urge readers interested in this 
printer to reread the specs of the model 
99. We shall enumerate only the unique 
facets of the 150G here. 

The PrintMate 150G looks like a pavil- 
ion left over from the 1965 World's Fair. 
It's so big you might consider climbing 
into it to load the paper. You'll have to 
devote quite a sizeable amount of space 
to the printer. But don't worry about 
losing desk space, because the 150 is a 
bottom-loading-only machine; it requires 
a slotted printer stand. (This is. by the 
way. a great way to sell slotted printer 
stands.) 

The printer is about average in most 
respects, with a few exceptions. A com- 




150G command keypad. 



mand keypad allows swift and easy selec- 
tion of alternate fonts, form lengths, 
pitches, horizontal and vertical tabs, ver- 
tical spacing, and other functions. The 
printer responds with musical prompts to 
indicate receipt of commands. This input 
approach is unique and sensible. We pre- 
dict that we will be seeing it on more 
printers in the future. 



creative computing 

PRINTER PROFILE 
Printer: MPI PrintMate 150G 
Type: Dot matrix 
Feed: Tractor 
Speed: Up to 150 cps 

Interface: Specify serial or parallel, 

custom cable 
Density: 6120dots/sq. inch 
Graphics: Yes 
Character Sets: 5 
Buffer: 2K, optional to 16K 
Logic Seek: Yes 

Summary: Average features, but 

nicely priced. 
Price: $995 
Manufacturer: 

Micro Peripherals. Inc. 
4426 South Century Dr. 
Salt Lake City, UT 
(800) 821-8848 




Under the hood. 



The unit has no serious disadvantages, 
though there is nothing special about it, 
aside from the keypad that comes as 
standard equipment. We did dislike the 
plexiglass cover of the unit, which seemed 
a lot cheaper than it should have been. 

The manufacturer rates the printhead 
at greater than or equal to 100,000,000 
characters, which is an impressive claim. 
As for noise, the unit measured in at a 
very noisy 69 dB. Still, the PrintMate 
150G is very competitively priced, and on 
that basis, we rated it at three stars. 

CIRCLE 406 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Daisywriter 2000 

Give Me Your Answer, True 

The Daisywriter is our kind of fully 
formed character printer. It is relatively 
fast, relatively quiet, and relatively smart. 
It offers a 16K standard buffer, optional 
to 48K. It offers friction feed, with an 
option for tractor. Logic seeking, bidirec- 
tional printing, and efficient form hand- 
ling make it a pleasure to use. And all of 
this comes for a list price of a mere 
$1395. 

We like nearly everything about the 
Daisywriter, from its sturdy construction 
to its very complete documentation. With 
its front mounted controls and a page 
length calibrator similar to those found 
on the Okidata Microline series, the 
Daisywriter would be as at home in an 
office environment as it would be, well, 
at home. Paper handling is very accurate, 
and paper is likewise a snap to load. The 
ribbon cartridge looks to be the same as 
the one used on IBM Selectric typewriter, 
and is just as easy to replace. The noise 
rating of the Daisywriter was 68 db, which 
was quieter than seven of the dot matrix 
printers we tested. 

About the only thing that got us down 
concerning the unit was hooking it up. It 
makes use of a 50-pin edge connection 
via a custom cable. Surely they could 
have done a bit better than that. Also, the 

44 



creative computing 

PRINTER PROFILE 

Printer: Daisywriter 2000 

Type: Daisy wheel 

Feed: Friction, tractor as option 

Speed: 20 cps 

Interface: Parallel/serial 50 pin edge 
card 

Density: n/a 

Graphics: n/a 

Character Sets: Replaceable element 

Logic Seek: Yes, bidirectional 

Summary: An excellent daisy wheel 

unit for the price 
Price: $1395 
Manufacturer: 

Computers International 
3540 Wilshire Blvd. 
Los Angeles, CA 90010 
(213)386-3111 



machine is a little more plasticky than we 
would have preferred. Plasticitis is an 
insidious disease— it is striking every- 
where nowadays. 

The print quality, as with other printers 
of its ilk, is unbeatable. And unlike the 
TP-1, any one Daisywriter can handle 
both 10 and 12 pitch daisy wheels. 

More than the simple difference in their 
rated cps accounts for the fact that the 
Daisywriter is so much faster than the 
TP-1. The Daisywriter is smarter and 
handles paper much faster— these are 
considerations for which cps has not been 
known to account. 

How unfair of us, you may be declaring 
aloud, to compare the TP-1 so unfav- 
orably with the Daisywriter, without 
taking into account the disparity in their 
costs. The point is well-taken. What we 
are attempting to argue for is the follow- 
ing: if for your purposes true letter quality 
is mandatory, make the expenditure not 
only for letter quality, but for printer 
quality as well. The features available in 
the Daisywriter would have cost well over 
$2000 only about a year ago. They are 
well worth the cost of a Daisywriter. 

If it had a Centronics connector, or a 
little less plastic and a little more metal, 
we would have rated it at four stars. As it 
is, it receives a well-deserved three. 

CIRCLE 407 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Okidata Microline 84 

Old, but not Great 

As was the case with the MPI machines, 
the Microline 84 is the big brother of the 
Microline 92, offering many of the same 
features along with 15" paper capability. 

March 1983 c Creative Computing 



Now our $29.95 complete Pascal for CP/M is an even better bargain 



WHAT THEY SAID ABOUT 
JRT PASCAL 2.0: 

CREATIVE COMPUTING. Nov. 82 -...While 
there is no such thing as a free lunch,' 
JRT Pascal at $29.95 (which includes 
postage) certainly allows the user to 
experience champagne and caviar 
at cafeteria prices... 

INTERFACE AGE. Oct. 82 ...JRT Pascal is 
following the example set by Software 
Toolworks (Sherman Oaks. CA) of 
offering quality software at extremely 
low price..." 

INFOWORLD. Aug 16. 82 The magazines 
Software Report Card' rated JRTs 



documentation good' and performance, 
ease of use and error handling 
excellent -the highest rating. 
AND NOW: JRT PASCAL 3.0— 
with all the features that earned 2 so 
much praise— PLUS the many new features 
shown here. The price? — still just $29,951 
This astonishing price includes the complete 
JRT Pascal system on diskettes and the 
new expanded user manual. Not a subset, 
its a complete Pascal for CP/M." 

Faster and more reliable than ever, 
for beginner or expert, engineer or busi- 
nessman, JRT Pascal 3.0 provides a set 
of features unequaled by any other Pascal... 
or any other language. 




announcing 

newjm: 



OUR NO-RISK OFFER 

When you receive JRT Pascal 3.0, look 
it over, check it out, compare it with similar 
systems costing ten times as much. If you're 
not completely satisfied, return it— with the 
sealed diskettes unopened— within 30 days, 
and your money will be refunded in full. 
Thats right, satisfaction guaranteed or your 
money back! 

A JRT bonus: if you want to copy the 
diskettes or manual — so long as it's not for 
resa i e _that's ok. with us. Pass it on to your 
friends. But don't delay. Send the coupon or 
phone today and start enjoying the Pascal 
advantage; af $29.95, theres no reason 
to wait! 

Extended CASE statement 



Separate compilation 
of auto-loading 
external procedures 



Fast one-step compiler; 
no link needed 

Efficient compiler needs 
only 85K diskette space 



NEW Full support 
for indexed files 

NEW CRT screen 
formatting and 
full cursor control 

NEW Facilities for 
formatting printed 
reports 

Graphing 
procedures 

Statistic procedures 

14 digit BCD 
FLOATING POINT 
arithmetic 

True dynamic 
storage 

Advanced 
assembly interface 



NEW 

File variables 

and GET/PUT 

NEW 
Dynamic arrays 

Random files 
to 8 megabytes 
with variable 
length records 

64K dynamic strings 

Activity analyzer 
prints program use 
histogram 

No limits on procedure 
size, nesting or recursion 

More than 200 

verbal error messages 

Maximum program size: 
more than 200.000 lines 




NEW 175-page user manual 
with protective 3-ring binder 
and 5-1/4" or 8 diskettes 

NEW SEARCH procedure 
for fast table look-up 



...still 
only 



j?rfreo\L30 



$2995! 



Send 

to JRT SYSTEMS 

550 Irving Street/E1 
San Francisco, CA 94122 



or 

phone 



415/566-5100 



Name — 
Address . 
City 



State. 



Zip. 



□ Check □ C.O.D. D MasterCard D VISA 

(CA residents add sales tax Add $6 lor shipping outside North America ) 

Card # Ex P 



Heres my $29.95; please send me JRT Pascal. I understand that if I'm 

not completely satisfied, I can return it within 30 days— with the sealed 

diskettes unopened— for a full refund. (Allow 2-3 weeks for shipping.) 

I need the 5-1/4" diskettes for □ Apple CP/M; D Heath. Hard Sector; 

□ Heath. Soft Sector; D Northstar; Q Osborne; D Superbrain; Signature _ _— 

D Televideo; □ Xerox 820. I need O 8" SSD diskettes. "CP/M ,s a D.g.tal Research TM A S6K CP/M system ,s requ.red^ 

CIRCLE 189 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




SOI 



\l 



w\ww 




RX50K 




THE RAINBOW 

PERSONAL 

COMPUTER HAS 

DEPENDABILITY 

WRITTEN ALL 

OVER IT. 



IT'S THE COMPLETE SYSTEM FOR COMPLETE SOLUTIONS. 

Unlike other personal computers, the Rainbow 100" doesn't end 
with just a terminal and keyboard. It includes the printer, the disc drive- 
even the software. And you can get it all from Digital Equipment Corpora- 
tion, the second latest computer company in worldwide sales. You know 
you can depend on Rainbow for complete solutions. 

You can expect the best support, too. Digital has assembled the 
most complete service program in personal computers. W not only back 
up our hardware, we provide certified software, too. That's a combination 
you won't find anywhere else in the industry. 

Theirs more. Rainbow is the first personal computer 
that can switch automatically from the popular 8-bit software 
to the more powerful 
16-bit software. This, 
plus the Rainbow's 
ability to run the 
widely-used CP/1VT 
software, gives you 
tremendous flexibility 
in the type and 
number of programs 

you can use. 

Therefcno 

better personal computer for the individual who wants to increase his 
business productivity and simplify his life at the same time. 

Find out why Rainbow spells success for you. Call 1-800-DIGITAL 
for a fire information kit and the nearest place where you can see it 
in person. 



HDSODin 



emu ■■»»«« ftmryf — ^"r-'Tr-— '''—*""' 



Printers, continued. 




Daisywriler 2000: another winner. 



Rather than lauching into a rehash. We 
suggest you take a look back at the 92 
review to recall the major capabilities 
offered by this machine. 

The most special feature of the 84 is its 
overhead tractors, which greatly facilitate 
paper positioning. This tractor assembly 
is shipped as a part of the standard pack- 
age, but is left as an option to be installed 
by the user. If you will be feeding only 
cut sheets into the printer, you will not 
need the tractor assembly. But for con- 
tinuous forms, installation is absolutely 
necessary. It takes only a few minutes 
and is well explained in the documenta- 
tion. 

As with the 92, the ribbon is spool 
mounted, making a ribbon change some- 
what inconvenient. Paper feed can be 
from the back or through a slot on the 



Okidata Microline 84: overpriced? 



creative computing 

PRINTER PROFILE 

Printer: Microline 84 

Type: Dot matrix 

Feed: Pin/friction 

Speed: Up to 200 cps 

Interface: Centronics parallel 

Density: 9x9 

Graphics: Yes 

Character Sets: 10. even speaks 

TRS-80 
Buffer: 2K 
Logic Seek: Yes, bidirectional 

Summary: If only it were quieter and 

cheaper 
Price: $1395 
Manufacturer: 

Okidata Corporation 
1 1 1 Gaither Dr. 
Mount Laurel, NJ 08054 
(609) 235-2600 

















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Parlez-vous TRS-80? 

bottom of the printer. This is a good 
feature; it is always advantageous to offer 
the user a choice. A single sheet feeder is 
also an available option, at extra cost. 

The manual wins this year's "Most hum- 
orous Moment in Printer Documentation" 
award, in listing "TRS-80" alongside some 
other well-known languages (see Figure 

The machine is sturdily built in almost 
every respect, with the exception of the 




Under the hood. 



flimsy platen advance knob, which looks 
apt to break off in the user's hand. 

The Microline 84 is an extremely noisy 
machine. It rated a cacaphonous 75 deci- 
bel in our test, and had that raspy quality 
reminiscent of fingernails on a black- 
board. That, combined with the rather 
steep list price, held the Microline 84 
down to two stars. If it were to fall below 
$1100 and 70 dB, it could gain the other 
two. 

CIRCLE 408 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



48 



Integral Data System 
Prism 132 Printer 

One of the newest advances in the 
home computer field is the introduction 
of four-color printers. The Prism 132 
printer from IDS has the ability to make 
hardcopy screen dumps of hi-res color 
graphics in addition to producing high 
quality character printouts. 

The 132-column Prism we reviewed 
came equipped with two options which 
make it possible to use the color graphics 
capabilities of the printer. These options 
are the Prism Color board, and the Dot 
Plot Graphics chip. Combined, these two 
options boost the cost of the printer by 
$498. 

The Prism Color option gives you the 
ability to print standard text in any of the 
selectable fonts, using a four-color ribbon 
for highlighting or emphasis. The Dot Plot 
Graphics option can be coupled with 
Prism Color to allow you to print color 
dot-addressable graphics. Neither option 
is needed to run the Prism as a regular 
printer. 

The basic unit price of the Prism 132 
was recently raised to $1499 because the 
new printers have been enhanced by the 
addition of extra features. One reason for 
this increase is that new Prism print buf- 
fers have been enlarged to 3.4K. In ad- 
dition, IDS has made their Sprint speed- 
up option standard on all modes. The 
manufacturer claims that with the Sprint 
kit installed and selected, the printer can 
spit out 200 characters per second. This 
is quite an improvement considering that 
the old unit had a 1 10-150 cps ceiling. 

The Prism 132 offers both serial and 
parallel interfaces using a single DB-25 
connector located on the back of the 
system. When properly interfaced to a 
microcomputer, the Prism is simple to 
use and understand. The adjustable trac- 
tors can be set to accept paper from 3"to 
15 "in width making it possible to print on 
mailing labels, as well as the largest fan- 
March 1983 e Creative Computing 



lere are five good reasons 
to buy the new HP-86. 



And they're all 
solutions. 

• Spreadsheet 
analysis solutions. 

• Letter, memo, and 
report solutions. 

• Information manage- 
ment solutions. • Pre- 
sentation graphics 
solutions. • Data 
communications 
solutions. 

If you need 




more, check out our 
600 -page Software 
Catalog, for every- 
thing from accounting 
and finance to electri- 
cal engineering. 

Put that together 
with the modular config- 
uration of the HP-86, 
and you've got a 
machine designed 
to expand as your 
needs expand. 



And 500 good, 
reasons tobuy it 

now 



SAVE $500 on software with our 
three -for-one software sale through 
February 28. ^~—Sf\ m 

Our Personal Productivity V^auO/HQ 
Pac includes VisiCalc* 
PLUS, WORD /80, and 
FILE/80. It's a $750 value 
(suggested retail price), for 
only $250? 

VisiCalcPLUSis 

a powerful analytical tool for 
making quick work of work- 
sheets. And once you do your 
"what -if planning, you can 
turn the result into graphics 
immediately. (That's the PLUS.) 

WORD/80 software lets you 
create, type, print, lay out, reproduce, and 
store memos, letters, and reports. 

FILE/ 80 software lets you store and 



retrieve information quickly, add to your 
records, delete or modify them, and maintain 
lists easily. Without paperwork. 
All in all, this is an offer de- 
signed to meet your essential 
software needs. And it's the per- 
prrp/Q^Vl feet complement to the new HP- 
*VpOf 86, a personal computer we're 
really proud of. 

Ask your dealer or sales rep 
about the Personal Productivity 
Pac, and do some serious com- 
parison shopping. 
We're so convinced you'll prefer 
the HP-86, the software offer stands. 
Whether or not you buy the computer. 
For the authorized HP dealer or HP sales 
office nearest you, call TOLL-FREE 800- 
547-3400 (Oregon, Alaska, Hawaii: 
503-758-1010). 



Personal 
Productivity Pac 

A $750 value for S250. 



VniCalc i» a registered trademark ut Vim( awp. 
'Suggested retail price May vary outiide U.S. 



I "I ' V users with hearing or speech impairments, 
dial 503 -758-5566. 



For professionals on the move. 



HEWLETT 
PACKARD 

CIRCLE ISO ON READER SERVICE CARD 



(VI 



Printers, continued. 



The Proof is in the print-out 

What follows is a comparative look at the character sets of each 
of the printers we have reviewed. In some cases every printer 
font is shown. In others character sets may have been omitted. 



While comparisons such as these can be helpful in selecting a 
printer, some caution is advised. Samples have been reproduced 
at 100% of their actual size, but reproduction here necessarily 
alters their appearance slightly. 



Seikosha GP-250X 

9123436789 
0123436789 
8123456789 



< = >?8flBCDEFGH I..TKI MNOPQRSTI IVWXYZC^ T (5 a bed* f oh i Ik 1 r*n«p<ir <■-*■ i • ••■• 
<->**9flBCDEFGHI m MNOPQRSTUVWXYZCv^ Babcd^F^hJ IHiwrtpqr-stuw 
,' = >?©RBCDEFGH IJKt MN0P9RSTI IVWXYZI> T- <■ RbcdeFgh i I k 1 i*mopq r «t 1 1 ■■■• 



Microline 92 

IZI 123456789 
0123456789 
0123456789 



; < = >?CABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZII\: _C"abcdef gh i j klrnnopqrst uvw 
; < = > ?eOBCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZC\3 _eabcdefghijklrnnopqrstuvw 
; < = >?eOBCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZC\:^_C-abcdefghijklmr.opqrstuvw 



MP! PrintMate 99 



"#*%&' ( )* + , -./0 123456789 1 ; :: = >->@ABCDEFGHI JKLMNOPQRSTUVMXYZC \ ]"_*abcdef gh 

!"H*Zi'< )*+.-./0123456789::< = ^(?ABCDEFGHIJKLMN0PQRSTUUUXYZC\3*_-abcd e fghijH M nopqrstuvw 
'"mn)tV./0123456789: : <=>?l!ABCDEFGHIJhLHN0P^^ 



8510A Prowriler " 

"**'/•* *+, !3456789: ; <=>?SABCDEFGHI JKLMNOPQRSTl [\] A _ N abcde*gh 

' '***' ' 1123456789s ; <=>?^BCDEFGHI JKLMNOPQRSTUUJXYZCX] A _^abcde-f gh i 

"***: ■ *+ . -./0 123456789 : ; ;.= ?3ABCDEFGHI JKLl INOPQRSTUVUXYZ C \ ] A _" abede-fgh i j 



IDS 480 Microprism " 

"•$%& '()*♦.-. /0123456789 , <-> >©ABCDEFGHI JKLMNOPGRSTUVVXYZC \ 3* x «bcrJefflh 
qrstuvwxyzf! }~i "•#«%&- i )*+,-./ 01 23 4 56789 . < = > '»ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVVX 
abcdefghi j k Irnnopqrs t uvwxy z ( !)-■ I N #f%ft '<)*♦,- . /01234S6789: . <= > '©ABCDEFGH 



5CM TP-l 



0123456789:; = ?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[ ]_@abcdef ghi jklmnopqrstuw 

0123456789:; = ?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[ ]_@abcdef ghi jklmnopqrstuvw 

0123456789:; = ?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNO PQRSTUVWXYZ [ ]_@abcdef ghi jklmnopqrstuvw 
MP1 PrintMate IS0G " 



I ••%&'<>*♦.-. /012 34S6789: ;<-) ?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZC \ J * ' abede f g 
qrstuvwxyzC }~i • "i$%4 '()*♦.- . /012 3 456 789 : , <- > ?®ABCDEFGHIJKLMN0PQR5TUVV 
abcdefghi j klmnopqrs t uvwxy z i I )~B !"••%&' ()*+,- . /01 23456789 : , <=>?@ABCDEFG 



Daisy writer 2000 



!"#$%&'()*+,-. /0123456789:;<=>?§ABCDEFGHIJKLMN0PQRSTUVWXYZ[±] 2 _°abcdefghijklmno 
pqr stu vwxyzHf§ ! "#$%& *()*+,-. /01 23456789 : ; <=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMN0PQRSTUVWXYZ[ ± ] *_° 
abcdefghi jklmnopqrstuvvxyzHir§ !"#$%& '()*+,-. /0 1 23456789 : ;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMN0PQ 



Microline 84 

0123456789 
0123456789 
0123456789 



; < = > ?i?ABCDEF6HIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZC\3 _0abcdef gh i jklmnopqrst uv 
; < = > ?i?ftBCDEFGHIJKLMNOPORSTUVWXYZC\D^_eabcdefghijklmriopqrstuv 

; < = >?C-ftBCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZC\3-_C-abcdefghijklmnopqrstuv 

50 March 1983 c Creative Computing 



Prism 132 

0123*556789 ,< = , > ©AECDEFGH i JKI.MNOPQRSTUVWX Y Z I \3*_@abcdefghi j k 1 ronop q r s t u vw 

0123456789 ,< = > ? OABCDE FGH I JKLMNOPQRSTUVVX YZ C \ 3 '_9ibcdefghi j k 1 mno pq r s t u vw 

123456 789 j <-> ? SABCDE FGH I JKL.MNOFQRST U VWX Y Z [ \ 3 -.Sabcdefghi j k 1 mno p q r s t u vw 



Prism 132 

***** ALL. PRINTABLE ASCII CHARACTERS ***** .,,„_, . . ^ .... 

70ABCDEFCHI JKI_MNOPQRSTUMWXYZC\3 * .... * abcde-fgh :i. j k Imnopqi-is tUVWK y z CI .> ffl ■ » ■*. 

f uw ( 'Jy z ' C : >-«.»M*T ()«+.- ./01234S6789: ;< = >?BABCDEFGHIJKLMN0PQR^^UXYZC\3-_ 
^"r^drfgh^jS.^r.tu", !(!>-■• ■■**'*«■ C > *+ ; - / 0183456789 : ;<«>7©ABC 
3- ^kbcdef ghi jkl«nopqrstuuwx«z{ . 3 HI 



/»m»j 132 



pT D D y G F H GHrJ™So Z pQ^^ abe dV 

? 9 P> E *^L / O 1 2 3 45678 V: ;< = >?©ABCDEFGHiaKL MNOP 

+ ' „,' r I* { ~ ffl •"#$*&'()*+,- /0123456789: ; < = > ?9ABCDEFGHIJKLMN0PQRSTUVWXYZ[ \ 3 '_ 

^I , U^^lfi.r,lHlUMr.t."i.U)V| l . "#;**• C » •♦.-. /0123456789 : ;< = >^BC 
^'abcdefghijk lmnopqr s t uvwxyz « • > ■ 

Prism 132 

#£<-OC\3**CI >"£• <-*•«»* '***•«•<-*.•©■* *4tl**f» <.I«A' '«• &~ ** < -»**A* *«jsa~i $ 

<-*X0O* % a»ttfl#«<-««aO- *aeUBtt<-FX0AO**8att*a<-rH«AO*4aAU«»d§9« 



Silentscribe DP-9620A 




Qantex 7030(1 80 cps "Draft" mode) 
01'>-<4SA789:J<->^eAE<CDEHFGHIJKLMNC)F : '0F<STUVUXYZ[:\-J A ..e«bcdefc}hiJkli.mopqrstuv 

0i : >34S6789:;<->'eABCDEFGHIJKLMN0P0RSTUVU)XYZC\3*_§3bcdefc3hiJkl m nopqr S tuv 
01234567891 P<- >?eABCDEFGHI JKLMN0PQRSTU VUXYZC\3 «,83bcdef flhi Jklnmopgr stuv 

Qantex 7030 (150 cps "Compose" mode) 

01 234567891 ; <- >->@ABCDEFGHI JKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ C \ 3 *_@abcdef gh i jk lrnnopqr stuv 
01234567891 j <= s >T^ABCDEFGHI.JKLMNOPQRSTLIVWXYZ C\ D *_®abcdefgh i jk lrnnopqr stuv 
01234567891 <=> -'@ABCDEFGHI JKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ C \ 3 »_Qabcdef gh i j k lmncpgr stuv 




Qantex 7010 (37 cps "Dual pass" mode). State-of-the-art in dot matrix. 

8123456789- • <»>?«ABCDEPGHI JKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\r_«abcdefghi jklmnopqrstuv 

Sl23456789'<=>?SABCDEPGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZt\]-_eabcd 

0123456789= ;<=>?gABCDEPOHIJKLMNO PQRSTUVWXYZ[\]-_eabcdefghljklmnopqrstuv 

Siemens PTHO (Model 2712) 

• "tSXfc'O** - /01 23456789: ;<=>?aABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\] f^defgh 
"t«B ( )•♦ ' /01 23456789: ;<»>?aABCDEFGHI JKLMN0P0RSTUVMXYZC\3 *. 'abcdefghi 
#$X&(i»*^./01 23456789: ;< = >'aABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZC\]-_abcdefghl j 

March 1983 c Creative Computing 51 



Printers, continued. 




IDS Prism 132: very versatile. 



fold paper available. AH paper is loaded 
from the- rear, toward the very bottom. 
Like other printers which are fed from 
the back, the Prism has a tendency to 
wrap the printed paper into the loading 
slot unless you take care to drape it over 
the front of the unit. 

After hooking up the Prism to our 
Apple II + , we decided to make a color 
screen dump of a cartoon that had been 
submitted on a diskette. We simply loaded 
the binary screen file into memory and 
consulted the manuals to find the correct 
commands to activate the printer. 

In the four-color graphics mode the 
printhead starts on the left. It prints the 
first color on the ribbon, and then returns 
to the start of the same horizontal line. 
Once the printhead is repositioned, the 
ribbon is raised so that the next color to 
be printed is in front of the printhead. 
This cycle repeats until all four colors 



Anadex Silent scribe DP9620A: a smarty. 



creative computing 

PRINTER PROFILE 
Printer: Prism 132 
Type: Dot matrix 
Feed: Tractor 
Speed: Up to 150cps 
Interface: Serial/parallel 
Density: 24 x 9 
Graphics: Yes, four color 
Character Sets: 6 
Buffer: 1.5K 

Logic Seek: Yes, bidirectional 
Summary: A star for each color. 
Price: $1499 
Manufacturer: 

Integral Data Systems 
Route 13 

Milford, NH 03055 
(603) 673-9100 




have been printed: the paper is then 
advanced. 

It took only a few minutes for the 
printer to finish the entire medium-sized 
screen dump. We were impressed— the 
registration of the paper was so good that 
there were no gaps between lines of print. 
The colors all came out vividly and 
sharply. The Prism is such a convenient 
way to get "photos" of hi-res graphics 
screens, we had to remind ourselves that 
it can also function as a high-speed con- 
ventional printer. 

Prism printers have the ability to print 
150 cps. The characters are dot matrix 
with true descenders, and the matrix has 
a density of 24 x 9. The quality of the 
printed characters is very good— the dots 
are so close together that the letters 
almost appear to be fully-formed. When 
the Prism runs in draft (Sprint) mode, it 
can print over 200 cps, but quality is sac- 
rificed. 

Resident in the basic Prism printer are 
seven international character sets plus the 
standard U.S. character set. To select a 
character set other than the default, you 
can either reconfigure the printer with a 
jumper or change a parameter through 
software. 

Other specifications that you can con- 
figure through software include print den- 
sity, fixed and proportional spacing, justi- 

52 



fied text, intercharacter spacing, and line 
spacing. 

The Prism is well padded on the inside 
in an attempt to reduce the noise while 
printing. When running at full speed with 
all of the covers in place, the Prism emits 
a noise level of 68 dB. This is slightly 
above the average we found for other 
dot-matrix printers. 

The Prism 132 is a very versatile printer 
with many things going for it. The main 
appeal of the unit obviously is its ability 
to print four colors and hi-res dot-address- 
able graphics. If you have a need for 
computer generated charts or pictures. 



Pkaso Interface Card 

Lately we have been making extensive 
use of the Prism printer to obtain Apple 
11+ color hi-res screen dumps. None of 
this would have been possible without 
the aid of the Pkaso Apple interface 
card from Interactive Structures. 

The interface card allows you to use 
the dot-addressable color graphic fea- 
tures of a fully equipped IDS Prism 
printer. Although Integral Data Systems 
has yet to introduce their own Apple 
interface card. Interactive Structures 
has had the Pkaso card on the market 
for several months now. 

The Pkaso interface card has special 
features which similar products do not. 
According to the manufacturer, only the 
Pkaso has the ability to produce both 
low- and hi-res color screen dumps, all 
of which can be printed in a variety of 
shapes and sizes. The Pkaso printer 
interface is very impressive when you 
realize it can also handle gray-scale. 

The small Pkaso interface card for 
the Apple 11+ costs $175 and comes 
complete with a 4' cable, a disk of soft- 
ware, and a 52-page user's manual. A 
similar package for the Apple III costs 
$205. 



March 1983 e Creative Computing 



ANNOUNCING • 

CI 1220 

TWO MEGA-BYTE FLOPPY DISK SYSTEM FOR LSI- 11 BASED SYSTEMS 
DUAL DRIVE - DOUBLE DENSITY - DOUBLE SIDED 

• DEC RX02/RX01 COMPATIBLE 

• COMPATIBLE WITH LSI 11/2 OR LSI-11/23 

• DUAL WIDTH DMA CONTROLLER 

• BOOTSTRAP, DIAGNOSTICS PROVIDED, RACK MOUNT ENCLOSURE 

• 3 MONTH WARRANTY, PARTS AND LABOR 




TWO MEGABYTES FOR LESS THAN THE PRICE OF ONE. 

The CI 1220 is completely compatible with DEC operating systems using DEC RX03 protocol and DEC 
standard DY handler. Compatible with RX01/RX02 media, IBM 3740 format. Dual width controller operates 
at +5VDC @ 2.7A supplied from LSI- 1 1 backplane and is compatible with any Shugart interface floppy drive. 



DON'T ASK WHY WE CHARGE SO LITTLE, ASK WHY THEY CHARGE SO MUCH. 



€ 



Chrislin Industries, Inc. 

31352 Via Colinas • Westlake Village. CA 91362 • 213-991-2254 
TWX 910-494-1253 (CHRISLIN WKVG) 

CIRCLE 126 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




COMPUTER CONNECTION 

Special on Espon Cartridges 






Dont Judge A Computer 
By Irs Cover 

...II \nu wen in have j Microcomputer openuiiuj a 4 mm/ 

II sou were lo have j Hard |>,sk huill in 

II >nu wen 10 have a llopp) disk dim- huill in 

II y.u were la have an Ambri Phutphoi Monitor huill in 

II >ou had lhc final Hard Disk Operating System available 

The BT Hard Disk Modee hi Microcomputer 

Swing Mb a ha.sk I RS-KII Mudd III. add OM landon 411 I rack Dual »t ><«^^^^toUI. l«lf ■ 

Skied Disk Drive. 4»k „l Hiah<.radc M ( Mcmoiv. the lamoiis Holmes 
I nainccrin,! Disk t onlrollcr Svsicm. vviih Kcal lime ( kick, and lhc 
securuv ot H I I aUfpraacaammag, a mraa jhaniay a » lih|m»liu»»V 

I hen sve rcallv p.1 .larlcd. include a 4 M 11/ Module insiallcd lo make lhc 
M.idel III Microprocessor opcralc al ivvkv Ihe speed .il a slandaid Radio 
Shack M.Kiel III Abo include Ihe use of a Supcrdcnsc Disk Dnvelor CUra 
Hoppv d„k aoraaa Ihen have insljlle.l a Maid Disk Dnvc <w„,shcsici 
lechnoloo When ihe quant is raaQgund. ihe Maid Disk Dmccunun 
Ihe opcr.il mp sssiem and Becomes Ihe maslei Iprimarvl drive I he Maid 
I )isk has 411 limes lhc speed ol dala lian.l.-i as compared lo a noi nul lloppv 
disk ■ vvcll as conlainin* Ihe sioravic capasilv ol more lhan In siandaid 
llopps disk drives 

I ach ur.il is huill and lesled in our I on* Island. Sees \ork asscmMv plain 
and delivered lo vuur dealer complete vsilh a Dos Hus 411 Maid Disk 
Opcralina Sssiem which »c consklei lo have lhc- lines! Icaluies ol am 
Operating Sssiem availahk' 




AVAILABLE (ONMI.I RATIONS 

4 s S x Mevyhsle I ormaled Slorasx stasis no 

4 X 10 III Mcyahxlc I ormaled Sloravx x4|as IN) 

4 X 15 LS Mcgahxlc 1 ormaled Sloraae V4"*'!xiin 

\dd $.1)1111 Shipping A Handling 




D The Voltector 




□ 



lhc VOLTECTOR' plug-in pimcr 
conditioner adds the positive, high- 
performance surge protection ,ind 
filtering ih.ii most niaiiuiaciurcis 
have icii oui ol their equipment. 
■\iul. when computer manufacturers 
include protection it is usual!) not 
enough. I hex general!) safeguard 
their equipment tor "typical case" 
power line pollution, since II is 

uneconomic u design for "worst 
case" conditions. I he 
VOI lie I OK- protects sou. 
equipment against "worst ease" 
conditions, paving for itsell mans 
limes over b) reducing data loss 
and cost!) down lime. 

Printer Stands 

I nil the paper mess on youi 
computer desk Our printer 
stand allows your paper to 
oe led from undei the 
printer, making room foi ihe 
used papci to stack behind 
the print out ol the way. 

Regular Stand ( 1(10011)) S29 45 

Regular w shell (301)01 1) S44."5 

Large Stand (300020) S.V4. U 5 

Large w shell (.100021) S49^95 

large w slot (.100050) .. S4 UU 5 



□ Diskettes 



Ihe best lot I I SS"" >es. WSI Rated I lephant diskettes 
.lie nut onl) a great diskette, they're now al a great price!! 
Select the type lor youi computer, and SAVI ! 

Single Sided Single Densit) Soft J'/i S22.50 

Single Sided Double Densitx Soft $'/*' $26.50 

Double Sided Double Densit) Suit 5V S.12.50 

' Sided Single Dentil) Soil N" S27.50 

Sided Double Density Soli x" S.12.50 



Smgl 
Smgl 



\ iilleelnr 

.111112(1 «<i8..-.(l 

Naltl Strip Oml. -i(n) 

(11112111 *27.IHI 



IXiubk- Sided Double Densit) 

B.T. Hard 

We want wa- 






tt A Enmjmsv Depi. 7-c />,„/,■, /,„,,„„ h, ./,,„,„. 

KM CarhiUgH Rtmil /hn Suhjiti m ( lumxf 

Bohemia, X). 11716 V.K.V. Kcsiikwt U*/ /in 

(516) 567-/1155 (vtth-e) XM $20 ° shipping & ll an d tog 

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' \ineiican I \piess. ( arte Blanche. Diners 

" ' '"'"Pii^-s is a disisiini ,.| Hilcch I nicipnscs Inc ( luh. Master! aid and \ IS \ accepted 



CIRCLE 1 18 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Printers, continued... 




Qantex 7030: the Mercedes of matrix. 



this printer with the special options would 
be an excellent choice. The base price is 
a bit too high if you need only a conven- 
tional printer. Nevertheless, if you buy an 
IDS for its graphics capabilities, you need 
not purchase a separate printer specif- 
ically for text hardcopy. 
We rated it a four star value. 

CIRCLE 409 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Anadex Silentscribe 
DP-9620A 

An Office Workhorse 

The Silentscribe is easily the most 
impressive-looking printer we have ever 
seen. It looks like some sort of vehicle 
that is about to fly off the table and into 
deep space. But beauty is only shell-deep, 
you know. And with a list price of $1845, 



Siemens PT80/2712: nearly affordable. 



creative computing 

PRINTER PROFILE 

Printer: Silentscribe DP-9620A 
Type: Dot matrix 
Feed: Tractor 
Speed: Up to 200 cps 
Interface: Parallel/serial 
Density: 72 x 72 
Graphics: Yes 
Character Sets: 5 
Buffer: 1.5K 

Logic Seek: Yes, bidirectional 
Summary: Not so silent, but still high 
quality. 

Price: $1845 
Manufacturer: 

Anadex, Inc. 
9825 DeSoto Ave. 
Chatsworth,CA91311 
(213) 998-8010 



the machine has a lot to live up to. 

First there is this silence business. The 
Silentscribe measured in at 64dB, which 
is admittedly the quietest of all the con- 
ventional printers we tested. But 64 dB is 
not silence, nor quiet, nor even a low 
rumble. It is noise. When the phone rings 
next to Silentscribe, you'll want to turn 
the printer off. 

The Silentscribe is an extremely solid 
and well-built machine, giving the appear- 
ance of a unit with high reliability. It is 
also quite intelligent. In the self-test mode, 
it lists in binary the default configuration 
of all DIP settings. This is an advanced 
and very thoughtful feature. The Super- 
scribe will notify you of all switch settings 
as well as checking its own ROM and 
RAM. 

The machine is another bottom-only 
loader, necessitating a slotted stand, and 
making paper loading somewhat incon- 
venient. Tractor feed, once established, 
is rapid and sure. 

Print quality is quite good, approaching 
letter quality. There is easy access to all 
front panel controls, but the rear DIP 
switches are another story. They are 
recessed into narrow slots in the bottom 
rear of the printer— designed to be set 
once and then forgotten, I suppose. 

The buffer is only 1.5K, with an option 
to expand to 2K. This is surprisingly 
small. 

The Silentscribe is without a doubt a 
high quality machine, but for nearly 
$2000, one might have expected more (as 
we shall see). For that reason, we gave 
the unit a rating of two stars. 

CIRCLE 41 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



March 1983 c Creative Computing 



Quantex 7030 

Is It Live, or Is It Matrix? 

What's built like a tank, weighs 42 lbs., 
and proves that you can still find real 

55 



quality in an American-made product? 
That's easy: the Qantex 7030 printer. 
Sure, it lists for $1995, but what would 
you be willing to pay for a machine that is 
really built to take it, while producing 
state-of-the-art, truly letter quality dot 
matrix print at a rate of 37 cps? If we 
were shopping for a quality printer on 
which to heap some real abuse, this baby 
would be our choice. 




Qantex under the hood. 



Talk about metal. This printer makes 
use of metal. Remember metal? That's 
the stuff they had to use before there was 
plastic. The Qantex uses it, and uses it 
liberally. We have never seen a more 
solid machine. Its cover slams like the 
door of a BMW. 

Offering parallel and serial connection 
in our preferred Centronics and DB-25 
formats, the unit provides very clean print 
varying from 37 to 180 cps modes. The 
claimed 150 cps mode looks about as 
good as the 60 cps mode on other dot 
matrix printers. At 75 cps, we gained serifs 
and a very tight matrix. At a dual pass 37 
cps, we got a matrix nearly indistinguish- 
able from daisy wheel print. Examine it 
yourself. It is really quite impressive. 

All options are easily selected from the 
front or rear of the printer. There is 
relatively easy access even to the config- 
uration DIPs, which we found extremely 
refreshing. Paper can be loaded from the 
front or the bottom, very simply and 



^lMDEK...your guide to 



COLOR-I MONITOR 

260(H) X 300(V) line resolution • Bu.!t in 

speaker & audio amplifier • front mounted 

controls 



COLOR-II MONITOR 

High resolution 560(H) X 240(V) • RGB 
video input • 60 X 24 character display 

• 3 color intensity modulation 
for IBM 



MODEL 31 OA MONITOR 
Easy-view amber phosphor CRT • Com- 
posite video signal • 18 MH, bandwidth 
• 900 lines (center) resolution IBM-PC 
compatible 



MODEL DXV PLOTTER 

Economical X-Y coordinate plotter • 1 " 
X 1 4 ' plotting range • Centronics inter- 
face • ROM expandable • 4 pens, hold- 
ers and chart hold -downa included 




YOUR COMPATIBILITY CHART 



MORE COMPATIBILITY INTERFACES DUE SOON CHECK FACTORY! 



COMPUTER 


MONITORS 


PLOTTER 


3* MICRO- 




VIDEO-300 


VIDEO-310 


COLOR-I 


COLOR-II 


COLOR-IIA 


COLOR-HI 


COLOR-IV 


DISC DRIVE 


NOTES 


IBM-PC 




















* Special Cabling Required 


APPLE III 
APPLE II 


e 
e 




• 


* 


* 


* 


* 


e 




* Special Cabling or 
Converter Required 


ATARI 800 
VIC-20 


* 




* 












e 


* DVM Board Required 

* Opt Atari Cable Required 


TRS-80 

Osborne 

TI-89 


* 
* 


















* Opt VIC Cable Required 

* Opt TRS Cable Required 

* Opt Interface Required 


Commodore-64 


* 




* 














* Opt Tl Cable Required 
' Opt Commodore Cable Req 



innovative computing ! 



COLOR m: MONITOR 

Economical RGB input moi 

X 300(V) line resolution • 

liability 






COLOR-IV MONITOR 

Superi' 

< 24 charai 

•.096 co 
otors 



MODEL 300 MONITOR 

Greet 

berpho 1 





AMOISK-3 MICRO-FLOPPYDISK DRIVE 
Revolutionary 3 " Micro-Floppydisk drive & cartridges • 1 
Megabyte (unformatted) storage • Track-to-track compatible 
with 5'A " floppydisk drives • Built-in power supply • Hard 
plastic, protective floppydisk cartridge 



COMBINATION DIGITAL 
VIDEO MULTIPLEXER 

Makes Applell compatible with RGB mon- 
itors • Modes include Apple 40 charac- 
ter-line text. Apple high/tow resolution 
color graphics. 80 character-line text 
from vendor board (included) 



Amdek Corp. is dedicated to marketing quality compu- 
ter peripheral equipment to enhance the use ot popular 
personal computers. Our research & development staff 
keeps abreast of progress in computer techology and 
equipment and strives to offer you state-of-the-art ad- 
vances in peripheral equipment. 



Amdek products are distributed nationwide and in Cana- 
da through major distributors. And. we have factory- 
trained manufacturer's representatives ready to serve 
you in every major marketing area. Amdek offices are 
located in Chicago, Los Angeles & Dallas. 
Just circle the reader service number, or contact us to 
receive complete technical specifications on these 
Amdek products. 



2201 Lively Blvd. • Elk Grove Village, IL 60007 
(312)364-1180 TLX: 25-4786 



CIRCLE 106 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



1 



1 l\ 







I 



I 



WMfik 



A 



A 






A 



f 



w 




robot buddies tossing shotputs 



and a pleasant pastime tur 
faster, more intense, more deadly 
No more tossing back and forth. 
Throw it hard! Throw it fast! Trv jw 
it past your opponent! And still 
the game got tougher. The robots 
added a wall of moving neutrons 
and vwuiti t>iue laseis to .suuot trom 



ADOONEDOLLA 
• MASTERCAR 



e to protect the for e 
ehind them. They x 
ged their shotputs for de\as- 
ng energy balls. Survival tjok 
over for competition and exeicise. 
Each shot became a matter of life 
and death, no longer friendly fun. 
Faster, faster and faster yrt., they 
moved from side to side firing, 
blocking, and firing again, until 
too late. As the shots p< lelrated 



their force fields, their pow 
sources short-circuited and thi 
disintegrated. No more frien 
ly game of catch; it's no.. 
WALLWAR! Runs on 40K Atari 
800 disk. Available from your local 
computer store for $29.95 or order 
directly from: 

SIERRA ON-LINE 

Sierra On-Line Buildinq 

(Joarsegold. CA 93614 

(209) 683-6858 



nm 






CIRCLE 253 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Printers, continued... 



creative Gomputlnfi 

PRINTER PROFILE 

Printer: Qantex 7030 

Type: Dot matrix 

Feed: Tractor 

Speed: Up to 180 cps 

Interface: Centronics parallel/DB-25 

serial 
Density: 144 x 144 
Graphics: Yes 
Character Sets: 4 
Buffer: 4.7K 

Logic Seek: Yes, bidirectional 
Summary: State-of-the-art impact 
dot matrix. 

Price: $1995 

Manufacturer: 

North Atlantic Industries 
60 Plant Ave. 
Hauppauge. NY 11788 
(516) 582-6060 



straightforwardly. The cartridge ribbon is 
also easy to change. 

The 7030 is a tractor-only printer— 
which seems a shame in light of its incred- 
ible print quality capability. Its noise rate 
was measured at a tolerable 67 dB. 

The documentation is thorough and 
clear. Programming the printer is made 
easy. 

If you are looking for speed and high 
quality print in a high quality printer, 
look no further. The Qantex is exactly 
what you are looking for, assuming you 
can afford it. And it's made in the USA. It 
gets three stars. It will get another when 
it drops $400 in list price. 

CIRCLE 41 1 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Siemens PT80/271 2 

Its Time b Nearly Here 

You may have noticed that we have 
been using the phrase "under the hood" 
to caption photos of printer innards. The 
cover of the Siemens 2712 (nee" PT 80) 
truly opens up like the hood of a car. It's 
only fitting, too: the printer costs prac- 
tically as much as a car, listing for $3225. 
This price will surely drop— at least we 
expect it to— as ink jet printer production 
expands. 

When we first examined the print qual- 
ity of the Siemens unit, we were unim- 
pressed. The matrix seemed blurry and 
ill-defined. We then learned from the 
thorough documentation that the print- 
head must be cleared at the start of each 
printing session. This is accomplished 
very simply by allowing the self-test to 
run for a couple of minutes so the print- 
March 1983 c Creative Computing 



head jets can clear up, evening their flow. 
The print quality then improves dramat- 
ically, though it always remains recog- 
nizable as dot matrix. 

Rather than print quality, the really 
impressive things about the Siemens unit 
are its speed and its noise rate. At a 
staggering 270 cps. with a very quick 
linefeed, the unit registered 55 decibels. 
This represents a noise level of less than 
half that of nearly all the other printers 
we have examined. The sound is more 
like that of the windshield wipers in a 
Volkswagen than the sound of a micro- 
computer printer. 

The ink jet head itself is very easy to 
remove, though as one might expect, the 
ink can be somewhat messy. However the 
manufacturer states that the life of an ink 
cartridge is typically greater than or equal 




Siemens under the hood. 



A Truly Pretty Printer 



In July of 1982, Sanyo introduced a 
portable computer called the PHC- 
8000. It is a multi-featured handheld 
machine, aimed squarely at the data 
communications market. On a recent 
visit to Sanyo, I got a chance to look 
at it. along with some other goodies 
the company is readying for release. 

Among these was an utter jewel— a 
truly exciting new product. It was a 
printer prototype called the PHC- 
8000P, although I was warned that the 
model number might change soon. 
Granted it is remarkable enough that 
the PHC-8000P is an impact printer 
that will list for under $500. The really 
interesting thing about it is its diminu- 
tive size: a mere 12 x 7 1/2 x 2 1/4" 
(see photo). 

Although designed to complement 
the PHC-8000 handheld unit, the PHC- 
8000P will sport a Centronics-compat- 
ible parallel connector, for easy inter- 
facing to other microcomputers. I saw 
a working prototype smoothly handle 
8 1/2 x 11" single sheet bond paper, 
and produce letter quality print at a 
rate of 20 cps, which is a bit faster 




The PHC 8000-P is the smallest fully- 
formed character printer ever offered. 

than many full-size fully-formed char- 
acter printers. The unique, barrel- 
shaped plastic print head produced 
unerring character registration, though 
the printer proved a bit noisy during 
use. This is an understandable trade- 
off considering its extremely small 
size. 

With its incredible portability and 
very reasonable price, the Sanyo PHC- 
8000P may become one of the year's 
big contenders. It could usher in yet 
another revolution to an already fast- 
changing market. 




Yukio Sakaguchi. Project Engineer, 
and one of the designers of the unit. 
To his right is Arthur Shebar. Sanyo's 
national Sales Manager. 



The PHC 8000 is the handheld per- 
sonal computer that mates with the 
PHC 8000-P. although interfacing 
other machines will be possible. 



59 



Printers, continued... 




Ink-jet printhead. 



creative compatiRg 

PRINTER PROFILE 

Printer: PT 80 (Model 2712) 
Type: Inkjet 

Feed: Friction, holds paper roll at 
rear 

Speed: Up to an impressive 270 cps 

Interface: Parallel serial custom cable 

Density: 140 dots/inch horiz.. 

85 dots inch vert. 
Graphics: As an option 
Character Sets: 8 
Buffer: 2K with option for 8K 
Logic Seek: Yes. bidirectional 
Summary: A marvel of German 

precision. 
Price: $3225 
Manufacturer: 

Siemens Corporation 

240 E. Palais Rd. 
Anaheim. CA 92805 
(714)991-9700 



to 5.000,000 characters. That would mean 
the printhead would need replacement 
quite infrequently. 

As for the reliability of the unit, frankly 
we would feel a bit queasy laying out so 
much money for a technology so new. 
We had some problems getting the 
machine up and running— problems rang- 
ing from an ill-fitting power cord to faulty 
interfacing information from customer 
support. Though these problems were 
solved very quickly, the indication is that 
the bugs aren't totally out yet. We guess 
that at press time only about ten people 
in this country, perhaps fewer, were truly 
qualified to service the Siemens unit. That 
is not enough of a support organization to 
satisfy us. 

Ink jet technology is nonetheless here 
to stay, and the Siemens PT80/2712 
printer will probably be with us for quite 
a while as well. It certainly runs like a 
charm now. It merits a two star rating, rj 

CIRCLE 41 2 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Printer 



Anadex 

DP-9620A 

Silentscribe 



Price 



Type 

Density 



$1845 



C. Itoh 

8510 

Prowriter 



Daisywriter 

2000 



$795 



$1395 



IDS 480 



IDS Prism 
132 



MDI 99G 



MPI 150 G 



Okidata 
Microline 84 



$799 



Dot 
Matrix 
13 X 9 



Dot 
Matrix 
7X9 



Daisy 
Wheel 



$1499 



S749 



$995 



$1395 



Okidata 
Microline 92 



Qantex 
7030 



Seikosha 
GP-50X 



Siemens 
PT-80 



Smith Corona 
TP-1 



$699 



$2995 



Dot 

Matrix 

24 X 9 

Maximum 



Dot 

Matrix 

24 X 9 

Maximum 



Dot 

Matrix 



Dot 

Matrix 
11 X9 



Dot 

Matrix 
13 X 17 



Dot 
Matrix 

13 X 17 



Interface 

and 
Connector 



Multiple 
Serial and 

Parallel 
(Centronics 
and DB25) 



Parallel 
(Centronics) 



Serial and 
Parallel 

(Custom 
Cable) 



Serial and 
Parallel 
(DB-25) 



Feed 



Tractor 



Tractor 

and 
Friction 



Friction 
(Tractor 
Option) 



Pin 



Serial and 
Parallel 
(DB-25) 



Serial 

or 

Parallel 

(Centronics 

or DB-25) 



$499 



$3225 



$895 



Dot 

Matrix 

24 X 18 



Dot 

Matrix 



Serial 

or 

Parallel 

(Centronics 

or DB-25) 



Centronics 
Parallel 



Tractor 



Pin 



Pin 



Tractor 

and 
Friction 



Centronics 
Parallel 



Multiple Serial 

and Parallel 

(Centronics 

at DB-25) 



Ink 
Jet 



Daisy 
Wheel 



Multiple Serial 

and Parallel 

(Centronics and 

5 Pin DIN) 



Multiple Serial 

and Parallel 
(Custom Cable) 



Specify Serial 

or Parallel 

(Centronics) 



Pin 



Tractor 



Pin 



Friction 



Friction 



Claimed 
Speed 



120-200 
cps 



120 cps 



20 cps 



1 10 cps 



150 cps 



100 cps 



150 cps 



200 cps 



160 cps 



180 cps 



50 cps 



270 cps 



12 cps 



60 



March 1983 e Creative Computing 





















Graphics 


Maximum 
Width 


Character 
Sets 


Descenders 


Buffer 


Logic 
Seeking 


Pitch 


dB at 
1 Meter 


Overall 
Rating 


Yes 


132 columns 

at 10 cpi 

15" 


5 


Yes 


2K 


Yes 
Bidirectional 


10 to 16.4 
cpi 


64dB 


•• 


Yes 


80 columns 

at 10 cpi 

9 1 /,' 


6 


Yes 


2K 


Yes 
Bidirectional 


6 to 17 
cpi 


69dB 


*••* 


No 


132 columns 

at 10 cpi 

15" 


Replaceable 
Wheels 


Yes 


16K 

(48K 

Option) 


Yes 
Bidirectional 


10 or 12 
cpi 


68dB 


••* 


Yes 


132 columns 

at 16.8 cpi 

9%* 


3 


Yes 


1.4K 


Yes 


10 to 16.8 
cpi 


66dB 


*•• 


Yes 


132 columns 

at 10 cpi 

15" 


8 


Yes 


1.5K 


Yes 

Bidirectional 


10 to 16.8 
cpi 


69dB 


•••• 


Yes 


132 columns 
at 17 cpi 


2 


Yes 


IK 


Yes 


10 to 17 
cpi 


71dB 


*** 


Yes 


132 columns 

at 10 cpi 

15" 


5 


Yes 


2K 


Yes 


10 to 17 
cpi 


69dB 


• •» 


Yes 


132 columns 

at 10 cpi 

15" 


4 


Yes 


2K 


Yes 

Bidirectional 


10 to 17 
cpi 


75dB 


•• 


Yes 


132 columns 
at 17 cpi 

9%" 


4 


Yes 


2K 


Yes 
Bidirectional 


10 to 17 
cpi 


72dB 


*••• 


Yes 


132 columns 

at 10 cpi 

15" 


4 


Yes 


4.7K 


Yes 
Bidirectional 


10 to 17.1 
cpi 


67dB 


• »• 


Yes 


80 columns 

at 10 cpi 

9%" 


1 


Yes 


480 
Bytes 


Yes 
Bidirectional 


10 

cpi 


69dB 


•* 


Yes 


132 columns 

at 10 cpi 

15" 


8 


Yes 


2K 


Yes 
Bidirectional 


10 to 16.5 
cpi 


55dB 


•* 


No 


126 columns 

at 10 cpi 

15" 


Replaceable 
Wheels 


Yes 


120 
Bytes 


Yes 


10 or 12 

Pitch Model 

Available 


71dB 
1 


•• 





















March 1983 c Creative Computing 



61 






iixxfrffipooy^rap 1 





tttlTKS. 



<T> 




I 



REWRITING 



THEM AS FAST AS 



At the rate we're going, 
we'll have these pages 
filled by 2083. And by 
2084, people will be 
clamoring for the next 
Infocom creation. 

We hate to disappoint our 
public. So we keep you waiting. 
Because while the software facto- 
ries are cranking out arcade game 
after arcade game, pulpy adven- 
ture after trite fantasy, we're 
writing and rewriting, honing and 
perfecting. Before a single person 
enters one of Infocom's worlds, 
it must be crafted into a living, 
riveting, definitive experience. 



WE CAN! 

Judging from the public's reac- 
tion, it's worth the wait. For 
instance, Creative Computing 
welcomed DEADLINE'" as 
"thoroughly engrossing and real- 
istic," while a Softalk readers' 
poll recently voted ZORK'" I and 
ZORK II the most popular adven- 
tures of 1981. 

And now, for the moment, your 
wait is over. ZORK III, your final 



step in the underground 
trilogy, and STARCROSS,'" 
an exploration of a new 
dimension in science fiction, 
are ready for you. 
Look at them up there, 
the little worlds of Infocom. As 
our universe expands, compan- 
ions will come to help fill that vast 
expanse of white space. Till 
then, they'll continue to stand 
alone as the best of all possible 
worlds. 

inracom. 

55 Wheeler Street. Cambridge, MA 02138 



Infocom's worlds are available for Appier Atari,* IBM, TRS-80," Commodore, NEC, Osborne, CP/M,* and DEC." 

Apple is a registered trademark o( Apple Computer. Inc. Atari is a registered trademark of Alan. Inc. TKSKn is a mfbured itidemark of Tandy Corporation. 
CP'M is a registered trademark of Digital Research. Inc. DEC is a trademark of Digital Equipment Corporation. 



Quadram MicroFazer 
Data Buffer 



— 



creative 
computing 
equipment 
evaluation 



The Quadram MicroFazer is a self-con- 
tained data buffer that connects between 
a computer and a printer. The Micro 
Fazer receives data from the computer at 
a high speed (up to 4000 characters per 
second). It stores these data in its own 
memory, then feeds the data to the printer 
as the printer can handle them. This buf- 
fering action means that you need not tie 
up your computer while printing a lengthy 
document. 

Time Saving 

Does the MicroFazer really save time? 
You bet. An article written in-house for 
Creative Computing is either transcribed 
by a secretary from a dictation tape on a 
word processor or written directly on one. 
This first draft is then corrected by the 
author and printed out a second time. It 
is then routed around to the other editors 
for comments, changes, and corrections. 
Following that process, it is printed out 
again. 

One article I wrote recently was 4178 
words long. A double-spaced printed 
version ran 17 pages and took 1 1 minutes 
and 40 seconds to print (about 40 seconds 
per page) on an Epson MX-80 printer. Do 
the arithmetic and you will find that this 
is a print speed of about 44 characters 
per second, slightly over one-half of the 
rated 80 cps speed of the Epson. We 
found this differential true across the 
board in our printer evaluations. Hence, 
speeding up the printing process may be 
more worthwhile than published figures 
might lead you to believe. 

In any event, the 4178-word document 
was transferred to the MicroFazer in 
about 15 seconds. The computer was then 
no longer occupied with the printing pro- 
cess and was free to do something else. 
On the three printouts of this article, the 
MicroFazer saved 35 minutes of computer 
time, a significant saving indeed. 

The computer time necessary for print- 
ing with and without MicroFazer is in a 
ratio of about 46:1 with Epson and other 
dot matrix printers in the 80 cps speed 
range. The savings are proportionately 
greater with slower printers and less with 
faster ones. 



David H. Ahl 



Hardware and Installation 

The MicroFazer uses a custom LSI chip 
and up to eight 64K bit RAM memory 
chips on a single board. It is possible to 
purchase the MicroFazer with just one 
chip installed (8K bytes) and then upgrade 
it with more memory later on. Quadram 
supplies versions of the MicroFazer with 
8K. 16K. 32K. 48K. and 64K. You should 
choose a version with enough memory to 
handle the longest documents you nor- 
mally write. 

MicroFazer may be plugged directly 
into Centronics-compatible printers. You 
simply unplug the cable connected to the 
printer, plug the MicroFazer cable into 
the printer, and plug the computer cable 
into the MicroFazer. 

If the printer you are using is not 
Centronics-compatible or does not use a 
G-520 36-pin connector, you will have to 
make or purchase modified cables. A 
block diagram of the MicroFazer in- 
cluding all connector pin designations is 
in the manual. 

Power is supplied to the MicroFazer 
either directly from the printer or from 
an external 9v power supply. Some print- 
ers have power available on pin 18 while 



others, including the Epson series, do 
not. 

The manual includes a simple modifi- 
cation which allows Epson MX series 
printers to get power for the MicroFazer. 
You must remove the bottom cover of 
the printer, remove the top printed circuit 
board, and run a jumper from one of the 
resistor pins to connector pin 18. It is a 
simple modification but, unfortunately, 
voids the Epson warranty. If you don't 
want to do this you can. of course, use 
the external supply. 

An external power supply is not fur- 
nished by Quadram but one can be pur- 
chased in most electronic outlets for $5.00 
or $6.00. 

The MicroFazer comes in two case 
styles, free-standing and snap-on. The 
snap-<in unit measures a compact 3.5" x 
7" x 1" while the free-standing one is 
slightly larger. 5.5" x 8" x 2". The snap-on 
unit bolts to the back of the printer. It has 
just one external control, a reset button. 
It also has a red LED which indicates 
whether it is ready to receive data. An 
internal slide switch is used to choose 
between internal and external power. 

The free-standing unit also has a reset 
button, ready indicator, and external 
power supply switch. In addition, it has 
an LED which indicates an error con- 
dition (cable not plugged in. printer not 




March 1883 e Creative Computing 



Radio /hack 
Educational 

Software 

Catalog for 

1983 




Enlighten Your Students With 
Our History and Reading Programs 

History Comes Alive. Radio Shack's History of Technology 
packages give students an understanding of technological 
achievements through the use of colorful graphics, text, 
sound effects and recorded speech. Each package includes 
four lessons with student interaction and feedback messages. 
The 1 6K TRS-80 Color Computer, a TV and cassette recorder 
are required. 

Pioneers in Technology (Cat. No. 26-2624, $94.95) includes 
The Age of Flight, Space Exploration, The Electric Car, and 
History of Computers. Inventions That Changed Our Lives 
(26-2625, $94 95) includes Edison's Electric Inventions, Bell 
and the Telephone, The Story of Railroads, and The Age of 
Television. 

Complete Classroom History Unit Our Basic Illustrated His- 
tory of America Learning Unit (26-2645, $299, available 1st 
quarter, '83) includes twelve illustrated books on American 
history starting with The New World and ending with 
America Today, as well as a read-along audio tape and 
a computer activities diskette for each book. The TRS-80 
AUTHOR I Lesson Presentation Package (26-2707) and a 
32K TRS-80 Model III disk system are required. 

Tutorial Lessons in Sentence Skills. CARD. L Sentences 

(26-2603, $199) is 
adapted from the 
Philadelphia City 
Schools' Computer 
Assisted Reading De- 
velopment CAI Pro- 
gram. It covers 
sentence recognition, 
relationships, order- 
ing, and labeling. Pre- 
and post-tests in- 
cluded. Pre-tests also 
on a diagnostic 
diskette. TRS-80 
AUTHOR I Lesson 
Presentation Pack- 
age (26-2707) and a 
48K Model III disk 
system are required. 




Teach the A-B-C's! AlphaKey" 1 (26- 1718, $39.95) helps chil- 
dren 4 to 6 years old learn the alphabet and computer key- 
board. Requires a 16K Level II or Model III BASIC TRS-80. 

Unique Reading Series Motivates Students 

Radio Shack's High Motivation Reading Series (HMRS) is 
based on motivational reading materials for levels 4-6 using 
an illustrated format. Four student readers and a read-along 
audio tape accompany the program. The computer measures 
comprehension in several skill areas, such as understanding 
the main idea, sequence of events, details, and separating fact 
and opinion. 

Spelling and vocabulary exercises based on words from the 
story are also included in Model III versions. These exercises 
are repeatable — each session randomly selects a new se- 
quence of problems from a large pool of possible words. 
Program requires TRS-80 MicroPILOT'" (26-2718 for 
Model III; 26-2205 for Model I). 

The HMRS Student Records System (26-2521, $29.95 fori 
Model III; 26-2508, $24.95 for Model I) can be used with the 
packages listed below to keep a record of student activity | 
scores on disk. With optional printer, score files can be printed. 

Model III HMRS packages require a 32K TRS-80 Model III disk I 
system. Titles are: HMRS Charles Lindbergh/Amelia Earhart 
(26-2513, $74.95), HMRS The Hound of the Baskervilles] 
(26-2514, $69.95), 
HMRS Dracula 
(26-2515, $69.95), 
HMRS Moby Dick 
(26-2516, $69.95), 
HMRS The Beatles 
(26-2517, $69.95) 
and HMRS 20,000 
Leagues Under the 
Sea (26-2518, 
$69.95). Model I 
HMRS packages re- 
quire a 32K Model I 
lower-case disk sys- 
tem. Titles are: HMRS 
Dracula (26-2502, 
$59.95) and HMRS 
Moby Dick (26-2503, 
$59.95). 





Color LOGO 

Our Color LOGO programming lan- 
guage is designed to help students 
grasp fundamental programming 
concepts. Through manipulation 
of "turtle" graphics, students learn 
to write simple programs. The 
computer becomes a friendly 
learning tool, and students gain in- 
sight into advanced concepts. Chil- 
dren under reading age can use a 
"doodle" mode to create graphics. 
A "hatch" mode creates multiple 
turtles that can run separate pro- 
grams simultaneously. Our Disk 
Color LOGO (26-2721, $99) re- 
quires a 32K Extended BASIC 
Color Computer and disk drive. 
The Program Pak m Color LOGO 
(26-2722, $49.95) requires a 16K 
TRS-80 Color Computer. Use your 
own color TV with either version. 



We Make Courseware Development Easy 

Our authoring systems make it simple to create quality 
courseware. No programming knowledge is required. 

Color PILOT lets you mix text and graphics for attractive 
screens. It features a built-in line editor and easy one-letter 
commands. Disk Color PILOT (26-27 10, $79.95) requires a 
32K TRS-80 Color Computer disk system. Tape Color PILOT 
(26-2709, $59.95) requires a 16K TRS-80 Color Computer. 
Use your own TV with either. 

TRS-80 MicroPILOT" is a command-oriented language that 
lets you create your own courseware or adapt it from any 
suitable curriculum. Model I TRS-80 MicroPILOT (26-2205, 
$99.95) requires a 32K TRS-80 Model I disk system. Model III 
TRS-80 MicroPILOT (26-2718, $119.95) requires a 32K 
TRS-80 Model III disk system. 



TRS-80 AUTHOR I (26- 1 727, $ 149.95) is a screen-oriented 
authoring system with full-screen editing, graphics and auto- 
matic score-keeping option. Sample lessons included. A 32K 
Model I or III disk system is required. 

TRS-80 AUTHOR I Lesson Presentation Package (26-2707, 
$64.95) presents lessons that have been created using TRS-80 
AUTHOR I. A sample lesson is included on diskette. (Not 
required if you have TRS-80 AUTHOR I). A 32K Model I or III 
disk system is required 

Quick Quiz: A Mini-Authoring System (26- 1 728, $39.95) 
makes it easy for teachers to create, store, and give multiple- 
choice tests using a TRS-80. It provides a pre-designed 
multiple-choice format for typing up to 40 questions with four 
answer choices per question. Scores can be printed or stored 
in a disk file for later review. A 32K TRS-80 Model I or III disk 
system is required. 



Our Education Management Systems Make Your Tasks Easier 



CHAMPS"" (26-2703, $149.95) lets you store and analyze 
football scouting information on your opponents' offense. 

Designed for high 
school and college 
levels. CHAMPS 
prints a variety of 
charts and statistical 
reports. You can get 
comprehensive an- 
swers to specific ten- 
dency questions in 
seconds. Includes ten 
CHAMPS Scouting 
Manuals. Ten Addi- 
tional Scouting 
Manuals (26-2708, 
$39.95) are also 
available. Requires 
48K Model I or III 
disk system and 132 
column printer. 




REKORD Planner is a record-keeping system you can person- 
alize to fit your own needs! Use REKORD Planner to file 
student data, quickly 
locate and print out 
student and school in- 
formation, even gen- 
erate reports. A 
program and tutorial 
diskette plus sample 
formats are included. 
Choose from Admin- 
istrator's Version 
(26-2725. $499), 
Counselor's Version 
(26-2726, $499) and 
Special Programs Ver- 
sion (26-2727, 
$499). A 48K TRS-80 
Model III disk system 
is required. 







The Versatile 
Network 3 

The Network 3 Control- 
ler (26-1212, $599) 
enables educators to 
design a Shared Learn- 
ing System of up to 16 
non-disk Model III stu- 
dent stations connected to a disk-equipped "host" system. 

Student stations access the disk drives and printer of the 

teacher's host system, providing them with most of the same 

disk features that make a disk-equipped computer so power- 
ful. A Network 3 Shared Learning System is not only highly 

cost-effective, but it eliminates the need for close supervision. 

And an optional line printer attached to the host system lets 

students get printouts without teacher assistance. Network 3 

is designed for use with the educational software packages 

indicated in this catalog by an asterisk (*). Other business or 

application packages may not be suitable for use with 

Network 3. 

Network 3 Operating Software (26-2775, $ 1 49) supports the 

Network 3 host and its student stations with many of the 

capabilities of TRSDOS and Disk BASIC. It permits student 

stations to SAVE and LOAD programs directly to and from the 

host disk, and LUST and LPRINT to the host printer Printer 

access requests are "spooled" at the host until the printer is 

free, so pupils can move on to the next project without delay 

Radio Shack Gives You a Variety of Helpful Educational Resource Materials 

Our TRS-80 Educational Software Sourcebook (26-2756, 
$4.95) is a special edition of the TRS-80 Software Sourcebook. 
Vendor-furnished listings include descriptions of programs, 
plus user site references. 

The TRS-80 Microcomputer Infonnation Handbook for Edu- 
cators (26-2757 , $2.50) describes what microcomputers are 
and how they can be used in classrooms. 

Radio Shacks Proposal Writing Guide (26-2754, $9.95) is a 
guide for educators seeking funding from an outside source 
for computer-related education projects. 



Network 2 
Saves You Time 

Radio Shack's Network 
2 Controller (26-1211, 
$499) lets teachers 
connect up to 16 non- 
disk student stations to 
a single "host" com- 
puter using the cassette ports. The teacher can up- and down- 
load programs to these student stations simultaneously It 
requires a Model I or III host computer with disk drive and up 
to 1 6 Model I or III stations, or a Color Computer host with disk 
drive and up to 16 Color Computer stations. All cables are 
included. 

Radio Shack Has a Complete Selection 
Of RS-232C Cables and Extenders 

We have an assortment of cables and accessories for the 
Network 3 (or other RS-232C serial requirements). Our 
Extended RS-232C Cables allow great flexibility Round cable 
lengths include: 10-fi. (26-1490, $29.95). 25-ft (26-1491, 
$39 95), 50-/7. (26-1492, $54.95) and 100-ft. (26-1493. 
$89 95). The RS-232C Cable Extender (26- \ 495, $29 95) lets 
you customize cable lengths The Model III RS-232C Cable 
Extender (26-1497, $17.95) allows use of round RS-232C 
cables with Model III. 



Basic Computer Literacy: Computers Past and Present (26- 
2755, $9.95) illustrates the history of computers. 

Careers in Computing (26-2758, $130) contains a filmstrip, 
spirit masters, 30 student manuals and more Additional 
Student Manuals (26-2759, $ 1 each) are available. 

My TRS-80 Likes Me (26-275 1 , $2 50) is a teacher's guide to 
helping elementary students understand and enjoy BASIC. 

Number Patterns (26-2752, $2.50) shows how to introduce 
sequences and series in an enjoyable way using computers 



We Offer a Complete K-8 Math Series 
-Including Extras That Save You Time! 

lur K-8 Math Series is ideal for use as a supplement to regular 
|assroom instruction in Kindergarten through eighth grades, 
lis series has been designed by professional educators, and 
as been extensively field-tested in the classroom. Immediate 
ledback is given for correct and incorrect answers. Each 
Vogram includes lesson summaries and a K-8 Math Cross- 
leference to five of the most commonly-used math basals. 

|he Radio Shack K-8 Math Program, Vol. I ( * 26- 1 7 1 5, $ 1 99) 

rovides randomly generated drill and practice problems in 
lumber concepts, addition, subtraction, multiplication and 
|ivision. It features student placement, skill building and test 

nodes, plus automatic promotion and demotion. A 16K 
level II or Model III BASIC TRS-80 is required. 

[he K-8 Math with Student Management. Vol. I (*26- 1725, 

1 1 99) combines the K-8 program with a student management 
apability to monitor promotions and demotions, and allow 
sr teacher review of scores. It also starts each student in the 

Ippropriate lesson each session. A 32K TRS-80 Model I or III 

lisk system is required. Printer is optional. 

The K-8 Math Worksheet Generator (26-2 1 62 , $99.95) prints 
/orksheets and answer sheets from K-8 Math lessons. You 

Ian print multiple copies of identical worksheets or work- 

[heets with different problems at the same difficulty level. 
Worksheets can be saved on disk for later use or editing. A 

^2K TRS-80 Model I or III disk system and TRS-80 line printer 

|ire required. 

Ldvanced Programs for Secondary Math 

Xir Essential Math Program. Vol. I and //are drill and practice 
urograms for grades 7-12. They are designed to reinforce 

lath concepts introduced by the teacher. Both have been 
thoroughly field-tested. Each gives immediate feedback for 
porrect and incorrect answers, and includes placement mode, 
and promotion and demotion. Both require a 16K Level II or 

/lodel III BASIC TRS-80. 

zntial Math. Vol. /(*26- 1 7 16, $ 199) includes exercises in 
addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and number 
concepts. 

ential Math. Vol. // ('26-1719, $199) covers fractions, 
decimals and percents, and pre-algebra concepts. 

|Euc//'d Geometry Tutor ('26-1724, $39.95) allows students 
Ito practice constructing proofs using nine basic postulates of 
(Euclidean Geometry It was developed by a high school ge- 
|ometry teacher and tested extensively in the classroom. The 
(program consists of four modes: automatic mode completely 
I illustrates a proof for the student; practice and quiz modes 
Iguide the student in constructing a proof; and a test mode 
I monitors and checks a student's proof. Teacher's manual pro- 
Ivides exercises covering a wide variety of problems. The 
program requires a 16K Level II or Model III BASIC TRS-80. 

The following are additional Computer Assisted Instruction, 
simulation, problem-solving, or tutorial programs for the sec- 
ondary student: 

Advanced Graphics ('26-1714, $39.95) gives practice in 
analyzing equations, and plots graphs of functions and polar 
and parametric equations. 

Vector Addition ('26-1720, $39.95) illustrates and plots 
components and sums of student-provided vectors. 

Interpreting Graphs in Physics: Position and Velocity vs. Time 
('26-1721. $39.95) poses graph-related questions in 
physics. 




Graphical Analysis of 
Experimental Data 
('26-1722, $39.95) 
plots data pairs that 
the student inputs. 

Investigations in 
Integral Calculus 
('26-2600, $39.95), 
graphs and computes 
areas of functions. 

Plane Analytic Geom- 
etry ('26-2602, 
$39.95), generates 
problems with em- 
phasis on straight 
lines as well as conic 
sections. 

Number Theory ('26-2613, $69.95) includes definitions, 
examples, and exercises on number theory concepts. 

Matrices. Determinants, and Simultaneous Equations 
('26-2620, $49.95) generates problems related to simple 
matrix algebra. 

Quadratic Equations ('26-2623, $49.95) covers coefficient 
recognition, discriminate evaluation, type of roots, etc. 

Each of the above programs requires a 16K Level II or 
Model III BASIC TRS-80. 

Learning in an Electronic Chemistry Lab 

The TRS-80 Chemistry Lab uses imaginative graphics and a 
series of mathematical equations to simulate chemical reac- 
tions that occur under actual laboratory conditions. Students 
control variables in experiments in order to see the changing 
results. Experiment topics in- 
clude Kinetic Theory, Charles' 
Law, Boyle's Law, Titration, 
Conductivity and Solubility 
Each package includes an in- 
structor's manual and 25 stu- 
dent experiment books. The 
instructor's manual offers sug- 
gested areas for emphasis and 
methods of presentation. Stu- 
dent experiment books include 
topical background material on 
each experiment, instructions 
for using the programs, plus 
worksheets for use in summa- 
rizing experiment results. 

TRS-80 Chemistry Lab. Vol. lis available for the TRS-80 III/I 
( ' 26-2609, $ 1 99, 1 6K Level II or Model III BASIC) and for the 
TRS-80 Color Computer (26-2626, $199, 16K Color Com- 
puter and cassette player). 

Additional Student Experiment Books (26-2666, $3 each) are 
available for the TRS-80 Chemistry Lab, Vol. I. 

Sharpen Your Students' 10-Key Skills 

Our Numeric Data Entry Practice (26-2601 , $39.95) is a 25- 
lesson practice course to help students develop speed and 
accuracy in the 10-key entry of numeric data. Using the 
TRS-80 standard numeric keypad, students "key in" num- 
bers, and the computer graphs and records performance. It's 
an ideal business education program. A 32K TRS-80 Model I 
or III disk system is required. Printer is optional. 
'Network 3 compatible 





Radio Shack's Computer Education Series 



These Courses in 
BASIC Programming 
are complete class- 
room packages. Each 
package includes a set 
of overhead transpar- 
encies, a teacher's man- 
ual with instructions 
and answers, and 25 
student workbooks. 
Each of the ten lessons 
has five parts — 
overview, objectives, note-taking guide, quick quiz and 
hands-on computer activity. Hands-on experience helps 
reinforce important programming concepts, principles and 
techniques. 

Part 1: Introduction to BASIC (26-2150, $220) introduces 
students to the TRS-80 and BASIC language. 
Additional Student Workbooks for Part I (26-2151, $3.50 
each) are available. 

Part 2. BASIC Programming (26-2 1 52, $260) continues the 
concepts introduced in Part 1 . Topics include arrays, memory 
management, string manipulation, and more. 
Additional student Workbooks for Part 2 (26-2153, $4.50 
each) are available. 

Part 3. Advanced BASIC (26-2154, $260) introduces the 
INKEYS statement, ASCII character set, action graphics, cas- 
sette data files, mathematic and trigonometric functions, and 
multi-dimensional arrays. 

Additional Student Workbooks for Part 3 (26-2155, $4.50 
each) are available. 



NOTE: Software not included in the above series. Student activities 
are designed for hands-on experience with Level II or Model III 
BASIC. 




Computer Discovery* 
introduces comput- 
ers, their evolution 
and impact on soci- 
ety and basic pro- 
gramming concepts. 
Each includes interac- 
tive exercises, 25 
workbooks, and in- 
structor's manual. 

Computer Discovery 
for Junior High 
(26-2630, $189.95) 
requires a disk-based 
32K Model III. Addi- 
tional Workbooks 
(26-2631, $4.25 
each) are available. 

Computer Discovery for Senior High (26-2632, S189.95J 
requires a 32K TRS-80 Model III disk system. Additiona 
Workbooks (26-2636. 
$4.25 each) are 
available. 

Our Introduction 
to TRS-80 Level II 
BASIC (26-21 16, 
$9.95) is a unique 
textbook for use with 
secondary students. 
An excellent intro- 
duction to BASIC pro- 
gramming, it includes 
many programming 
examples. New con- 
cepts are introduced 
sequentially with stu- 
dent exercises at the 
end of each chapter. 

Computer Discovery is a trademark of SRA. Inc 




Radio Shack and TRS-80 are Number One in the Classroom 



Radio Shack is the leading marketer of microcomputers to 

schools, with more TRS-80 computers in America's schools 
than any other brand. And we maintain an extensive devel- 
opment effort to produce instructionally sound, effective, and 
properly validated educational materials. 

We offer educators a variety of special services. Our 
National Bid Department gives prompt attention to school 
bids. Our National Lease Department can put the TRS-80 into 
your classroom with terms that meet almost any budget. We 
offer "carry-in" and "on-site" service plans, too. And as an 
educator you are eligible to attend our educator's workshop or 
Part 1 or Part 2 BASIC classes without charge at one of over 
350 Radio Shack Computer Centers. 



Radio Shack gives you complete support. We have 24 Edu- 
cational Coordinators located across the country. They can 
conduct demonstrations, workshops, and in-service training 
sessions for your school district. And they can assist you in 
selecting the computer system and courseware that best suits 
your needs. For more information, visit your nearest Radio 
Shack store, Computer Center or participating dealer. Or call 
your Educational Coordinator. 

For the name of the full-time Radio Shack 
Educational Coordinator in your area, call our 
Education Division at 800-433-5682 toll- 
free. In Texas, call 800-772-8538. 



Radio /hack 

The biggest name in little computers® 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 



FC-0604 



Microfazer, continued... 

ready, etc.). A second pushbutton switch, 
labeled "Copy" is used to repeat the print 
operation with the data in the MicroFazer 
buffer. When this has been pressed, a red 
"Copy" LED is illuminated. 

MicroFazer is available in three config- 
urations, parallel in/parallel out. serial 
in/parallel out, and serial in/serial out. 

If you are doing a really heavy volume 
of printing, two or more MicroFazers can 
be connected end to end to obtain in- 
creased buffering ( 128K. 192K. or more). 

Another related product by Quadrant 
is InterFazer which is described in the 
manual as "an intelligent controller/buffer 
that allows up to eight computers to be 
connected to one or two printers. Com- 
puters can be connected either through 
serial or parallel input ports and the print- 
ers can be serial or parallel. Inputs and 
outputs do not have to match." 

Simple Operation 

Once installed, the MicroFazer is invis- 
ible to the user. Upon powering up your 
system, you simply turn on the computer, 
printer, and MicroFazer. if everything is 
plugged into a switch-type power strip, 
one switch can bring up the whole system. 
The "ready" indicators on the printer and 
MicroFazer should both be on. If they 
are not, pressing the reset button on 
MicroFazer should bring everything to a 
ready state. 

During printing, the MicroFazer reset 
button will clear the buffer and halt the 
print pnx.-i.-ss. 

As long as the ready LED is illuminated, 
you can send data to the MicroFazer. For 
example, if you are printing a long docu- 
ment and finish editing a short one. you 
can send it to the MicroFazer and go on 
to something else. Just be sure the second 
document starts with a printer form feed. 

Summary 

The MicroFazer saves a significant 
amount of computer time when printing 
long documents. With a slow daisy wheel 
printer (40 Cps and under!, the computer 
will be tied up for printing less than 1% of 
the time it would be without the Micro- 
Fazer. With a medium speed printer (80 
cps range ». the time saving is about I to 
46. while with a higher speed printer (200 
cps) the saving is still a significant 1 to 20. 
MicroFazer is easy to install on most 
printers with parallel Centronics-type con- 
nectors or serial DB-25 type connectors. 
In normal operation. MicroFazer is invisi- 
ble to the user. 

The price of a parallel/ parallel HK free- 
standing MicroFazer is SIM; the snap-on 
unit is $10 less. Both 64K units cost the 
same, $299. MicroFazer is available in 
many computer stores or directly from 
the manufacturer. Quadram Corp.. 4357 
Park Dr.. Norcross. GA 30093. (404) 923- 
6666. 




Maxell. The Gold Standard. 

The floppy disks that meet or 
exceed every standard of quality. 

Look for the Gold Standard seal. 
It's your assurance that Maxell disks meet 
or exceed every definition of quality. For 

every computer, including yours. 

Dealer Inquiries Invited 



A B Computers 



252 Bethlehem Pike 
Colmar, PA 18915 
215-822-7727 



CIRCLE 102 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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& Gain Financial Freedom 



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white beating any stock market in the world 
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your immediate and serious attention 
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volume With its many value-fated features 
such as me stock split adtustment 
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command 

Slockline With Wall Street TAP 
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Both Stockline and Stock Stalker use the 
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features and simplicity of operation, they 
are designed exclusively for the home 
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Easy to use. each program is 
sell-documented, menu-driven, help desk 
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CIRCLE 279 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Printer Update 



Even as we checked the last typeface 
and measured the last decibel for the 
foregoing evaluations, new printers were 
being announced at fall Comdex in Las 
Vegas. 

The capsule descriptions that follow 
were gleaned from press releases provided 
by manufacturers of some of the most 
significant printers introduced. 

For more information, circle the indi- 
cated Reader Service numbers and watch 
these pages for in-depth evaluations in 
future issues. 

Anadex DP-9625A 

Anadex has introduced their newest 
dual-pass dot-matrix printer, the DP- 




9625A. This printer has a speed range of 
50-200 cps. depending on the letter quality 
mode selected. The DP-9625A is capable 
of hi-res graphics with up to 144 dpi. 
Anadex claims a noise level of 55 dBA. 
The DP-9625A has parallel and serial 
interfaces standard. Anadex. 9825 De 
Soto Ave., Chatsworth. CA 91311. (213) 
998-8010. 

CIRCLE 41 3 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Hi-G Durawriters 

Hi-G is manufacturing a new line of 
high performance dot-matrix printers 
designed for heavy-duty business use. The 
three printers are essentially the same 
with different width columns (132. 80. 
and 80 for continuous form printing). The 
Durawriters check in at around 150 cps 



Owen Linzmayer 



at less than 60 dBA. Each is bi-directional, 
logic-seeking and has a 3422-character 
buffer. These printers come with 




Centronics compatible parallel. RS-232C 
serial, or current loop interfaces. Hi-G 
Inc.. 580 Spring St.. Windsor Locks, CT 
06096.(203)623-2481. 

CIRCLE 41 4 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Transtar 130 and 315 

At Comdex, Transtar unveiled two new 
printers. The Transtar 130 is a letter 
quality printer compatible with all word 
processing software using Diablo routines. 




The 130 has a standard 2K buffer, and 16 
cps bi-directional printing, and can be 
ordered with either parallel or serial inter- 
facing. 

The Transtar 315 four-color printer has 
a price of $599. Over 30 possible shades 
of color can be printed with one pass due 

72 




to a unique four hammer printhead. 
Transtar offers an Apple II interface 
option. PICS, which allows for easy screen 
dumps. Transtar. Box C -96975. Bellevue. 
WA 98009. (206) 454-9250. 

CIRCLE 41 5 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Trilog TIP-ISO 

This printer has a top speed of 150 
lines per minute. The TIP- 150 can print 
up to 16.6 cpi on 3" to 16" fan-fold paper. 




The TIP- 150 is an intelligent printer which 
employs dot-matrix impact printing and 
provides built-in graphics plotting capa- 
bilities. It is field upgradeable to the TIP- 

March 1983 c Creative Computing 



NEC's new letter-quality printer 
gets personal with IBM. 




The Spinwriter"3550 lets the IBM PC 
get down to business. 

NEC's new Spinwritcr letter-quality 
printer is the only one plug-compatible 
with the IBM Personal Computer. So you 

get the business applications you've been 
wishing for. Letter-quality output for 
word and data processing. Multi-language, 
scientific, and technical printing. Simple 
forms handling. Quiet operation. And the 
reliability of the industry's most popular 
printer line. 

NEC designed the new Spinwritcr espe- 
cially for the IBM PC. It comes complete 
with documentation and training materials 
to fit your PC user's handbook. Just plug 
the Spinwritcr in and your PC instantly 
becomes more versatile and flexible. 

More than 8 forms handlers and 

50 print thimbles boost PC versatility. 

NEC designed the Spinwriter's 8 modular 
forms handlers to accommodate a wide- 
range of paper and document sizes and 
types. The easily mounted handlers let 
your computer print out the forms you 



need for data processing, word processing, 
graphics, accounting or other business 
applications. 

The Spinwriter's 50 print thimbles 
can more than triple your PC's usefulness. 
They come in both constant pitch and 
proportional-spaced fonts, plus in foreign 
language, technical and scientific versions. 
They snap in and out in seconds, and let 
you print up to 203 columns on 16-inch 
paper. They each last for more than 30 
million impressions. 

This printer's special features make 
everything look better on paper. 

The Spinwriter's software-invoked 
features include automatic proportional 
spacing; bidirectional, bold and shadow 
printing; justification; centering; under- 
scoring; and sub/super scripting, all at 
speeds up to 350 words per minute. 

That big extra, Spinwriter reliability. 

Spinwriters have the industry's best 
mean-time-betvveen-failurc rating, in ex- 
cess of 3,000 hours. In terms of average 
personal computer usage, that's more 
than five years. 



The Spinwriter 3550 is available at 
ComputerLand stores. Sears Business 
Systems Centers and IBM Product 
Centers nationwide. 



NIC Information Systems. Inc. 

5 Militia Drive, Lexington, MA 02173 

Send, me more information on the 
Spinwriter 3550. 

Name 



Title 



Telephone 



Company 



AiMress 






Sine Zip 

_ CC0383J 



SEC 

NEC Information Systems. Inc. 

Spinwriter is a trademark of Nippon Electric Co . Ltd 
CIRCLE 248 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



We're Made 



for Each Other 




Printer Update, continued... 

300, which has a speed of 300 lines per 
minute. Trilog Inc.. 17391 Murphy Ave.. 
Irvine, CA 92714. (714) 549-4079. 
CIRCLE 416 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

C. Itoh A-10 Daisy Wheel and 8600 
Impact 

The A-10 is a complement to earlier C. 
Itoh printers, with a 10-character wheel 
and a print speed of 18 cps. A-10 options 




include serial or parallel interfaces and 
friction- or tractor-feed. 

The 8600 is a variable speed printer 
with an 18-wire head. It can handle hi-res 
graphics, letter quality, and data pro- 
cessing (180 cps). The printer has a 9 x 9 




matrix and an 80-column format. The 
8600 is bi-directional, and has a 2K 
expandable buffer and standard parallel 
and serial interfacing. C. Itoh Electronics. 
5301 Beethoven St., Los Angeles, CA 
90066. (213) 306-6700. 

CIRCLE 41 7 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Data Impact D-82 F/T 

Data Impact, a Boston firm introduces 
a low-cost dot-matrix printer with selec- 
table tractor or friction feed. A 7 x 7 
matrix, 100 cps bi-directional print speed, 
and 800-character buffer are some of the 
features of the $599 D-82 F/T printer. 
Data Impact Products, 745 Atlantic Ave., 
Boston, MA 021 1 1. (617) 492-4214. 

CIRCLE 41 8 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

GE3010 

Expanding their 3000 line of printers, 
GE offers its new creation, the GE 3010 
dot-matrix printer with dot-addressable 
graphics. The 3010 can print up to four 
copies bi-directionally at 160 cps. The 
3010 has a 2K standard buffer and 
employs a printhead capable of contin- 
uous underscoring and descenders. The 
3010 uses a four-pin tractor, handles paper 
ranging from 3" to 15.5" and has a print 
density which can be set at a maximum of 




16.5 cpi. General Electric Data Com- 
munications. Waynesboro. VA 22980. 
(703)949-1170. 

CIRCLE 41 9 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Printronix MVP 

The MVP is the newest matrix impact 
line printer available from Printronix. The 
MVP is styled for office use and can print 
up to 200 lines per minute, and plot a 



face, the KX-P1090 printer costs $650. 
Panasonic. 1 Panasonic Way. Secaucus. 
NJ 07094. (201)348-5337. 

CIRCLE 421 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Facit/Dataroyal IPS-5000-V 

Expanding its IPS-5000 family of intelli- 
gent printers. Facit/Dataroyal has intro- 
duced the IPS-5000-V, a 165 cps unit that 
prints text, pin graphics (72 x 120 resolu- 
tion), variable-sized matrix characters. 




maximum of 27.9 inches per minute. The 
MVP carries a price tag of $3745. 
Printronix, 17500 Cartwright Rd.. Box 
19559, Irvine, CA 92713. (714) 549-7700. 

CIRCLE 420 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Panasonic KXP1160 and KX-P1090 

Two dot-matrix impact printers fea- 
turing hi-speed printing and graph capa- 
bilities have been introduced by 
Panasonic. The KX-P1160 is a bidirec- 
tional 16-pin printer with a logic seeking 
head designed to print up to 1% cps. The 




nine bar codes, and labels for shipping 
and other applications. The IPS-5000-V 
comes with a parallel interface and a 
standard 2K character buffer. Facit/ 
Dataroyal.235 Main Dunstable Rd.. Box 
828. Nashua. NH 03061. 

CIRCLE 422 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

MPI Printmate 99 

This 100 cps unit comes with a IK 
buffer (expandable to 2K) and is equipped 
for both parallel and serial interface. Near 
letter-quality printing is possible with an 
11 x 9 dot matrix font. Friction and 



9 x 13 matrix forms % ASCII characters 
with descenders. This unit has an adjust- 
able sprocket pin feed capable of handling 
fan-fold paper from 4" to 15" in width and 
sells for $1550. 

The model KX-P1090 features an end- 
less and seamless cartridge ribbon. It is a 
bi-directional 9-pin printer which can 
print 96 cps and 80 characters per line. 
The KX-P1090 accepts paper 4" to 10" in 
width. With the standard parallel inter- 

74 




tractor-feed are user selectable. Paper can 
be loaded from the front, bottom, or rear 
of the unit. Hi-res, dot addressable graph- 
ics capabilities are standard. Micro Peri- 
pherals. Inc.. 4426 South Century Dr.. 
Salt Lake City, UT 84107. (800) 821-8848. 

CIRCLE 423 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

March 1983 c Creative Computing 



GREAT NEWS FOR EVERYONE WITH A 

PERSONAL COMPUTER! A NEW BREED 

OF PRINTER, PURRRFECTLY PRICED. 

that'sguaranteed for one full year. But 
the really great news about each is 
price: $699 suggested retail for the 
ML 92. $1249 for its big brother. 
Absolutely purrrfect. 

For more great news about the ML 
92. 93 and all the Okidata printers, 
see your computer dealer or call 
l-800-OKIDATA. In N|. 609-235- 
2600. Okidata. Mt. Laurel. N| 08054. 

OKIDATA 

A subsidiary of Oki Electric Industry Company Ltd 



I60CPS Advanced. 

Multifunction Printing 

For Under $700. 

When advertising. TV and film peo- 
ple need a puma to pose or a lion on 
location, they call the Dawn Animal 
Agency. Daily. Dawn sends their ex- 
otic animals from coast to coast. And 
they generate a jungle of data in the 
process. Like so many growing busi- 
nesses, they need to mate a personal 
computer to a printer that will keep 
pace with business demands. But 
wont take a huge bite from the 
budget. 

All Okidata printers are compatible with 



Okidata's new multifuction Micro- 
line (ML) 92 printerisjusttheanimal.lt 
prints high resolution, correspon- 
dence quality text that's a match for 
any daisywheel's at 40 cps. Graphics 
and emphasized and enhanced print- 
ing at 80 cps. And bidirectional, data 
processing with short line seeking 
logic at 1 60 cps. Add an alternate, 
downline loadable character set. and 
you've got one heck of a printer. And 
there's an ML 93 . too. that adds wide- 
column printing to the picture. 

Both of our new high performers 
have no duty cycle limitations and 
feature the Okidata. 9-pin print head 



Apple. IBM. Radio Shack. Osborne and just about every other personal computer. 
CIRCLE 221 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



THESUPERPLD7TER 




For use with Apple' 
Computer Systems 



The Superplotter is a highly versatile business 
engineering, educational, math and graphics ap 
plications package featuring: 

Standard Bar Graphs* Point and Lin* Graphs. 
Graphics Display of any Mathematical Function' 
Least Squares Polynomial Curvellt Ganeratlon. 
KaytKMrd Image Shape Tables and 
User Tutorial* Automatic Graphics Disk Storage 
and Recall- Data File Editor- Automatic Disk 
Storage and Recall ol Editor Data Files-Overlay 
Modes-Graphics Screen Test Editor 

Data may be input directly or from previously 
generated data tiles Comprehensive documen 
tation is provided including printer dump instruc 
lions and directions for accessing data bases 
created by other programs Requires Applesoft 
and one DOS 3 3 disk drive 

$69.95 




Vi*u4V Aid >Or PrvMAtalion* 













See your local dealer for a demonstration p *' 1t " ,[ " p*o'«»»«»rn>. q^m t attjon. 



or order direct from 

Dickens Data Systems 

478 Engla Dr. / Tucker. Ga 10084 I (404) 491-790$ 

outside Georgia: 

(800)2416753 est. 503 

COD VISA, s MasterCard accepted 

Mail Orders Add 82 50 lor shipping and handling 

(85 00 outside the USA| 






r*"OI KvybOtVd CheVaKlax* Oft An» 



CIRCLE 159 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Not Just Another 
Summer Camp. 




Learning is part of the fun 
at ATARI ' Computer Camps. 

•Coed, ages 10-16 

• 2, 4, or 8 week sessions 

• Convenient locations 

• With or without computer skills 

• Traditional camp activities 

• Professional Camp Directors 

CALL FREE 800/847-4180 



A 



ATARI 
COMPUTER CAMPS 

For more information and a free, color brochure call 
free «X)_ K47-41K(I „ r write to 40 East 34th Street, 
Dept JT, New torfcN.Y. 10016 ( please include auT 
and phone number). I Nitstde I is or in New York State 
call potted 212 XW)-52(X>. Staff applicants should 

apply in writinR. Q * Warn- Con,rr«x«*,,on, . o^pan, 

CIRCLE 1 1 1 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



C<©iniH(2i(£ 
SGMOTlIQniRS 

PACKER: Machine language program that edits all or 
part of your Basic program to run faster, save memory 
or ease editing The 5 options include UNPACK - 
unpack* multiple statement lines into single statements 
m ii n Sj nir !S. lo9 ' c ln * ert * «>•"« «nd renumbers lines 
SHCWT-dekMss ; unnecessary words, spaces, and REM 
statements PACK-packs linos into maximum multiple 
statement lines, maintaining program logic RENUM- 
renumbers lines, including all branches MOVE-moves 
line or blocks ol lines to any new location in program 
On 2 cassettes for 16K. 32K. 8 48K For TRS-80""' 
Mod I or III Level II or Disk Basic 829 95 

SYSTEM TAPE DUPLICATOR Copy your SYSTEM 
format tapes Includes verily routines The Model III 
version allows useoftx>th5O0and1500baud cassette 
speeds 

For TRS-eo"" Model I or III Level II $1595 

CASSETTE LABEL MAKER A mini word processor 
to print cassette labels on a line printer. Includes 50 
peel-and-sock labels on tractor feed paper 
For TRS-80™ Model I or III Level II 8 Printer $1 7 95 
PRINT TO LPRINT TO PRINT Edits your Base program 
in seconds to change all Prints to LPrints (except 
Print# or Prints I or LPrints to Prints Save edited 
version 

For TRS-80"" Model I or III Level II 812 95 

FAST SORTING ROUTINES For use with Radio 
Shacks Accounts Receivable Inventory Control I 
and Disk Mailing List Systems for Model I Level li 
Sorts in SECONDS' You II be amazed at the time they 
can save Supplied on data diskette with complete 
instructions 
FAST SORT for Accounts Receivable $19 95 

FAST SORT tor Inventory Control I 819 95 

FAST SORT for Disk Mailing List (specify data dijkane 
cassette for 1 drive system) 814 95 

ALL THREE ROUTINES 844 95 

Prices subiect to change without notice Call or write 
tor complete catalog Dealer inquiries invited VISA 
and MasterCard accepted Foreign orders in US 
currency only Kansas residents add 3% sales tax 
On-line catalog on Wichita FORUM-80 316-482-2113 
Or call our 24 hour phone 316-683-481 1 or write 
COTTAGE SOFTWARE 
614 N Harding Wichita. KS 67206 
| TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Co rporation 

CIRCLE 152 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Printer Update, continued... 

Mannesman n Tally Ml 160 

Designed for professionals in business, 
science, and industry, the MT 160 offers 
a print speed of 160 cps. bi-directional 
printing, logic seeking, eight letter widths. 




full graphics capability, and dual interface 
ports. Mannesmann Tally. 8.101 South 
180th St.. Kent. WA 98032. (206) 251- 
5500. 

CIRCLE 424 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Infoscribe 1200 and 1500 

The 1200 is Infoscribe s first multicolor 
(81 dot-matrix printer. This unit prints up 
to 2(X) cps. and dot density can go as high 
as a 19 x 18 matrix. In the dot-addressable 



F 




color graphics mode, the printer resolu- 
tion is 72 x 72 dpi. The 1200 costs $2495 
and has a six month warranty. 

The Infoscribe 1500 is a high speed 
dot-matrix printer offering up to 400 cps. 
The 1500 printhead has a double set of 
wires 1 18 wires total) which allows for 
high speed output. Dot addressable graph- 
ics (72 x 72 dpsi) are available. The 1500 
handles superscripts, subscripts, and 




underlining. It has a 3500-character input 
buffer, resident and downloadable char- 
acter sets, and an integral self-test. 
Infoscribe, 2720 South Croddy Way, 
Santa Ana, CA 92704. (714) 641-8595. □ 

CIRCLE 425 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

March 1983 * Creative Computing 



New From Sirius 

For The Big Game Hunter 



WVlQfL 



You're being attacked 

from both sides by the 

most evil aliens to 

ever (ly the unfriendly 

skies. Luckily, your 

intergalactic fighter 

can blast seven 

enemies into cosmic 

dust at once. Trouble 

is. those aliens are 

very fast. If you can 

turn the lights off and 

be in bed before the 

room gets dark, then 

you might be ready for 

Turmoil. 






FAMTAS1TIIC 

VOYAGE 






~t-*-l 



Those cranky crabs 

| are trying to drive the 

ducks from their once 

quiet pond. Imagine. 

crabs taking to the air 

armed with bricks and 

nrnbs! Luckily, Deadly 

| Duck has a few tricks 

of his own. His gun 

barrel bill can unleash 

\ bevy of crab cracking 

| bullets at a moment's 

notice. Look out, 

Deadly, here comes 

| another brick! It takes 

more than luck to 

play Deadly Duck. 




An incredible medical 
journey is about to 
begin. You and your 
submarine are to be 
reduced to micro- 
scopic proportions and 
injected into the blood 
stream of a critically ill 
patient. You must 
navigate past deadly 
Defense Cells. 
Bacteria. Antibodies 
and Enzymes to 
destroy a life- 
threatening blood clot 
near each patient's 
brain. Prepare yourself 
for one Fantastic 
Voyage! 



You've got to be cool 
and you've got to be 
steady to play Fast 
Eddie. Eddie is on a 
wild treasure hunt, 
climbing up and down 
ladders everywhere in 
search of prizes. 
Things would sure be 
a lot easier if it weren't 
for all of those pesky 
little Sneakers " 
running around. They 
literally keep him 
jumping! 



Sirius 



Video Game Cartridges For The Atari 400, Atari 800. VIC-20 And Commodore 64 Computers 

rtearih, Duck Fast Eddie Turmoil and Fantastic Voyage program and audio visual © 1982 Sirius. packaging © 1982 Fox VKteo Games. Deadly Duck, Fast 
AterU^Tc-lcT and Commodore 64 are trademarks of Commodore Business Machines, Inc. Sinus is not affiliated with Atan or Commodore. 

Por mor» Information contact pour local Stilus d«al«r or distributor or contact us at 10344 Boddnaham DrlT«. 

Sacramento. CA 95627, (916) 366-1 195. 



CIRCLE 268 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



It's the same old 
Apple IL 




'.IWWl' 



•ftiFiilaTii 

SBbr 



For years, people have been 
trying to build a better Apple" II. 

It finally happened. 

Meet the Apple He, an 
impressive new version of a 
most impressive machine. 

The "e" means enhanced. 
Which means a bundle of new 
features: 

A standard memory of 64K 
(versus 48K) that's easily 



expandable. So you can create 
fatter files and crunch larger 
numbers of numbers. 

A new, improved keyboard, 
with a complete set of ASCII 
standard characters. Plus full 
cursor controls, programmable 
function keys, and a rapid 
auto-repeat feature built into 
every key on the board. 

Both upper and lower case 



characters. (And if you want 
to see more of them on the 
screen at one time, a low cost 
80-column text card is available. ) 

Improved peripheral ports. 
Which make it a lot easier to 
connect and disconnect game 
controllers, printers and all 
those other wonderful things 
that go with an Apple Personal 
Computer. 



Except for the ftom 




Self-diagnostics. That's a 
special feature that makes it 
easy to give your computer a 
thorough check-up. 

Plus an even more reliable 
design. Achieved by reducing 
the number of components— 
which is to say, the number of 
things that could go wrong. 



And bear in mind, the He 
still has all those other virtues 
that made the Apple II so very 
popular. Including access to 
more accessories, peripheral 
devices and software than any 
other personal computer you 
can buy. 

So visit any of our over 1300 



authorized dealers, and see the 
newest Apple for yourself. 

Like the original, its rather 
extraordinary. But then some 
things never change. 



apple 



The most personal computer. 



CIRCLE 108 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



■H 




Beating ony video game is easy, but 
beating it single handed takes o lot more. 
It takes a good joystick that is responsive 
ond comtortoble. Now with Spectravision s 
new Quick-Shot™ Joystick Controller, you can 
do it all single-handed, control ond fire at the same time. 

One look at the handle and you know you'll have a better grip on 
your game. It's contour design fits comfortably around your palm. You 
can ploy for hours without developing a cose of sore thumb The 
firepower button on top of the handle gives you that extra margin of 

THE WINNING EDGE. 



speed. (We didn't call it Quick-Shot for 

nothing ) You also have the option to use 

the left hand fire button simultaneously 

The four removable suction cups hold the 

entire joystick firmly on ony surface. It also comes with a long cord. 

With all those superior features in one joystick, you know you got 

yourself a winning combination And when it comes to beating video 

gomes, one hond is all you needl 

Get the Quick-Shot™ now, you'll be that much ahead. After all, 
winning is what every game is all about 




m * 




>^ 



TM 



CONTOUR HANDLE OPTIONAL LEFT HAND UNIVERSAL JACK & REMOVABU 
AND RAPIO FIRE BUTTON FRE BUTTON LONGCORO FOOT SUCTION CUPS 



BY^annFM5350K 



39 W. 37th Street, New York, NY 10018 



• mm vcs". 400 * .oo ^™ systems" am wcstered trademarks otatw^^ 

CIRCLE 262 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



native 

computing 
equipment 
evaluation 





Word Processing 

On The Apple 

With WordStar 

and Diablo 



When you use your Apple for word 
processing, do you find you are becom- 
ing increasingly frustrated by the limita- 
tions of your "simple" 40-column Apple 
word processing program? If so, at one 
time or another you have probably 
considered upgrading your Apple for 
serious word processing — specifically, 
by adding an 80-column card, a letter 
quality printer, and a professional word 
processing program. 

This is exactly what I went through. 
At the time, I had been using Apple 
Computer's Applewriter program, Dan 
Paymar's lower case adapter and a 
Trendcom 200 printer for my word 
processing. Despite the many limitations 
of that combination (40-column display, 
words split across lines, and hard to read 
thermal paper outputs), I found I was 
using my Apple for word processing 
more and more often. In fact, word 
processing had become the main 
application for my Apple, exceeding 
even VisiCalc. I found my use of it for 
composing draft -copies of reports, 
memoranda, and letters saved me time 
and improved my writing. The ease with 
which text could be altered and modified 
on the computer made it easy for me to 
experiment with words — far easier than 
if I had used pencil and paper. 

These gains in personal productivity 
spurred me to think how much greater 
my productivity would be with a pro- 
fessional word processing system. It was 
at that time I decided to turn my Apple 
into a "professional quality" word 
processing system. 

I decided my upgraded system would 
consist of a Diablo 630 printer, a Videx 
Videoterm 80-column display, and 



Jerry Mar 



MicroPro's WordStar word processing 
program. 

I chose the Diablo 630 because of its 
flexibility in handling both plastic and 
metal daisy wheel print wheels, and be- 
cause it was the most established (i.e., 
been on the market for the longest time) 
of the second generation daisy wheel 
printers (lower cost printers using more 
electronics and fewer mechanics). I 
chose the Videx 80-column card because 



of its relatively cool operation (it uses 
low power CMOS integrated circuits), 
its use of a 7x9 character matrix (its 
characters seem more readable than the 
other cards I had looked at), and be- 
cause (at the time of my purchase) it was 
one of two 80-column cards directly sup- 
ported in the installation procedures in- 
cluded with WordStar. 

Although WordStar requires a Z80 
SoftCard to be added to the Apple (to 
enable it to run CP/M programs), I 
chose it because of its reputation as the 
Cadillac of microcomputer word 
processing programs and because the fi- 
nal printout format (including page 



Jerry Mar. 1495 Chukar Court. Sunnyvale. CA 94087. 

March 1983 e Creative Computing 




81 



Apple/ Diablo, continued... 

breaks) is continuously visible as text is 
entered. 

Many of you may be considering such 
an upgrade, so let me describe what I 
went through to make it work. Let me 
say at the outset that my final system 
works very well, but getting there was 
anything but straightforward. In making 
such a combination work, one is faced 
with making five semi-independent com- 
puter systems (the Apple 6502, the 
SoftCard Z80, the controller on the Ap- 
ple printer serial interface card, the 
keyboard/character processor in the 80- 
column card, and the 8085 microproces- 
sor in the printer) work together. The 

My final system works 

very well, but getting 

there was anything but 

straightforward. 

whole process took several months of ef- 
fort. I took many blind paths, made lots 
of mistakes, and spent more money than 
I neeued to. Fortunately, you can learn 
from my experience and avoid my 
pitfalls. 

What Not To Do 

Because of my existing Applewriter 
text files and the considerable expense of 
the upgrade, I decided to do the upgrade 
in several stages. Since the most limiting 
feature of the Applewriter/Trendcom 
combination was its inability to generate 
letter quality reports, the first stage of 
my upgrade was to add a Diablo 630 
daisy wheel printer to use with my exist- 
ing Apple-writer program. As you will 
later see, this was a mistake. 

An RS-232C serial interface is needed 
to connect such printers to the Apple. 
Following the recommendations in my 
Applewriter manual, I purchased the Ap- 
ple High Speed Serial Card for this 
purpose. 

Now it turns out that Diablo 630 re- 
ceive-only printers (printers without a 
typewriter keyboard) come in three ver- 
sions. There is the bottom of the line ver- 
sion (Model Rl 10, also called the OEM 
model) with a minimal three-button con- 
trol panel. There is the middle version 
(Model R102, often referred to as the 
standard model) with a seven-button 
control panel and a full complement of 
warning indicators. Finally, there is the 
full-featured version (Model RI04, 
which is the standard version upgraded 
with the W/P or Communications Op- 
tion) with an eight-button control panel, 
built-in word processing commands and 
non-volatile memory (settings are re- 
tained even after power is shut off). 



After some experimentation, I found 
my App\e/Applewriter/High Speed Se- 
rial Card combination would operate 
properly only with the full-featured 
Model R104 Diablo 630. Thinking that 
extra features would ensure compatibil- 
ity with later word processing upgrades, 
I chose the R104 Diablo 630. With 
Applewriter, this combination worked 
superbly— however, as you will later sec. 
it did not work well with WordStar. 

I completed my upgrade when 
MicroPro released version 3.0 of 
WordStar for the Apple. In addition to 
buying that version of WordStar, I pur- 
chased the Videx 80-column card and 
the Microsoft Z80 SoftCard. Since my 
old 9" Sanyo monitor was barely up to 
resolving 80 columns of characters, I 
also ended up purchasing a 12" NEC 
green screen monitor. Ik-cause WordStar 
(and most CP/M programs) are de- 
signed to be used with two-drive sys- 
tems. I also added a second disk drive to 
my system. 

Eager to make use of my new word 
processing capability, I proceeded di- 
rectly to the installation of the program 
on my system. In WordStar this is done 
by running a special program called 
INSTALL.COM, which presents a 
menu-driven series of questions to the 
user. The selections chosen by the user 
configure the interface of the program to 
the hardware. Everything went 
smoothly until I reached the section on 
installing the printer. 

In version 3.0 of WordStar, the 
Printer Selection menu includes a line 
for the Diablo 630. After I had selected 
that line, a message appeared telling me 
to select the ETX/ACK protocol in the 
next menu. The next installation menu 
was entitled Communications Protocol, 
and sure enough one of its selections was 
called ETX/ACK protocol. Obediently, 
I made that choice. 

This menu was followed by the Driver 
menu which included such cryptic selec- 
tions as CP/M List Device (LST:), 
CP/M primary Console Device (TTY:), 
Port Driver (direct I/O to 8-bit ports), 
and User-installed driver subroutines. 
After several readings of the manual I 
concluded that Port Driver was the cor- 
rect choice, hoping that I was finished 
with this multiple-choice game. 

My hopes were dashed when the pro- 
gram presented the first of the Port 
Driver selections: I/O and Memory 
Mapped. Rushing back to the WordStar 
manual, I looked in vain for some clue 
as to the correct selection. Finding none 
there, I searched for a hint in my Apple 
manuals. Somewhat hesitantly, I con- 
cluded that Memory Mapped was the 
correct choice. 

That choice led immediately to the 
following series of questions: What is the 

82 



Output address in hex? What is the Out- 
put Status address in hex? What is the 
Input address in hex? and What is the 
Input Status address in hex? These were 
followed by: What are the Output Port 
Bits for your printer? and What are the 
Input Status Port Bits for your printer? 
At this point I knew I was licked and 
immediately sought help. In an escalat- 
ing fashion, I went to my dealer, Diablo 
customer service, and MicroPro cus- 
tomer service. 

I'll spare you the gory details. Let me 
just say that I got different solutions 
from each source, and that none of the 
solutions using the Port Driver selection 
worked. On reporting my lack of suc- 
cess, the majority of my sources told me 
that I should then specify: the Teletype- 
like selection in the Printer Menu, None 
Required selection in the Protocol 
Menu, and CP/M list device (LST:) 
selection in the Driver Menu. However, 
they warned me that this arrangement 
did not allow handshaking (i.e., would 
not allow the printer and computer to 
communicate both ways) so that I would 
not be able to send characters to my 
printer at rates greater than 300 baud. 

The last arrangement did work, and 
worked at 1200 baud. However, de- 
sirable word processing print features 



The first stage of my 

upgrade was to add a 

Diablo 630 daisy wheel 

printer to use with my 

existing Applewriter 

program. This was a 

mistake. 



like bold-face and micro-justification 
(the WordStar approximation of propor- 
tional spacing) could not be used with 
that selection. I found these features 
were usable when the Diablo 630 selec- 
tion was chosen in place of Teletype in 
the Printer Menu, however this installa- 
tion had one problem. 

With this installation, the program 
would not print properly in the single- 
page mode (this is where the printer 
stops after each page so that a new sheet 
of paper can be inserted.) The first page 
would print out perfectly, but after the 
paper change, succeeding pages were 
printed without any left margin. This 
happened at both 300 baud and 1200 
baud. 

After many more phone calls I was 
told that I should use California 
Computing's CCS7710A interface card 
instead of the Apple High Speed Serial 
Card. I tried that card and found I had 

March 1983 c Creative Computing 



More Apple II owners choose Hayes 
Micromodem II than any other modem 
in the world. Compare these features 
before you buy. You should. It's your 
money. Thousands of other Apple II 
owners have already com- 
pared, considered, and are now 
communicating — all over the 
U.S.A. — with Micromodem II. " 
The best modem for the Ap] 
II. The most modem 
for your mone\ 

A complete 
data communi- 
cation system. 
Micromodem 11 
is not "base 
priced" plus necessary "options." It's a 
complete, high performance data com- 
munication system. The printed circuit 
board fits - quickly and easily - into your 
Apple II. eliminating the need foraserial 
interface card. And the Microcoupler™ 
Uncluded 1 connects the Apple II directly 
to a standard modular telephone ]ack. 
Auto-dial and -answer features are built 
in. Operation can be full or half duplex. 



with a transmission rate of 300bps. And 
it s Bell 103 compatible and FCC approved. 

Now there's Hayes Terminal Pro- 
gram, tool Developed by Hayes speci- 
fically for Micromodem II. this new 

Terminal Program allows 
you to access all the great 
features of your modem 
in a matter of seconds. 
With it. you can use 
yourCP/M.' DOS 
3.3 or Pascal for- 
f matted disks to 

create, send 
ceive. list and delete 
files. Hayes Terminal 
Program is a complete. 
stand-alone disk. 
And because it's menu 
"^ driven, you can choos e from 
a wide variety of options to set ^^^^ 
your communication param- A 

eters - as well as change hard I I 

ware configuration — directly 
from the keyboard. It even allows you 
to generate ASCII characters that are 
normally not available from Apple 






keyboards, further extending your 
capabilities. Incoming data can be 
printed ton serial or parallel print- 
as n's displayed on your screen 

Micromodem II is available with 
or without the Terminal Program. Buy 
your modem by itself, or optionally pack- 
aged with the Terminal Program disk 
and user manual at extra cost. The soft- 
ware is also sold separately, for those 
who already own a Micromodem 11. 

If you're ready to communicate 
with other computers, to access infor- 
mation utilities, time-sharing systems, 
or use bulletin boards, then you're 
ready for Micromodem II. Come on. 
Compare. Consider. Then buy. 

Micromodem II is already the 
best-selling modem for the Apple II 
And Hayes' new Terminal Program 

makes it better than 
LJ *"W §f\.t ^_ ever. Available 
IClyV^O computer stores 
nationwide. 
Hayes Microcomputer Products. Inc. 
5835 Peachtree Corners East 
Norcross. Georgia 30092 ^404) 449-8791 



Your Apple II 

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Apple/ Diablo, continued... 

exactly the same problem, except this 
time I did run into problems when print- 
ing at 1200 baud. It appears that the Ap- 
ple Serial Card pauses after groups of 
characters are transmitted. This slows 
data transmission sufficiently to enable 
the printer to keep up with the data. 
With the CCS7710A card, characters 
are transmitted in a more continuous 
stream and the printer is unable to keep 
up with the data. 

The main problem turned out to be 
the printer. When I used a standard 



The one other 

modification I would 

recommend for your 

Apple is the addition of 

a cooling fan. 



(Model RI02) Diablo 630 in place of the 
full-featured Model R104, the single- 
page problem disappeared. Thus my er- 
ror was in buying the printer to run 
Applewriter first, since the combination 
needed to operate WordStar was dif- 
ferent. None of my information sources, 
including people at Diablo, had sug- 
gested that this could cause problems. 

What To Do 

Having described what didn't work, 
let me tell you what did. As I indicated 
in the last section, the standard version 
Diablo 630 printer worked for me. As 
for a serial interface card, the 
CCS7710A card worked best. WordStar 
printing was significantly faster with the 
CCS7710A card than with the Apple 



High Speed card, however additional 
connector rewiring (described below) is 
needed to use it. The Videx 80-column 
card worked fine, especially after I made 
the shift-key modification (connecting a 
wire from the shift key to pin 4 of the 
game connector). 

In order to use the CCS7710A card at 
1200 baud, it must be made to hand- 
shake with the printer. To do this, the 
following changes must be made. Pins 4 
and 20 must be crossed (not shorted) on 
the printer cable, so that connector-pin 
20 on the CCS7710A card goes to 
connector pin 4 of the Diablo and 
connector pin 20 on the CCS7710A to 
connector pin 4 of the Diablo. This can 
be done by rewiring one of the connec- 
tors on the cables (not the card or the 
printer). 

In addition, pins 5 and 6 on the in- 
ternal "A60" jumper-block inside the 
Diablo printer must be shorted. This 
jumper-block is located on the top edge 
of the HPR05 card inside the printer. 
To get at this block you must first re- 
move the outer case and the internal 
shield cage surrounding the card. If you 
have difficulties with these changes, 
have your dealer do them for you. 

Before beginning the installation of 
WordStar, you should use your CP/M 
utility disk to rename the WordStar file 
WSU.COM to WS.COM. If you do the 
renaming after installation (as suggested 
in the installation instructions I received 
with my copy of WordStar) you will not 
be able to run a program from the No- 
File Menu, which means you will not be 
able to check the amount of empty disk 
space while in WordStar. 

As for the WordStar printer installa- 
tion, the following worked for me. In the 
Printer Menu, choose Diablo 1610/1620 




instead of Diablo 630. If the Diablo 630 
selection works for you, you can also use 
that. However, when I selected that in 
my version of the program I lost the last 
line (usually the page number) when 
printing in the single-page mode. In the 
Communications Protocol Menu, select 
None required, and in the Driver Menu, 
select CP/M List device (LST:). 

This should make your Apple a 
functioning WordStar system. However, 
since WordStar makes multiple uses of 
many of the standard keyboard keys (via 
CTRI key combinations), I have found 
labeling the keys to be very helpful. 
WordStar comes with stick-on key 
labels. 

The one other modification I would 
recommend for your Apple is the addi- 
tion of a cooling fan. The addition of the 
80-column card and the Z80 SoftCard 
increases the power dissipation in the 
Apple enough to raise the internal tem- 
perature significantly. Perhaps it was 
merely a coincidence, but within a few 
months after my WordStar upgrade I 
had two separate incidents of component 
failure before adding a fan (the only fail- 
ure in two years) and none since adding 
a fan. Based on an approximate 
measurement of internal temperatures, 
the fan reduced the inside case tem- 
perature from approximately 100° F to 
80° F. 

How Well Does It Work 
And Was It Worth It? 

With the combination described 
above, WordStar operates very com- 
petently on the Apple II. All of the 
WordStar features (such as underlining, 
microjustification, boldface, and tab- 
bing) are usable. The ability to see ex- 
actly how my text will be printed as I 



Both the speed of my 
writing and the 

appearance of my final 
documents have 
improved greatly. 



enter it has been exceedingly useful. I 
can easily tailor my text and tables for 
the best appearance on a page. The 
productivity improvements I had hoped 
for with this upgrade were fully realized. 
Both the speed of my writing and the 
appearance of my final documents have 
improved greatly. 

However, the system is by no means 
perfect. There are several annoying fea- 
tures, most of them related to the limita- 
tions of the Apple keyboard. For one, 
symbols like square and curly brackets 
arc missing, as is a tab key. The lack of 



March 1983 c Creative Computing 



Apple/Diablo, continued... 

programmable function keys is also a 
negative. Such keys would have been 
useful for simplifying frequently used 
multiple-keystroke commands. 

A particularly annoying feature is the 
delay between commands and screen re- 
sponse. Cursor moves in response to tab- 
bing seem to take an inordinate amount 
of time. As a result, when moving across 
multiple tabs, it is extremely easy to 
overshoot the desired position. Likewise, 
when deleting by continuous backspac- 
ing (using the kept key), the cursor 
continues to delete characters several 
seconds after the finger is removed from 
the backspace key. The column and line 
numbers also have trouble keeping up 
with autorepeating movements. 

The autorepeating function often re- 
quires three keys to be depressed 
simultaneously (e.g., ctrl, E and kept 
keys must be held down at the same time 
to move the cursor up continuously, an 
operation that can be done on some 
computer systems with one key). 

One last keyboard annoyance related 
to the use of the esc key is the 
upper/lower-case shift-lock (at least 
when using the shift-key mod). Since 
many of the WordStar commands also 
end with a depression of the esc key, in- 
advertent shifts often occur which must 
be unlocked with an extra depression of 



the key. Some of the above keyboard de- 
ficiencies can probably be corrected by 
adding the Videx Keyboard Enhancer, 
but I did not try that combination. 

The other area that could have been 
nicer is the video display. Screen 
scrolling, particularly downward 
scrolling, occurs jerkily (the screen up- 
dates long after the key is depressed). 
This seems to be a result of the relatively 
long time needed to rewrite the screen 
(close to three seconds when scrolling 
downward). Screen highlighting is also 
not available with the hardware 
combination. Had this feature been 
available, the WordStar display on the 
Apple would have been easier to 
read — especially when mixing soft and 
hard hyphens, and performing block 
operations. 

On the plus side, despite the lack of 
special keys, the crisp action of the Ap- 
ple keyboard makes it quite comfortable 
to use for word processing. In addition, 
what keys there are are placed in logical 
locations (more so than in several other 
computers with more keys). Although 
the video display lacks features, it is very 
clear and easy to read. As a con- 
sequence, one can learn to live quite 
comfortably with the above deficiencies. 

An important word processing plus is 
the fast printing when using the 



CCS77I0A card. With this card, 
WordStar prints faster on the Apple 
than it does on many other CP/M com- 
puter systems using the Diablo 630. 

An added bonus from the upgrade 
was the enhancement of the other 
applications of my Apple system. Basic- 
80, supplied with the Z80 SoftCard, is a 
significant upgrade from AppleSoft Ba- 
sic. The second disk drive had made it 
much easier for me to back up my disk, 
and greatly improved my use of Pascal. 
The 80-column display makes it much 
easier to do programming (in Basic and 
Pascal). 

The total cost of my upgrade counting 
the additional disk drive and monitor, 
but not counting the Diablo 630, was 
approximately $2000. The Diablo 630 
adds another $2500. 

So was it worth it? If one is starting 
out fresh (with no Apple), this approach 
to WordStar is more expensive than sev- 
eral alternatives that are probably better 
suited to word processing. However, if 
you already have an Apple with one or 
more disk drives and lots of application 
software, then this is an attractive way 
of obtaining professional quality word 
processing while enhancing the general 
capabilities of your Apple. 

Diablo Systems, 24500 Industrial 
Blvd., Hayward. CA 94545. 



Did You Hear the One About the 

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memory. And now a diskette of fixed, natural 
sounding words is available to enhance the 
ECHO II s voice output. 



Nearly 400 language rules are contained in the ECHO's text- 
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pronounce most correctly spelled words. When in the text-to- 
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and have words spoken either monotonically or with intonation 
by using simple control character sequences. The rate of speech 
can be fast or slow; words can be spoken in their entirety or 
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required. 

Applications are unlimited, ranging from phone answering, 
educational and training programs, to games and aiding the sight 
and speech impaired. The ECHO is a complete stand alone unit 
which is compatible with most any computer: it sells for $299.95. 
The ECHO II, which plugs into the Apple II, is priced at $149.95. 



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Telephone (805) 684-4593 



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Watch their reactions; you'll see your 
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Develop educational materials 
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concepts. Mix programs too. 
Images can be displayed on back- 
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Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer. Inc. 




Three Word Processors 

For 
The TRS-80 Color Computer 



Let's get the tone of this thing right at 
the start: I expect to enjoy writing this 
review, I hope it will be helpful to a few 
people, and I certainly don't intend it to 
be an anti-Radio Shack diatribe. That 
said, I feel compelled to present a bit of 
history. 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Telewriter 

System: 16K or 32K Color Computer, 

cassette or disk drive 
Format: Cassette or disk 
Language: Machine language 
Author: Howard Cohen 

Summary: Full-screen editing word 
processor 

Price: $49.95 
Manufacturer: 

Cognitec 

704 Nob Ave. 

Del Mar, CA 92014 



Scoll L. Norman, 8 Doris Rd.. Frammgham. MA 
01701. 

March 1983 e Creative Computing 



Scoff L. Norman 



When the TRS-80 Color Computer 
was first introduced, the ability to pro- 
duce color graphics from an inexpensive 
machine had apparently blinded Radio 
Shack to the possibility of doing much 



creative coiRpatiRtf 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: C.C. Writer 

System: 16K or 32K Color Computer, 

cassette: 32K computer. 

disk drive 

Format: Cassette or disk 

Language: Extended Color Basic 

Author: Bill Dye 

Summary: Line-oriented system 

Price: $35 (cassette); $40 (disk) 

Manufacturer: 

TransTek 

194 Lockwood Lane 

Bloomingdale. IL 60108 



creative coirepatiRg 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: Color Scripsit 

System: 4K or larger Color Computer, 

cassette 
Format: ROM pack 
Language: Machine language 
Author: Robert Kilgus 

Summary: Full-screen editing word 
processor 

Price: $39.95 

Manufacturer: 

Radio Shack 

Division of Tandy Corp. 

Ft. Worth, TX 76102 



more with it than playing games. Fortu- 
nately, the computer soon attracted a 
loyal following which took it quite seri- 
ously. Many of these people have pro- 
duced really useful software for the 
Color Computer, and two such indepen- 
dently-authored packages, Telewriter 
and C. C. Writer, figure in this piece. Ra- 
dio Shack has come around, too; their 
word processor. Color Scripsit, has to be 
considered a real contender. 



89 



Word Processors, continued... 

All right, so this is to be a comparison 
of three Color Computer word proces- 
sors out of the half dozen or so currently 
available. Is it really sensible to consider 
using the machine for this application? 
Well, I have done about two dozen arti- 
cles for magazines using all three of 
these programs. I also use the Color 
Computer regularly in preparing drafts 
of reports for my job. 

Until quite recently, all of my work 
was done with a cassette system; two of 
the three programs reviewed here now 
support disks — a worthwhile 

improvement. 

Finally, I should say something about 
doing word processing with the Color 
Computer keyboard: It isn't all that bad! 
True, it is closer to a calculator than it is 
to a typewriter, but the keys are nicely 
spaced and have good tactile feedback. 
A reasonable typing speed is attainable. 
If you want to push matters, it is even 
possible to retrofit the computer with a 
standard TRS-80 Model I keyboard; the 
built-in debounce routine of the Color 
Computer allows you to really move 
along. 

Enough. This is a software review. 
Rather than discuss the programs in- 
dividually, I will describe how each han- 
dles the major tasks required of any 
word processor. In this way, you may 
find it easier to compare them. I shall re- 
serve most of my discussion of special, 
unique features for the end of the article. 
Unless otherwise noted, anything writ- 
ten about Telewriter and C.C. Writer will 
apply to both casssette and disk versions. 

Text Input and Editing 

All three programs use a hierarchy of 
menus to set up the major operations, 
and each has some method for keeping 
the writer informed about the status of 
the system— e.g. the number of free 



/v, * / F *o~> The *.t»«i „( 




AAXW. Of P»i}fu RVO Oimt PAOCeSSIAC 



bytes remaining. Telewriter and C.C. 
Writer leave you with about 1 8,500 and 
19,000 bytes of working space, respec- 
tively, in a 32K computer. Scripsit (I'm 
going to drop the Color most of the time) 
comes in a ROM cartridge, leaving 
about 31,500 bytes of RAM for text in 
the same machine. This may compensate 
to some extent for its inability to use a 
disk. 

The corresponding text capacities for 
a 16K computer are about 2100, 4600, 
and 15,000 bytes, so you can appreciate 
the effect of program overhead. In my 



Telewriter manages to 
put 24 lines of 51 
characters on the 

display and still remain 
legible. 



experience, a double-spaced page of text 
with normal margins requires about 
1500 bytes. 

The most elementary function of a 
word processor is the storage and editing 
of text. These three programs take dif- 
ferent approaches to the job; it is even 
tempting to say that they have different 
philosophies. Telewriter is screen- 
oriented, meaning that you enter text 
continuously and can move the cursor 
over the material at random. Text input, 
editing, and deletion are not differen- 
tiated; you just type. The cursor can be 
moved one space at a time with the four 
arrow keys, or it can be zoomed along at 
high speed by simultaneously pressing 
an arrow and shift. You can scroll the 
display forward or backward by one 
screen page at a time, and you can jump 
up to the top or bottom of the text, or to 
the beginning or end of a given line by 
using an arrow together with the Clear 
key. 

By the way, this is a good time to get 
used to the idea of a specially-defined 
"control" key, since each of these pro- 
grams uses one or more. In the case of 
Telewriter. Clear is generally used to re- 
define the functions of other keys. 

The philosophy behind Telewriter is 
that once you have selected the Edit 
function from the main menu, your in- 
tent is to add text. Therefore if you place 
the cursor somewhere in the middle of 
your material and start to type, the new 
input is just inserted; you don't overtype 
anything. 

Deliberate action is required to erase 
material. The Break key erases one 
character at a time from the right of the 
cursor, while Clear and Break together 

90 



(but pressed in that order) erase to the 
left of the cursor. 

There is a special procedure for delet- 
ing large blocks of material: Move the 
cursor to the end of the block and mark 
it with Clear-E, then move back to the 
beginning of the block and use Clear-X 
to erase. This is typical of other block- 
handling procedures we shall discuss. 
When you have finished moving text 
around, a special Align command 
(Clear-A) cleans up the material, insur- 
ing that there are no partial lines or awk- 
ward divisions of words. 

One more thing about Telewriter: It 
employs a software-generated character 
set to make full-screen editing practical. 
Material appears on the screen in true 
upper and lower case (black on green), 
and the shift keys work just as they 
would on a typewriter. By reducing the 
spaces between characters and lines, 
Telewriter manages to put 24 lines of 51 
characters on the display and still re- 
main legible. The line length can be 
changed for printing. 

Color Scripsit uses a different ap- 
proach to full-screen editing. You begin 
by selecting the Edit Text option from 
the main menu to start writing. Later, 
moving the cursor to the middle of exist- 
ing material and starting to type will re- 
sult in the new material overtyping the 
old. You must leave Edit and enter a dis- 
tinct Insert mode to avoid this. 

The Scripsit control key is the Break, 
and Break-3 is the combination which 
gets you into Insert mode. The text 
"opens up" to accept new text, with 
everything after the cursor position 
dropping down a line. When you have 
finished making additions, the Clear key 
closes the text and returns you to Edit 
mode. 

The procedures for deleting text 
(other than by overtyping) are similar to 
those used in Telewriter. The Clear key 
deletes the character immediately to the 
right of the cursor, while the Shift-Clear 
combination deletes to the end of the 
next word. There is also a block delete 
function. First you mark the beginning 
of the block, then the end, and finally 
you use the Clear key to actually do the 
deletion. 

Scripsit also allows you to scroll 
through a mass of text, although there 
are no commands for jumping by a com- 
plete page at a time. You can skip from 
any point to the top or bottom of the 
text, however. The Scripsit display is cer- 
tainly unique: everything is in upper 
case, with capital letters displayed in yel- 
low on a red background, lower case let- 
ters the reverse. This can be a little 
confusing in the beginning if you use a 
black and white receiver, because the 
contrast is reversed from that in Basic 
programs. 

March 1983 e Creative Computing 



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Word Processors, continued... 

The conventional display is 32 col- 
umns by 14 or 15 lines; one or two lines 
are reserved at the bottom for status 
information. When the line length is 
later reformatted for printing, Scripsit 
shows you how the text will appear. The 
video display then becomes a 32-column 
window which can be scrolled hori- 
zontally as well as vertically. 

C.C. Writer takes a very different 
tack. It is a line-oriented system which 
assigns a reference number to every sen- 
tence. You must remember to terminate 
every sentence with an Enter command, 
rather than typing your text continu- 
ously. The program inserts spaces be- 
tween sentences when printing the text, 
of course. 

With C.C. Writer, text entry and 
editing are completely separate opera- 
tions. The sole exception is your ability 
to edit the current sentence before hit- 
ting Enter. You can backspace to correct 
an error, although this erases anything 
typed after the mistake was made. Once 
material has been entered, you must 
leave Enter mode, return to the main 
menu, and select one of two other 
modes: Edit, for working within one sen- 
tence at a time, or Insert/Delete/ 
Move, for performing one of these three 
operations on a complete sentence or 



C.C. Writer uses the 
standard Color Basic 

font, with reverse 

video denoting lower 

case. 



group of sentences. The Edit mode also 
has Insert, Delete, and Change sub- 
modes. 

This is beginning to sound much 
worse than it really is. In practice, you 
return to the main menu by typing 
Slash-q (that's right, Slash is the C.C. 
Writer control character), and thread 
your way through a couple of prompts 
to arrive at Local Edit. If you know the 
reference number of the sentence on 
which you want to work, you specify it: 
otherwise, keep hitting Enter to invoke 
the Line Seeker, which allows you to use 
the arrow keys to scroll up and down 
through the text. When you find the tar- 
get sentence. Enter re-invokes the editor. 
Now, you can move the cursor to the de- 
sired position and use i, d, or c to insert, 
delete, or change material. 

A prompting line keeps you informed 
as to which mode or sub-mode is in op- 
eration at any time. Insertion works just 
as for Scripsit, deletion is performed one 

March 1983 c Creative Computing 



character at a time by depressing the d 
key, and change is an overtyping opera- 
tion. You must work your way back to 
the main menu eventually, but this is 
made easy by the generous use of 
prompts. 

Large chunks of text must be deleted 
one sentence at a time. The Delete op- 
tion of the Insert/Delete/Move com- 
mand is selected, and you are prompted 
for a line number. If you specify one, the 
computer prints the line and asks you to 
verify your intent to delete it. If you 
agree, the line is killed and you are asked 
to specify another. If you have specified 
the wrong line, a negative answer saves 
it and returns the prompt. 

Incidentally, only the cassette version 
of the program uses the three-way 
Inscrt/Delete/Move. The disk version 
has separate commands for each of these 
options. 

C.C. Writer uses the standard Color 
Basic font, with reverse video denoting 
lower case. Relatively little text is visible 
at any one time, because of the start-of- 
line prompts and reference numbers. 

Embedded Commands 

Word Processors must provide for 
embedded comands — special instruc- 
tions for modifying the text format as it 
is printed. These must be incorporated 
into the text, and the program must rec- 
ognize them as commands and execute 
them without printing their literal form. 
Special control characters are the order 
of the day. 

Telewriter uses the Clear-Period 
combination to generate a small carat, 
which can be followed by one or more 
commands. The commands themselves 
are much the same as those used by the 
print formatting menu, namely a capital 
letter followed by a number. For exam- 
ple, M20 resets the left margin to 20 
spaces, and C40 tells the printer to 
switch to 40-character lines. 

Embedded commands must appear on 
their own lines, without other text, and 
must be indented by at least one space. 
You can "stack" several of them on one 
line, and there is no particular order in 
which they must appear. There is a fairly 
complete set of such commands, includ- 
ing five which control the fonts of an 
Epson MX-80 Printer, and provision has 
been made for the user to define his own 
commands. These would normally be 
strings of ASCII control codes to be exe- 
cuted by the printer. 

The embedded command syntax is 
also used for a few other purposes: 
centering a line of text, aligning partial 
lines with the left margin, or defining a 
header to be printed at the top of each 
page, for example. One thing which 
Telewriter unfortunately does not pro- 
vide for is the setting of tabs. It comes 

93 



with predefined tabs every eight po- 
sitions, which is really too much for 
indenting a paragraph. You must, there- 
fore, punch the spacebar five times or so 
to get indentations. 

Color Scripsit is a little less versatile in 
this area. You can set tabs, center a line, 
define headlines and footers, and change 
from left to right-justification, but that's 
about it. Line length, and margins, to 
mention a couple of major parameters. 
can be set only once for the entire docu- 
ment. This is unfortunate, because a 
standard method of setting off a direct 
quotation or other material is to print it 
with wider margins (shorter lines) than 
the main text, perhaps single-spaced in 
an otherwise double-spaced manuscript. 
You can adjust the margins with ju- 
dicious use of tabs, but is not convenient. 
The embedded commands in Scripsit 
are set with the Break-number key 
combination. Tabs are set by spacing 
over the desired distance and hitting 
Break-5, for instance. The manual de- 
scribes a much more complicated proce- 
dure, for unknown reasons. 

To change line alignment, you place 
the cursor on any blank space in the line 
on which you want realignment to begin, 
and enter Break-6. A three-option menu 
comes up, giving you a choice of flush 
left, flush right, or centered text. Note 
that •flush right" is not right justifica- 
tion, i.e. the padding of text with extra 
spaces to fill the lines. In any case, after 
you make your selection it is marked in 
the text by a nonprinting character, a 
green-and-black graphics block. All of 
the alignment commands are toggled 
and remain in effect until reset. 

In C.C. Writer, embedded commands 
appear at the beginning of the first line 
to which they are relevant. They take 
the form of a slash (/) followed by a 
lower case letter and a number where 
appropriate. For example, /c centers the 
following line, /s4 skips four lines, and 
/p skips one line and starts a new para- 
graph (the indentation is set in the print 
format menu). There is limited control 
of line length: the /i command indents 
both margins by five spaces until can- 
celled by another /i. There is an implied 
hierarchy to the commands, but it rarely 
causes any problems. 

Other Editing Functions 

I have already described how the 
three programs go about deleting blocks 
of text. All three also have the ability to 
move pieces of text around, which is one 
of the great features of word processing. 
Telewriter and Scripsit handle this job in 
similar ways: the beginning and end of 
the block are marked, and the move is 
then accomplished by designating the 
new location. Telewriter uses Clear-B to 
mark the beginning, Clear-E for the end, 



1 



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Word Processors, continued... 

and Clear-C to copy the block to its new 
location. This is a copying operation, not 
simply a move, so the original block 
must still be deleted. Scripsit uses only 
one command, Break-9, to mark all 
three locations of interest for a move. If 
you want to copy a block of text, use 
Break-: for the three commands. 

With C.C. Writer, you must call up 
the Move command (disk version) or op- 
tion (cassette version). You then use 
Line Seeker to move through the text to 
the beginning and end of the selected 
block, which you identify by entering B 
and E. Finally, you move to the sentence 
in front of which you want the material 
to be inserted, and enter T (for Target) 
to complete the move. There are no pro- 
visions for copying material. 

All three programs have provisions 
for finding a specified character string 
and either changing it or not, at your op- 
tion. In Telewriter. Clear-G allows you 
to specify both the character pattern to 
be found and its replacement. With the 
text screen on display, Clear-N causes 
the cursor to jump to the next occur- 
rence of the search text; Clear-R causes 
a specific occurrence to be replaced. You 
can get pretty speedy at this by holding 
down the Clear key and alternating be- 
tween N and R with two fingers of the 
left hand. 

You can use this technique with a null 
entry as the replacement string to delete 
selected occurrences of a word or 
phrase. 

Scripsit works in similar fashion, with 
Break-7 as the command for specifying 
the target and replacement strings. The 
Enter key steps you through the text 
from one occurrence to the next, and at 
each one you have the option of chang- 
ing, leaving unaltered, or changing all 
subsequent occurrences of the target. 




"...// i a word processor....*** fust made ihis 
12 layer fudge tone from n volumes of the 
decline ami fall of the Roman Empire 



And C.C. Writer? Here you have the 
Global Edit command or option, which 
will prompt you for the traditional two 
strings. At every occurrence you can en- 
ter n to skip, or just use the enter key to 
make the replacement. 

Print Formatting 

Although embedded commands take 
care of incremental changes, all three 
word processors need separate format 



Scripsit offers the 

option of recording 

files on tape in ASCII 

format, which means 

that it can be used to 

compose and edit 

Basic programs. 



menus to set most of the parameters 
which govern the appearance of the 
printed page. The degree of control var- 
ies quite a bit between programs. 

The format menu for Telewriter is the 
most elaborate, largely due to the pro- 
visions made for interfacing with the 
MX-80. It also affords the user an 
opportunity to change the baud rate for 
transmission from computer to printer; 
the default is 600 baud, but there are 
provisions for going as high as 4800. Of 
course, conventional print parameters 
such as side, top, and bottom margins; 
line length; and spacing can all be 
controlled. 

A single-letter command is used to 
generate a flashing cursor next to the de- 
sired command; the default values are all 
displayed, so it is an easy matter to de- 
cide which ones you want to change. 
One which will almost certainly change 
is the number of characters per line. The 
default is 50 to match the width of the 
screen display, but 60 is a much more 
reasonable value for printing on 8'/ 2 x 11 
paper. 

One useful feature is the ability to 
print only a portion of the material in 
the text buffer. This is especially useful 
for previewing a piece of text with a 
complicated format, for example. It just 
calls for a little coordination. First, the 
end of the desired text block is marked 
with Clear-E while in the Entry/Edit 
mode. The cursor is then moved back to 
the beginning of the block, and the 
Clear-M command is given to return to 
the main menu. Now the F command 
gets the format menu, and finally the % 
key performs the desired partial print. 
There is an analogous partial save com- 

96 



mand for recording part of the text 
buffer to tape. 

As I shall discuss a little later, 
Telewriter supports chain printing — the 
stringing together of several text files 
from tape or disk to create a long docu- 
ment. The format menu controls this by 
asking for the number of files in the 
queue. This should be one less than the 
total number of files you plan to print, 
since the first one must be loaded into 
RAM before you start printing. 

Color Scripsit employs a considerably 
shorter format menu, which it calls stan- 
dards. It affords control over the basic 
size parameters, though, and includes a 
couple of special features: the option to 
print in all capitals and a hyphenation 
minimum. The former would seem to be 
a real curiosity, until you consider that 
Scripsit offers the option of recording 
files on tape in ASCII format, which 
means that it can be used to compose 
and edit Basic programs. The all capitals 
option must be used if such files are to 
be read properly by the Color Computer. 

What about hyphenation? Scripsit can 
identify words which are candidates for 
hyphenation, so that their first halves 
can be moved up to help fill out a short 
text line. This can improve the appear- 
ance of a printed document. To invoke 
hypenation from the Edit mode, use the 
command Brcak-8. The cursor will 
move to the first word that can be 
hyphenated, although it may not stop at 
the first letter of a syllable. Move it back 
with the left arrow key until it is so po- 
sitioned, and press Break-0. The letters 
to the left of the cursor will shift up to 
the end of the previous line, followed by 
a hyphen. Normally, the program will 
identify words that can be hyphenated if 
at least three characters fit on the pre- 
vious line; this is the "hyphenated mini- 
mum" which can be changed on the 
standards menu. 

Scripsit has one quirk which must be 
taken care of with this menu. The de- 
fault for the number of print lines per 
page is 66, which is appropriate for an 
1 1 " page; however, if you plan to print a 
double-spaced document, you must 
change this to 33 to locate page num- 
bers, headers, etc., properly. The two 
other programs can figure this out for 
themselves. 

The format menu for C.C. Writer 
called Page Controls, is fairly elaborate. 
It includes options for pausing at every 
page break, ejecting the last page of a 
document, setting the paragraph in- 
dentation, and specifying a header to be 
printed on every page but the first (the 
other programs incorporate headers 
with the text). It is unique in that it also 
has a true right justification option. It 
can also be a little maddening, at least in 
the cassette version, because to change 

March 1983 c Creative Computing 




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Word Processors, continued... 

one of the parameters you must review 
the entire menu twice. 

You must step the cursor through ev- 
ery option even if you decide to change 
nothing; change one parameter, and you 
must review the whole list again It in- 
creases your chances of getting the setup 
you want. I guess. Things are somewhat 
better with the disk version in which 
your personalized defaults are stored 
and called up for each document. 

Handling Storage Media 

The three programs vary in the degree 
of flexibility with which they interact 
with tape or disk, telewriter and C.C. 
Writer allow you to chain files together 
during printing, while Scripsit relies on 
its larger buffer to hold anything you. 
might want to print. I have already men- 
tioned that telewriter requires the num- 
ber of files in the tape queue to be 
specified: with C.C. Writer, you use an 
embedded command to specify the next 
file to be printed. The syntax is /d fol- 
lowed by the next filename, and this 
must be the last line in a file. 

The inability at Scripsit to chain print 
can be a liability; the draft of this review 



Telewriter and Scripsit 

share the ability to 
append a recorded file 
to whatever is in RAM. 



comes close to filling its buffer, for in- 
stance. Of course, you can always print 
one file, manually position the tape and 
read the next file into memory, print 
that one. etc.. but this is awkward. The 
text would be broken up with large 
white spaces, too. because Scripsit auto- 
matically advances to the top of the next 
page after finishing a printout. 

Each program has a noteworthy me- 
dia-handling feature or two. I have al- 
ready mentioned the telewriter Partial 
Save. Another particularly useful com- 
mand is verify, which allows you to 
check the integrity of a recorded file be- 
fore clearing RAM for further work. 
This is of particular value when working 
with a 16K computer and cassette re- 
corder; I have written things that re- 
quired the chaining of more than 20 
files, and you'd better believe that I was 
in no mood for an I/O ERROR message 
in the midst of a printing session. 

telewriter and Scripsit share the abil- 
ity to append a recorded file to whatever 
is in RAM. assuming the two will fit. 
telewriter even gives you a detailed mes- 
sage if the sum of the two files is loo 

March 1983 c Creative Computing 



large and tells you the amount of over- 
flow. The main menu command for the 
append function is \; a special com- 
mand is needed because a normal read 
destroys whatever was in the text buffer. 
The Scripsit read operation (Command 2 
from the main menu) is nondestructive 
in this sense, so the same command can 
be used to append text. 

The disk version of C. C. Writer has a 
very nice feature: single-keystroke com- 
mands to make a backup copy of what- 
ever is in the text buffer. A B command 
from the main menu will cause the text 
to be written to a disk file called 
BACKUP/CCW. Entering an isolated 
lower case b from the Type (input) mode 
will do the same thing — very handy if 
you want to leave the keyboard for a few 
moments in the midst of a long session. 

Some Opinions 

In this review. I have tried to give you 
a feeling for what it is like to work with 
telewriter. Color Scripsit. and C.C. 
Writer. Of course, almost every aspect of 
each of these programs has subtleties 
thai I haven't discussed. There would be 
no point in my reproducing the instruc- 
tion manuals, after all. What I would 
like to do, though, is share a few im- 
pressions I have gained through working 
with the three programs. These are 
highly subjective, but they may still be of 
interest to anyone contemplating the 
purchase of a Color Computer word 
processor. 

I think that the strongest of 
telewriter's features is the free-wheeling 
mode of operation which its full-screen 
editing promotes. My own writing style 
is rather loose and floppy; I skip back 
and forth to change the last paragraph, 
add to the current one, and so on. Some- 
how, telewriter seems to fit my undisci- 
plined style; switching between text 
entry and correction modes just slows 
me down. 

The relatively high-density format 
helps, by making so much of the text vis- 
ible at any time. All in all, I think 
telewriter gives the user the best control 
over the appearance of the final printout, 
too, although I still regret the absence of 
a tab setting command. 

Color Scripsit does almost everything I 
need, but a few things do get in the way 
I have mentioned the lack of file chain- 
ing, which would never come up at all if 
I wroter shorter pieces; the inability to 
scroll back and forth by a page at a time; 
and the requirement to go into Insert 
mode to add text to the middle of a file. 
To these I should add the use of re- 
defined number keys, rather than letters, 
for commands and menu selection. The 
simple fact is that there is no mnemonic 
relationship between Break-5 and the 
tab setting function; wouldn't Break-T 

99 



have been better? At the very least. Ra- 
dio Shack should furnish a keyboard 
overlay with this package. The proce- 
dure for defining headers and top and 
bottom margins also seems more 
cumbersome than necessary. 

What do I like about Scripsit? Well, I 
think the hyphenation function is neat, 
and so is the Print to Tape option which 
writes files in ASCII format. The eon- 



Together with other 
recently announced 

word processors, these 
three give Color 

Computer owners quite 
a reasonable choice. 



cept of using a word processor to com- 
pose a Basic Program seemed a little 
strange to me at first, but the ability to 
find and change character strings has 
come in handy for renaming variables 
and for adjusting line numbers in the 
middle of a program. This dual-purpose 
operation might be an important consid- 
eration if you are really interested in 
keeping down the cost of your software 
library. 

The ability of Scripsit to print text 
flush against the right margin is useful 
for special jobs such as return addresses 
on business letters, but it doesn't take 
the place of true justification. I think 
that the appearance of correspondence is 
much improved by straight left and right 
margins. This is the unique province of 
C.C. Writer, at least among the three 
programs discussed here. 

The C.C. Writer justification routine 
is too slow to be useful for a long manu- 
script, though. This may be due in part 
to the program being written in 
Basic — another unique point. The 
advantage to this, of course, is that you 
could probably "customize" your own 
copy of C.C. Writer fairly easily. 

The Bottom Line 

Here's the bottom line: Each of these 
programs has its strengths, although dif- 
ferences in working styles could make 
for some real mismatches between writ- 
ers and software in individual cases. To- 
gether with other recently announced 
word processors, these three give Color 
Computer owners quite a reasonable 
choice in applying their machines to pro- 
fessional and personal writing. 

Try to think about your own needs 
and style of operation, and make allow- 
ances for future development of both 
when selecting one. 



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Epson HX-20 Computer 



7" 



1 



computing 
equipment 
evaluation 



If you have picked up just about any 
computer magazine in the last six 
months you have probably seen the dou- 
ble page ad spread in which the Epson 
HX-20 is pictured full size. Indeed, the 
unit could almost have been pictured on 
a single page, since it measures just 
8V/X 11%*. Its height is a diminutive 

1'/ ". 

But that's nothing new, you say. The 
Sinclair ZX80 is about one half the size 
of the HX-20 and it has been out for sev- 
eral years. True, but at the risk of 
offending scores of loyal Sinclair owners, 
let me observe that the Epson has a great 
deal more capacity and capability built 
in. I was tempted to say that the HX-20 
is a "real computer," but that would 
have been a low blow, and incorrect 
too— the ZX80 and 81 are as real as any. 
In addition to small size, the other 
main thing that sets the Epson apart 
from the field is built-in battery power 
for true portability. 

While we cannot report definitively 
about reliability and support, we specu- 
late that they are likely to be excellent, 
given the outstanding reputation of 
Epson in the printer market. For a "one 
of the pack" company three years ago to 
emerge as the dominant supplier of dot 
matrix printers worldwide indicates they 
are doing a lot of things right. 
Contributing to this success is un- 
doubtedly some guidance from the Seiko 
parent company, but mainly an excellent 
management team in the U.S., Japan, 
and other countries. 




Hgure^^p^ie^fHX^a The computer is about the size of a piece of paper. 



David H.Ahl 



A Compact Portable 

As mentioned above, the HX-20 is 
about the size of a three-ring binder and, 
at 3'/ 2 pounds, not much heavier. It fits 
easily into an attache case or slipcase. 
Unlike some portable videotape ma- 
chines that require a battery which 



Figure 2. Right side view of HX-20. 



weighs nearly as much as the machine it- 
self, the HX-20 rechargeable battery is 
built-in and included in the 3 'A pounds. 
The nickel-cadmium batteries can keep 
the HX-20 running for 50 hours, yet 
need only eight hours to recharge. This 
is very impressive since most ni-cad bat- 
tery run time to charge time ratios are 
just the opposite. 

Most calculators today, even the least 



Figure 3. Rear of HX-20. 




March 1983 e Creative Computing 



101 



Epson HX-20, continued... 

expensive units, have an automatic shut 
off. For example, APF units shut off 
automatically if nothing has been 
pressed after seven minutes. The HX-20 
lacks this feature which I found a bit 
surprising. 

However, when the HX-20 is shut off, 
it continues to trickle a small amount of 
power through the all-CMOS memory, 
thus keeping intact all the contents in 
memory. As long as the unit is re- 
charged from time to time, these pro- 
grams and data will be stored 
indefinitely. 

Full Stroke Keyboard 

The keyboard of the HX-20 is in the 
standard QWERTY layout with a few 
extra keys on the right side. In particu- 
lar, in addition to letters, numbers and 
the usual symbols, the HX-20 includes 
two kinds of brackets, four directional 
arrows, and five keys for providing 
instructions to the computer. These keys 
include home/clear, insert/delete, scroll 
up/down, number, and graph. 

The number key is, in effect, a type of 
shift key which engages a numeric 
keypad using the keys, mj,k,I,u,i,o,7,8, 
and 9. The graph key is also a type of 
shift key which produces block graphics 
and symbols from the keyboard. 

Above the keyboard to the right are 
eight function keys. Three functions are 
built-in: pause, menu, and break. The 
five other function keys may be pro- 
grammed by the user. 

As its name implies, the pause key 
causes a running program to halt tem- 
porarily. Hitting any key causes it to 
resume. 

The menu key brings up a menu on 
the screen. On the menu, Number 1 is 
always Monitor, 2 is Basic, and 3 
through 7 are user-written programs. 
More about this later. 

Break halts a running program and 
returns to Basic. The contents of mem- 
ory are not altered upon pressing it. 
The five programmable function keys 




Figure 4. The preliminary documentation was nearly three times as big as the 
computer. The final typeset and printed documentation is more manageable. 



come from the factory with certain func- 
tions preset: 



Key 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 



Standard 

AUTO 

LIST 

I.LIST 

STAT 

RUN 



Shifted 
Date/Time display 

LOAD 
SAVE 
TITLE 
LOGIN 



Functions such as list and run exe- 
cute the command when the key is 
pressed. Other commands such as load 
and save appear on the screen followed 
by a space and wait until the user fills in 
the rest of the command. 

Recessed on the right side of the com- 
puter toward the rear is a reset switch. 
Pressing it interrupts the computer and 
calls up the initial menu. Also on the 




102 



right side is an off/on rocker switch. 

Other external controls include two 
for the printer, an off/on slide switch 
and a paper feed button. A rotary view 
angle control on the left side actually 
changes the angle of the LCD elements 
of the viewscreen slightly to suit your 
operating position. You simply turn the 
knob until maximum contrast is 
achieved. 

An Open Window 

The display is a 20-character by 4-line 
liquid crystal display (LCD) unit. It is 
unlike a calculator in which each num- 
ber is formed from a combination of 
seven line segments; instead, the screen 
consists of 120 x 32 pixels or dots. 
Characters are formed within a 5 x 7 dot 
matrix. This means, of course, that 
lower case letters do not have real de- 
scenders as they do on full screen video 
displays. 

The screen is actually a "window" 
onto a much larger virtual screen. The 
size of the virtual screen can be defined 
by the user to be between 20 and 255 
characters wide and 4 to 255 lines high. 
This does not mean that you can define a 
screen measuring 255 x 255, because 
that would require far more memory 
than is available in the HX-20. 

The window may be moved hori- 
zontally and vertically with the arrow 
keys or, within programs, by using four 
Basic language commands: width, scroll, 
locate and locates. The locate command 

March 1983 e Creative Computing 



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Everybody) making money 
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Epson HX-20, continued... 

moves the cursor anyplace on the screen 
and automatically displays that portion 
of the screen in the display window. Lo- 
cates allows you to display any desired 
portion of the virtual screen in the LCD 
display window. 

Although the text is formed of pixels, 
Epson has chosen to offer two indepen- 
dent display modes, text and dot- 
addressable graphics. On the HX-20 
LCD display, these two display modes 
may be superimposed on each other; this 
is not possible on an external monitor or 
TV set. 

As delivered, the HX-20 does not 
drive a monitor or TV set; an extra mod- 
ule, which was not available at the time 
of this evaluation, is necessary. The 
specifications I was given for the display 
dimensions on a monitor or TV set 
sound a bit strange — 32 characters by 6 
lines. The graphics display was quoted 
as 1 28 x 96 pixels in monochrome or 128 
x 64 in four colors. 

Our friends at Personal Computer 
World in England tell us that if you use 
color, a bizarre addressing mode, in 
which there are 64 physical pixels verti- 
cally but 96 addresses, prevails. Hence. 
either 0,0 or 0,1 will light the pixel at 
0,0, but only 0,2 will light 0,2 and so on, 
alternately. That could lead to some "in- 
teresting" effects. 

Dual Processors 

The HX-20 represents a sharp depar- 
ture from conventional microcomputer 
architecture. It uses two 6301 (huh?) 
microprocessors, designed and manufac- 
tured by Epson. They are supposedly 
compatible with the Motorola 6800. 
Other computers with multiple MPUs 
usually use one for processing and mem- 
ory control and the other for I/O and 
display functions. In contrast, the MPUs 
in the HX-20 are in somewhat more of a 
master/slave relationship. 

The master MPU does the processing 



and also controls the memory, keyboard, 
display, clock, and barcode reader using 
external ROM while the slave MPU 
controls the printer, cassette recorder, 
RS-232 and high-speed serial ports, and 
the trickle power function when the unit 
is turned off. For these functions, the 
slave uses 4K of ROM which is on the 
MPU itself. Also on each MPU are 128 
bytes of RAM. The two MPUs commu- 
nicate with each other by means of a 
38,400 baud serial link rather than the 
parallel link that one might expect. 

The HX-20 is delivered with 16K of 
RAM which is optionally expandable to 
32K. with an external module. We ex- 
pected that a compact unit like the HX- 
20 might use 64K. memory chips. It does 
not; the built-in 16K is in the form of 
eight 16K bit chips. However, the 32K 
of ROM which contains the monitor, 
Basic language, and the like is found on 
four 64K bit chips. There is also a spare 
socket for 8K of expansion ROM. 



The screen is actually a 

"window" onto a much 

larger virtual screen. 



Built-in Printer 

On the top left of the HX-20 a small 
adding machine type printer is found. It 
uses rolls of plain paper 2 1 // wide. It 
appears that standard adding machine 
tape can be used in the printer. The rib- 
bon cartridge looks like a miniature ver- 
sion of the one in the MX-80 printer and 
is unexpectedly easy to replace. 

Up to 24 characters can be printed on 
one line 1.85" in length. The characters 
appear smaller than those produced on 
other printers, but are equivalent to 9- 
point type (the same as the type in this 






"f> 




"No interruptions please. I'm on a roll. " 



ABCDEf 9hol2345+!#*V.&0*< 
ABCDEf 9hj 12345+ ! #*"/.&< )*< 
ABCDEf 9hj 12345+ ! i*5*< >*< 

ABCDEf gh i j 12345+ ! "#«%& 
BCDEfghij 12345+ !"#•%*< 
CDE-fghi j 12345+ !"#*%«<<) 



106 



Figure 5. Print sample from the HX-20 
computer and MX-80 printer. Note the 
tighter 13 characters per inch spacing on 
the HX-20 print compared to the 10 cpi 
spacing of the MX-80. 

article). In fact, the MX-80 also pro- 
duces 9-point type. The difference is in 
horizontal spacing of characters; the 
MX-80 and other similar printers print 
10 characters per inch while the HX-20 
packs 1 3 characters per inch. 

For printing of graphics, this closer 
spacing leads to a crisper image than 
that produced by many dot matrix print- 
ers. Built into the firmware is a simple 
routine to get a screen print. Also, as 
mentioned above, i i is i is function key 
3. 

Printing speed is roughly 17 charac- 
ters per second or 42 lines per minute. 
The printer sounds like a swarm of an- 
gry hornets being driven from their nest 
The MX-80 sounds like a church mouse 
by comparison. 

The HX-20 can drive an external 
printer, however, at the time of this test 
we did not have an interface cable or the 
documentation to build one. 

Beeps and Boops 

Behind a Vt " 2" rectangle of holes 
under the LCD display is hidden a 
speaker. Well, not exactly. It is a piezo- 
electric device which can be pro- 
grammed to beep and boop at different 
pitches and durations. 

Within Basic is a command, sound 
p,d: The parameter p corresponds to 
pitch (four-octave range): while the 
parameter d corresponds to duration in 
tenths of seconds. 

External Devices 

Two external devices have already 
been mentioned, a printer and a monitor 
or TV. To connect to these and other de- 
vices, the HX-20 has two DIN connec- 
tors on the back. An S-pin socket is for 
RS-232C devices such as terminals. 
printers, modems, and even other 
computers. It communicates at speeds 
up to 4800 baud. 

A second 5-pin DIN socket has a 
maximum transfer rate of 38,400 baud 
for communicating to disk drives or, 
with an adapter, to a monitor or TV set. 

On the right side are four mini sock- 
ets, three of which hook up to an ex- 
March 1 983 c Creative Computing 






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Epson HX-20, continued... 

ternal cassette recorder. One socket is 
for input, one for output, and the third 
for motor control. The fourth mini 
socket is for a barcode reader. 

On the left side is a flat connector nor- 
mally covered by a piece of black plastic. 
This is a parallel connector for a 16K 
expansion RAM memory module. 

An optional device which, if installed, 
occupies the top right of the case is a 
microcassette recorder. This same space 
can also be occupied by optional ROM 
software modules. The microcassette re- 
corder is a digital unit, not audio, al- 
though it uses standard microcassettes. 
It reads and writes at a speedy 1300 
baud and can store about 50K bytes of 
data or programs on a 30-minute cas- 
sette. This is equivalent to about 40 dou- 
ble-spaced typewritten pages. A nice 
feature is an accurate tape counter 
which allows fast winding to a program 
or area of data before loading. This is 
not a manual counter as found on other 

Figure 6. Short HX-20 program to print a 
curve of a sine wave on the built-in 
printer. 



5 CLS 

200 1=0 

210 A»8+8*SIN(I> 

220 LPRINTTAB<A)>"X' 

230 I-I+. 3:GOTO210 



X 
X 



X 
X 



X 
X 
X 



recorders, but is in software. Very neat! 
The only other external device is a 6- 
volt power supply that plugs into the 
back of the HX-20. This is normally 
used for recharging and not for com- 
puter operation, although it can be if the 
batteries are low and you simply must 
use the unit. 

Basic Language 

Epson Basic, called EBasic appro- 
priately enough, is similar to Microsoft 
Basic, but was written by Ski Soft, Inc. 
of Cambridge, MA. 

To enter Basic, you simply select Op- 
tion 2 from the menu. Almost' like a 
mini-timesharing system, the HX-20 
gives you a choice of five program areas. 
If you do nothing, you will automati- 
cally be in PI (Program Area 1). To get 
into another area or program, you use 
the login command. If you want your 
program to be added to the menu list, 
you simply give it a title and it will 
automatically become the next one on 
the list. 

Once a program has a title and is on 
the menu list, it cannot be written over. 
Even giving the command new will not 



The printer sounds like 

a swarm of angry 

hornets being driven 

from their nest. 



erase it. This is a very valuable protec- 
tion device. Actually, it took me some 
time to find out how to get rid of a pro- 
gram; a null title seems to be the answer, 
i.e., TITLE"". 

Good editing functions such as auto- 
matic line numbering starting wherever 
you wish, line renumbering, delete, and 
non-destructive cursor movement are 
provided. Basic also provides a STAT 
command for getting the statistics on all 
the programs in the machine (title, size, 
available memory). 

The pause has a second very useful 
function when writing programs. In 
particular, it can be pressed while a pro- 
gram is listing. Remember, you see only 
four or fewer lines on the display. By 
pressing a number after pause you auto- 
matically set a scroll speed from very 
slow (9) to very zippy (1). 

To debug a running program, EBasic 
incorporates a trace mode. The com- 
mand tron turns on the trace mode. 
What this does is show on the display 
the line number of each new line as it is 
executed. Trace can be turned on and off 
from the keyboard or from statements 
embedded in the program. 

108 



100 


CLS 


110 


9 


120 


DISPLAV*=TWE* 


125 


LOCATE 6,1,0:PRINTDA 


TE* 




138 


LOCATE 6,2,0:PRINTTI 


ME$ 




140 


S0UND5, 1 


150 


IF DISPLAV$=TIME* TH 


EN 150 


160 


GOTO 120 


17:56:25 



Figure 7. Program to make the HX-20 
into an expensive digital clock, the date 
and time are displayed in the center of 
the screen. The program "beeps" as each 
new second is displayed. 



Basic has the usual numeric and string 
variables. Variable names may be up to 
16 characters long and must begin with 
a letter. Certain words that mean some- 
thing in Basic are reserved and may not 
appear in a variable name. For example, 
note is an illegal name because it begins 
with the reserved word not. There are 
137 reserved words. 

Commands may be issued in either 
upper or lower case; the HX-20 is case 
insensitive in this case (groan). Thus, al- 
though output statements (print, 
LPRINT) will preserve upper and lower 
case, the Basic language itself doesn't 
care. To it, the variable names MAX, 
Max, and max are all the same. 

Under the default conditions, the HX- 
20 allows for up to 200 characters in the 
string variable workspace. If this is not 
enough for a given program, the string 
space can be enlarged by the command 
clear. For example clear 1000 clears 
out an area which can store up to 1000 
characters. However, a large string space 
does not mean that you can have one 
string that is 1000 characters long; the 
maximum length of one string variable is 
255 characters. 

EBasic has a rich library of 38 nu- 
meric and 13 string functions. The ex- 
pected math and trig functions are 
present as well as many graphics and nu- 
meric conversion functions. The early 
copy of the manual with our HX-20 did 
not have all the functions fully defined 
or explained; some of them looked most 
unusual. 

Three interesting functions are day, 
date$, and timeS. Since low power is 
continuously applied to the memory of 
the HX-20, why not put in a piece of 
quartz and let the computer tell the day, 
date, and time (particularly if your par- 
ent company is Seiko)? That is what the 
designers did, hence, once entered, these 

March 1983 * Creative Computing 



THE CUSTOM 
APPLE 



& Other 

Mysteries. 



CREATE A WHOLE NEW WOMB OF POSSIBILITIES 
FOR YOU AND YOUR APPLE. 



Dateline: California, 
January 1983. 

I.K. Programmer, bit diddler and 
hardware hacker extraordinaire', wished 
that his APPLE computer had 6522 I/O 
capabilities available. 

To have that one enhancement 
would open new vistas in data acquisition 
and display, complete his project, and make 
him millions. 

"Gosh, wouldn't it be nifty?" 
exclaimed J. R. 

But alas, the lack of appropriate 
hardware prevented him from accomplishing 
his goal. 

J. R. looked everywhere in his local 
computer store for an interface or expansion 
board to solve his dilemma, but none were 
designed for the magnificent project he had 
in mind. 

"Shucks . . ." he stormed, "what 
am I to do?" 

Poor J. R. 

But then, just as he was about to 
give up all hope, a splash of color caught his 
eye over in the book section . . . 

The Custom APPLE 
& Other Mysteries. 

"Oh joy, Oh joy!" cried our hero. 
"This book gives me the information, 
specifications and references I need to do the 



hardware enhancements, whether I am a 
beginner or an expert, and provides me with 
the basic information required to write the 
software, common to many of the projects, 
myself. This book is just crammed with all 
kinds of neat stuff!" 

J. R. left the store, also an I JG book 
dealer, a very happy man. 



II InfrlrH ll»/«Wl»-r . I.Ufkinl »*~»W 

the custom npplc 

A« OTHER MVSTKRItS 



fa 




A Hardware and Software 
Modification Guide. 

The Custom APPLE & Other 
Mysteries provided J. R. with a number of 
data acquisition and control projects with 
camera ready printed circuit layouts like the 
6522 application interface board, an 8-Bit 
D/A and A/D converter, a sound and noise 
generator board, an EPROM burner board, 
an APPLE Slot Repeater, and included 
information on the APPLE as a square wave 
generator, the control of two stepper motors, 
connecting two 6502 systems, and lots lots 
more. 

Plug-In To Power 
And Get Turned On! 

The Custom APPLE & Other 
Mysteries is available for $24.95 at computer 
stores, B. Dalton Booksellers and 
independent book dealers around the world. 
If your dealer is out of stock, order direct 
from I.Hi. 

Include $4.00 for shipping and 
handling. Foreign residents add $11.00 plus 
purchase price. U.S. funds only please. 



I.Hi. Inc. 1953 West 11th Street 
Upland, California 91786 
Phone: 714/946-5805 

Helping You Help Yourself. 



s? 



i IJG Inc 1982 



CIRCLE 184 ON READER SERVICE CARD TM APPLE and APPLE II Trademarks ol APPLE Computer Inc 



Epson HX-20, continued... 

Figure 8. A simple game, "Hit or Miss, " 
is in the manual. In it you must fire a 
missile from the bottom of the screen to 
intersect a car at the top before it hits the 
running man. 



100 WIDTH20,64 

110 LOCATE4,2,0 

120 ' 

130 PRINVHit or Miss" 

140 ' 

150 FOR 1=1 TO 3 

160 FOR N=l TO 12 

170 SOUND N, 1 

180 NEXT N 

190 NEXT I 

196 CLS 

200 PR INT" A car will cha 

se" 

210 PRINT"a man. Press t 

he" 

220 PR I NT "spacebar to fi 

re a" 

230 PRINT"missile at the 

car. "; 
240 ' 

250 FOR D=l TO 500: NEXT 
D 

260 ' 
270 CLS 
2*0 ' 

290 XM=INT<RND(l>+15+3) 
300 PE«INT<RND<1)*5+1) 
310 VM=3 

320 FOR XC=1STO0 STEP-1 
330 LOCATE XC'2,0: PRINTC 
HR*(154>; 

340 LOCATE XC,0:PRINTCHR 
*<152>S 
350 A*=INKEV* 
360 LOCATE XM, VMrPRINT" 

370 IF VM<3 THEN VM=VM-1 

380 IF VM<0 THEN 470 

390 IF A$<>"" THEN VM=2 

400 LOCATE XM,VM 

405 PRINTCHR*(151>: 

410 SOUND XCPE 

420 IF VMO0 THEN 430 

425 IF XC=XM THEN 570 

430 NEXT XC 

440 ' 

450 'miss 

460 ' 

470 SOUND 0,20 

480 CLS 

490 LOCATE 5, 2,0:PRINT"V 

ou missed! " 

500 FOR 1=12 TO 1 STEP-1 

510 SOUND I, 1 

520 NEXT I 

530 GOTO 250 

540 ' 

550 'Hit 

560 ' 

570 LOCATE 2,2,0:PRINT"V 

ou hit it!" 

580 FOR 1=1 TO 3 

590 SOUND 2,3 

600 NEXT I 

610 GOTO 250 



values are available in programs. 

As with the functions, the expected 
numeric operators are all present. Bool- 
ean operators are also available, includ- 
ing the seldom seen implication (imp) 
and equivalence (kqv) in addition to the 
more common and, or, NOT, and XOR. 

The HX-20 has no calculator mode 
built in, per se. However, Basic has an 
immediate mode so that entering a com- 
mand such as print 3.25/.005 + 2.4 will 
cause the calculations to be performed 
and the answer to be displayed. Further- 
more PRINT can by typed as a question 
mark to minimize keystrokes. 

The HX-20 can perform calculations 
in both single- and double-precision (16 
digits) accuracy. Variables and data can 
be decimal, hex, and octal(!) integers. 

All the usual, expected statements and 
commands are in EBasic along with a 
few notable additions. In particular, an 
INPUTS statement is included; it reads a 
specific number of characters from the 
keyboard or a file and waits until they 
are all delivered before proceeding. 

Again, the file handling statements 



All the usual, expected 

statements and 

commands are in 

EBasic along with a 

few notable additions. 



are pretty much as one would expect, 
but with a few interesting additions. The 
function LOF returns the length of an 
open file in bytes. Each file is defined in 
the form "Device name: file name" with 
file name being optional. As on DEC's 
RSTS-1 1 (Resource Sharing, Time Shar- 
ing) system, a file can be easily directed 
to another device by simply changing 
the name. Recognized devices include 
the keyboard, display, internal and ex- 
ternal cassette recorders, RS-232 ports, 
and internal printer. We are told that I he- 
ROM software packs will be recognized 
also. 

Files may be saved in either ASCII or 
a compressed binary format. The files 
mentioned above (tape, printer, display, 
etc.) are all sequential files. However, 
liles in the RAM memory are random 




110 



access. In addition to allocating string 
space, the ci.t.ar command can be used 
to set aside protected file space. Once 
allocated, individual files can be defined 
in this cleared area using DEPFIL which 
defines record length and number of 
bytes from the beginning of the first 
record. All types of data may be mixed 
in a record. 

It would seem that RAM memory 
files would be quite useful for storing ta- 
bles of constants or conversion factors 
that must be frequently referenced or for 
storing data to be passed from one pro- 
gram to another. This sort of capability 
encourages structured programming 
since intermediate results are easily set 
aside for use in the next set of steps. 

The graphics commands are adequate 
if not extensive, psin lights up one pixel, 
PRESET turns it off, and link draws a 
line between two defined points, point 
is a cousin of PEEK in that it tells if a 
particular pixel is lit up. 

In summary, EBasic is sophisticated 
and well suited to the capabilities of the 
HX-20. We expressed disappointment in 
the Basic implementation for the DEC 
Rainbow 100 in that it did not take full 
advantage of the hardware; this Basic is 
quite the opposite. As would be ex- 
pected, the Basic tends to be oriented 
most strongly toward business, engineer- 
ing, and educational applications. 
Graphics games enthusiasts should look 
elsewhere. 

Monitor and Machine Language 

When you switch on the HX-20, the 
screen always shows the menu, the first 
three lines of which are always the same, 
namely: 

CTRL/® Initialize 

1 MONITOR 

2 BASIC 

The first line essentially says that 
pressing the control and ampersand keys 
together will initialize the computer. 
This clears all memory contents and the 
system clock. It also sets default values 
for memory size, and file space, and re- 
assigns the five function keys to the ten 
preset functions described above. Thus 
control/ € is a global and somewhat 
dangerous command. 

According to the rather sparse docu- 
mentation we had, more of which later, 
ihe monitor is interrelated with "assem- 
bly language" programming. Unfortu- 
nately the documentation provided no 
instructions whatsoever for writing ma- 
chine or assembly language programs. 
The closest we came to doing anything 
in assembly language was to use the 
MEMSET command to allocate space for 
programs below the space for Basic 
programs. 

If the processor is truly compatible 
with the 6800, then one could presum- 

March 1983 c Creative Computing 



HOME IS THE LAST PLACE . 
YOU SHOULD LEARN ABOUT A 
HOME COMPUTER. 



WANT TO LEARN SOMETHING 
ABOUT HOME COMPUTERS? 
HERE . IT'S FREE. 
AT HOME . IT COULD COST YOU. 
No one expects you to know 
everything about a home 
computer before you 
buy it. A fact 
which is not 
lost on 
our 



>/ 



competition. 

They know 
that an impressively low price can 
divert your attention from some depress- 
ingly cheap features. So that you won't 
know what you may be missing with 
their home computer until after it's been 
in your home for a while. 

At which point, naturally, it'll cost 
you to change your mind. 
IT'S EASY TO TFLL THE DIFFERENCE. 
Fortunately, you don't have to be 
a computer engineer to tell 
what makes the 
Commodore 
VIC 20™ su- 
perior to the 
competition. 
All you have to 
do is take advan- 
tage of three of your 
five senses. 
Use your sense of 
vision and read this comparison 
chart. You can see in black and 
white where two of our major 




competitors have skimped. Use 
sense of touch in the store 
You'll feel the VIC 20's su- 
periority immediately. It feels 
a lot more expensive than 
it is. 

If these two senses don't 
convince you that the VIC 20 
offers more for the money than 
any other home computer, simply rely 
on common sense. 
NOW THAT YOU KNOW HOW EASY 
A COMMODORE HOME 

COMPUTER IS TO OWN , FIND 
OUT HOW EASY IT IS TOlXPAND. 

One thing about home com- 
puters that you're bound to discover at 
home is that, once you learn what they 
can do, you'll want them to do more and 
more. To do this, you may need acces- 
sories called peripherals. These let you 




add peripherals. If that's what 
you think, you're once again playing 
right into the hands of our competitors. 

Because once they've gotten you to 
buy their home computer, for what 
seems to be a reasonable price, they 
have you hooked on their system. 

The costs of which, if you'll examine 
the chart below, can really start getting 
unreasonable. For example, while these 
computers may seem to be close to the 
same price to start, an expanded system 



EXPANSION COSTS 



VIC 20- or 
COMMODORE 64" 



TI99/4A" 



ATARI 400 * 



BASIC 



Peripheral 
Expansion System 

Disk Drive 



Disk Controller Card 

Modem 

Modem Interface 



Included 

Not 
Necessary 

$399.00 

Included 

109.95 

Included 



Included 

$249.95 

39995 
249.95 
224.95 
174.95 



$59.95 

Not 
Necessary 

599.95 

Included 

199.95 

219.95 



TOTAL 



$508.95 $1299.75 $1 079.80 



cturer s suggested M prices Prices oer Tl June December 1982 U S Consumer Products Suggested I 
Ann prices e«ect~e Julv 1. 198? Suggested Retail Price List 



get more out of a home computer by 
letting you put more into it. 

They include items like cassette 
recorders and disk drives to input data, 
modems for telecomputing and printers. 
And all VIC 20 peripherals are fully com- 
patible with the powerful Commodore 
64™ personal computer. 

PLAN AHEAD. 

When you start looking at your first 
home computer, you may think it's too 



can cost you twice as much with Tl or 
Atari as with the Commodore VIC 20 or 
Commodore 64. 
THINK OF IT AS BUYING A TOASTER. 

It's easy to fill up a computer ad 
with RAM's and ROM's, numbers and 
technical jargon. But when it comes right 



VICMODEIVl 



COMPUTER FEATURES 
Typewriter Keys 
Typewriter Feel 
Color Control Keys 
Graphics on Keys 
Reverse Letters 
Programmable Function Keys 
Works with TV or Monitor 
True Lower Case Letters 
DISK FEATURES 



VIC 20 TI99/4A ATARI 400 



Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

Yas 



Yes 



No 



No 
No 



No 
No 
No 
No 
Yes 
No 



No 
No 
Yes 
No 
No 
Yes 



xisnohocton PA 19428. C.rujdi-3370 Phermecy Ave- Agmcourt. Ontero. Caned. MIW2K4 



down to it, buying a home computer is 
just like buying anything else. It's impor- 
tant to know just what you're getting 
for your hard-earned money. 

And we hope we've accomplished 
that here by telling you about the cost of 
expanding your Commodore VIC 20 
or Commodore 64 computer. 

f K commodore 

v COMPUTER 

CIRCLE 130 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Epson HX-20, continued... 

ably use one of the many books on 6800 
programming to write code for the HX- 
20. I am not sufficiently versed in 6800 
programming, or any machine language 
programming for that matter, to experi- 
ment with this. 

The monitor commands allow dump- 
ing and changing blocks of memory and 
saving binary files on tape. The monitor 
also gives you the ability to change the 
contents of the various processor reg- 
isters and set breakpoints. One nifty 
command is k which allows you to set 
up a "boot" program which is automati- 
cally executed when the HX-20 is 
switched on. Hence, you could have the 
machine come up in Basic, a word 
processing program, or anything else 
you wanted. 

With the standard 16K memory, the 
amount of memory normally allocated 
to Basic programs is 12,891 bytes; an- 
other 500 bytes are allocated to variable 
and string file space; the balance is used 
by the system. Adding the 16K expan- 
sion memory pack increases the avail- 
able program space to 29,275 bytes. 

Other Software Packages 

At the time of our evaluation, none of 
the other software packages was avail- 
able. But at a recent conference, the 
Epson people were showing a pre-release 
version of a word processing package 
called Correspondent and mailing list 
program, MList. Both are to be made 
available "soon" on ROM packs. 

Other software packages in the works 
include a spreadsheet program, 
Epsoncalc; a database management 
package called Personal Office, and a 
sales order package which lets orders be 
recorded, issues receipts, and downloads 
order files to a host computer at the 
home office. 

Also in the works is a program writer 
type of package, DIY, along the lines of 
The Last One which is said to allow 
users to write software in plain English. 
We are somewhat skeptical about these 
type of packages, but this one could turn 
out to be better. 

Documentation 

At a recent conference, I held up the 
HX-20 in one hand and two fat three- 
ring binders of documentation in the 
other. I remarked that this is the first 
computer for which the documentation 
was larger and weighed more than the 
computer itself. Actually, that is not 
quite fair as the documentation I had 
was preliminary, double spaced and re- 
produced on only one side of the sheet. 
Presumably, when it is typeset and 
printed it will be considerably more 
compact. 

I had only the documentation for the 
Basic language which, as mentioned ear- 



Approximate Pricing 



Epson HX-20 plus A.C. recharger 
Same with carrying case 
Microcassette drive 
16K expansion memory pack 
Application ROM packs 
Acoustic coupler 
Monitor/TV adapter 
Barcode reader 



$795 
820 
135 
150 
100 
165 
n/a 
n/a 



lier, was produced by Ski Soft. The man- 
ual was an excellent combination of 
tutorial and reference material. Epson 
has a well-deserved reputation for user- 
friendly documentation, and this was no 
exception. Unfortunately, the manual 
lacked an index, a curious omission. 

Unfortunately, several letters and six 
phone calls to the Epson folks in Califor- 
nia failed to elicit a copy of the technical 
manual. Dick Pountain at PCW wangled 
a copy from the British distributor and 
he reports that it, like the Basic manual, 
is quite good. 

Dick reports that "the technical man- 
ual is remarkably detailed, going 



This is the first 

computer for which the 

documentation is larger 

and weighs more than 

the computer itself. 



through all the hardware down to the 
signal and timing level and ending with 
maintenance and repair instructions 
which are intended for the dealer and re- 
pair shop." 

In Summary 

The HX-20 is a quantum leap forward 
in putting the power and capability of a 
full computer in a compact package. It is 
aimed squarely at business and educa- 
tional users, both those willing to do 
their own programming as well as those 
seeking a turnkey machine. The planned 
software releases on ROM pack will en- 
hance the usefulness of the machine 
substantially. 

Personally, I believe the version that 
will have the widest acceptance is the 
one with the built-in microcassette re- 
corder. Although using an external tape 
cassette recorder saves a few dollars on 
the purchase price, it reduces portability 
and does not permit the use of the ex- 
cellent fast wind and seek capabilities. 
For many purposes, the built-in 
microcassette will obviate the need for a 
floppy disk drive (not expected out until 

112 



well into 1983). 

The quality of the full-stroke key- 
board is excellent, although because it is 
actually part of a printed circuit board, 
there is a noticeable "give" during fast 
typing. Strengthening or supporting this 
board would be a welcome modification. 
Nevertheless, it is certainly suitable for 
light word processing and I look for- 
ward to the introduction of the ROM 
pack. 

For working on a plane, train, or 
away from the office the HX-20 is un- 
rivaled. How often I have dreamed of 
having a spreadsheet or word processing 
computer with me on cross country or 
transatlantic plane trips! It would seem 
that the HX-20 is the answer to these 
dreams. 

The barcode reader is an interesting 
add-on that could open up a huge mar- 
ket for stock control and sales order 
applications. 

Given the immense marketing clout of 
the Epson organization, I expect the 
HX-20 to occupy a significant place in 
the computer market before too long. 
This suggests that many third party ven- 
dors will rush in to produce software 
packages which should contribute to the 
desirability and acceptance of the 
computer. 

Epson America, Inc., 3415 Kashiwa 
St., Torrance, CA 92505. □ 

CIRCLE 426 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




"Darn it.'— I replaced 4 perfectly good parts 
before I remembered I was working on our 
own computer!... " 



March 1983 » Creative Computing 



TRS-80 



HIGH CLASS PROGRAMS 

(on tape or disk) 
AT POOR MAN PRICES 



Get 12 tapes or disks a year containing over 75 quality programs — 
and pull ahead of the Joneses without joining the prodigal sons 

A subscription to CLOAD Magazine (tape or disk) consists of 6 to 8 
ready-to-load programs delivered by First Class Mail every month. 
Programs like CIA Adventure, Disk Mail, PILOT, Trend Calc, Pac Mania, 
Keyplus, and Stellar Empire 

No need to beg for a good software meal — Get a subscription to 
CLOAD Magazine. Or just go for hors doeuvres and try a back 
issue . . . 



The BoHom Line: 








Tape 


Disk 


1 year ( 1 2 issues) 


$5000 


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6 months (6 issues) 


S3000 


$5500 


Single Copies 






Back Issues 


$ 600 


$1100 


Good Games #1 


$1200 


$2300 


Adventures # 1 


$1300 


$2400 




California residents add 6% to single copies 

North America - First Class postage included 

Overseas - add $ 10 to subscriptions and i 1 to single copies Sent AO rate 

The Fine Print: 

All issues from Oct 78 available on tape Issues from Oct 82 available on disk, also 

Ask lor list (24 Level i issues also available) MasterCard/ Visa 

CIRCLE 127 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CLOAD 



MAGAZINE 
INC. 



RO. Box 1448 
Santa Barbara, 
CA 93102 
(805) 962-6271 



ONLY THE BEST SOFTWARE 
ON TAPE AT THE BEST PRICE 
(under 75 cents a program . . .) 

Get 1 2 tapes a year containing over 75 colorful programs — and give 
your typing fingers a vacation. 

A subscription to CHROMASETTE Magazine consists of 6 to 8 
ready-to-load programs on tape delivered by First Class Mail every 
month. Programs like Blockade. Drawer. Mansion Adventure. CK 
Monitor. Append. Germ, and Cataloger. 

Give yourself an extended holiday — Get a subscription 
to CHROMASETTE Magazine. Or just take 
a break and try a back issue (your fingers 
may never work again) 



Co/o 



* ad 'o Shaclc 

^co mpu r er 



TOP 



The Bottom Line: 

■■II? issuesi 14S0O 

6 montr* |6 rssu»-,| V> 00 

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MAGAZINE 



C<»iif residents add 6% to single copies 
North America — First Class postage included 
Overseas — add SI0 to subscriptions and SI 
to single copies Sent Ar 

MasterCard/ Visa 

The Pin* Print: 

All issues from July I* ask for list Progran- 

the extended BASIC nodes and occasionally for disks 

(805)963-1066 
P.O. Box 1087 Santa Barbara, CA 93102 



CIRCLE 128 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



ATARI 




TM 



EW LOWER PRICES new 




TOP SELLERS 



800 48K..$495 
400 16K. $209 



410 Recorder $75 

810 Disk Drive J419 

825 Printer $579 

830 Modem $155 

850 Interface $165 

481 Entertainer $ 79 

482 Educator $119 

483 Programmer $ 55 

484 Communicator $299 
853 16K Ram j 75 
The Bookkeeper Kit $ 1 69 

ATARI Software 

CX4104 Mailing List $ 19 

CX404 Word Processor $105 

CXL4007 Music Composer $ 45 

Programming 2 8 3 $ 22 

Conversational Languages $ 45 

CX4018 Pilot $ 59 

CX40S Pilot $ 99 

CXL4003 Assembler Editor $ 45 

CX8126 Microsoft Basic $ 67 

CXL4022 Pac Man $ 33 

CX8130 Caverns of Mars $ 29 

CXL4020 Centipede $ 33 

CXL4006 Super Breakout $28 

CXL4008 Space Invaders $ 28 

CXL4009 Computer Chess $ 28 

CXL4011 Star Raiders $33 

CXL4012 Missile Command $ 28 

CXL4013 Asteroids $ 28 

TheBookeeper $105 

Home Filing Manager $ 34 

Atari Speed Reading $ 54 

My First Alphabet $ 26 

Business & Utilities 

Visicalc $169 

Mail Merge $ 20 

Data Perfect $ 75 

Letter Perfect $105 

Tent Wizard $ 65 

Disk Detective $ 20 

Datasm 65 2 $ 59 

File Manager 800 ♦ $ 65 

Syn Assembler j 34 

p »9« 6 $20 

Atari World $39 

K-Dos j 59 

Micropainter j 23 

Color Print $ 27 

Lisp Interpreter $ 79 

Bishops Square $ 20 

Graphic Master $ 27 

Graphic Generator $ 1 7 

Basic Compiler $ 65 

Programming Techniques 

Display Lists $ ,7 

Horiz/Vert Scroll $ 17 

Page Flipping $ 17 

Basics of Animation $ 17 

Player Missile Graphics $24 

Sound j yj 

Data Files $ 24 

For- Fe»f Delivery, send certified or cashier 
checks, money orders, or direct bank wire 
transfers Personal checks allow 2 to 3 
weeks to clear Nevada residents add 
sales tax Prices reflect a cash discount 
only and are subject to change. Shipping 

— Software ($2.00 Minimum). Hardware 

— call. 

Foreign inquiries invited. Add 20» lor 
shipping. 



Atari 

Temple of Apshai $ 27 

Raster Blaster $ 20 

Apple Panic $ 20 

Crossfire $20 

Threshold $ 27 

Mousekattack $ 23 

Krazy Shootout $ 34 

Deadline $ 34 

Tumble Bugs $ 20 

Pool 15 $ 23 

Crypts of Terror $ 23 

Rrchochet $ 15 

Empire of the Overmmd $ 23 



Tanktics $ 20 

Match Racers $ 20 

Wiz 8 Princess $ 22 

Mission Asteroid $ 1 7 

Ah Baba 4 the Forty Thieves $ 22 

The Shattered Alliance $ 27 

Bug Attack $ 20 

Canyon Climber $ 20 

Shooting Arcade $ 20 

Pacific Coast Highway $ 20 

Clowns & Balloons $ 20 

Ghost Hunter $ 23 

Preppie $ 20 



Rear Guard $ 17 

Lunar Lander $ 17 

War $ 17 

Star Warrior $ 27 

Invasion Orion $ 17 

Dragon s Eye $ 20 

Crush. Crumble A Chomp $20 

Jawbreaker $ 20 

Zork I $ 27 

Zork II $ 27 

Softporn Adventure $ 20 

Deluxe Invaders $ 23 

Dodge Racer $ 23 

Chicken $ 23 

Nautilus $ 23 

Rescue at Rigel $ 20 

David's Midnight Magic $ 23 

Speedway Blast $ 27 

Frogger $ 23 

Gorl $ 27 

Miner 2049er $ 34 

Protector II $ 23 

Shamus $ 23 

Submarine Commander $ 34 

Jumbo Jet $ 34 

Bandits $ 23 




*** SPECIALS OF THE MONTH *** 

ELEPHANT DISKS (BOX) $ 22 

HAYES SMARTMODEM $209 

MOSAIC 32K RAM « 99 

RAMDISK (128K) $429 

AMDEK COLOR I MONITOR $309 

PERCOM DOUBLE DENSITY DRIVE $639 

NEC 8023A PRINTER $479 

BASIC A + « 59 

FLIP N' SORT DISKETTE BOX $ 2 1 

(Holds 50 Diskettes) 
FLIP-SORT CARTRIDGE BOX $ 2 1 

(Holds 10 Atari Computer Cartridges) 

AXIOM GP-100 GRAPHICS PRINTER $299 

AXIOM IMP-4 GRAPHICS PRINTER $499 

MOSAIC 64K RAM %w\ 

BIT 80 COLUMN BOARD $ 289 

ALL APX SOFTWARE 15% TO 20% OFF 

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1095 E. Twain — (702) 796-0296 

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We accept Major Credit Cards 

Mon.-Fri. 8 A.M. -6 P.M. 
Sat. 9 A.M.-5 P.M. 

Dealer Inquiries Invited 



Atari 

Automated Simulations 

Upper Reaches of Apshai (D, C) $ 15 

Curse of Ra(D.C) $ 15 

King Arthur's Heir (D) $ 20 

Escape from Vulcan's Isle (D) $ 20 

Crypt of the Undead (D) $20 

The Nightmare (D) $ 20 

Danger in Drindisti (D, C) $ IS 

Armor Assault (D) $ 27 

Monster Maze (CT) $ 27 

Alien Garden (CT) $ 27 

Plattermania (CT) $ 27 

Broderbund 

David's Midnight Magic (D) $23 

Track Attack (D) $ 20 

Star Blazer (D) $ 22 

ChopllMer(D) $23 

Deadly Secrets <D) $ 23 

Stellar Shuttle (D.C) $ 20 

Genetic Drift (0. C) $ 20 

Labyrinth (D. C) , .. $ 20 

Serplntlne(D) $ 23 

Sea Fox (D) $20 

Datasolt 

Spell Wizard (D| $53 

Sands of Egypt (D) $ 27 

O'Rileys Mine (D.C) $23 

Rosen's Brigade (D.C) $ 23 

Fathoms Forth (D) $ 23 

Gebelli 

Doctor Goodcode's Cavern (D) $ 20 

Firebird (CT) $ 34 

Embargo (CT) $ 34 

Innovative Design 

Pool400(CT) $27 

Speedway Blast (CT) $ 27 

JV Software 

Ghost Encounters (D. C) $20 

KByte 

Krazy Kritters (CT) $ 34 

KStar Patrol (CT) $ 34 

K-Razy Antiks (CT) $ 34 

LAS Computerware 

Crossword Magic (D) $ 34 

Lightning Software 

Master Type $ 27 

On-Line 

Frogger(D) $23 

Ulysses and The Golden Fleece (D) . $ 23 

Ultima I (D) $ 27 

Ultima 11(D) $ 39 

Roklan Corp. 

Soft (D)$27.(CT)$30 

Wizard of Wor (D) $27. (CT) $30 

Anti Sub Patrol (D)$20.(C)$15 

Sentient 

Cyborg (D) $ 23 

Gold Rush (D) $ 23 

Sirius 

Space Eggs (D) $20 

Sneakers (D) $ 20 

Cyclod(O) $20 

Snake Byte (0) $20 

Bandits (D) $ 23 

Way Out (D) $ 27 

Fast Eddy (CT) $20 

Deadly Duck (CT) $ 20 

World War I (CT) $ 23 

Beanie Bopper (CT) $ 23 

Strategic Simulations 

Battle of Shi Ion (D. C) $ 27 

Tigers in the Snow (0. C) $ 27 

The Cosmic Balance (D) $ 27 

Big Five Software 

Miner 2049er (CT) $ 34 

Bram Inc. 

Attack at EPCYG-4 (D) $22, (C) $20 



NEW FRIENDLY SERVICE 




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Checkers (D) * *• 

Odin (0) * 34 

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NumMi Crunch (CT) * 21 

Reaganomics (CT) * 27 

Spinnaker 

Snooper Troops »1 (D> * 30 

Snooper Troops #2 (0) * * 

Story Machine (Dl * 23 

Face Maker (D) * 23 

Swifty Software 

Haunted Hill (D)$20.|C)$ 17 

Trivia Trek (D) * 20 

Datalink(O) •• 27 

Space Shuttle (D) * 20 

Jerry Whites Music Lessons (D. C) $ 20 

Switty Tach Master (D)$20.(C)$ 17 

Synapse 

Protector II (D)$23.(CT)$ 29 

Chicken (D)$23.(CT)$ 29 

Slime (D)$23.(CT>$ 29 

Shamus (D)$23.(CT>$29 

Picknick Paranoia <D|$23.(CT)$ 29 

Claim Jumper (D)$23.(CT)$ 25 

Acocalypse(D.C) J 23 

Rapnllian(O.C) » 23 



Tronix 



Kid Grid (0. C) 



* 20 



Software 



Business & Utilities 

Supercalc S'79 

Superwr lief $239 

Desktop Plan 1 $199 

Vlsitrend/Plot 8190 

Visidex *'S» 

Vlslcalc S1W 

Visilile S199 

Wordstar K79 

Spellstar $169 

The Tai Manager SIM 

Spellguard 8"9 

Personal Invester $ 89 

The Home Accountant Plus $ 96 

Executive Accounting System $499 

Real Estate Analyzer II $159 

dBase II "59 

TIM. Ill S299 

Easy Speller $105 

Easy Filer $239 

Easy Writer II $209 

Easy Planner $159 

Peachtree G/L $329 

Peachtree A/R $329 

PeachtreeA/P $329 

Peachtree Inventory $329 



Milllken Publishing 

Ahencounter (Face Flash (D.C) $ 26 

The Jar Game/Chaos (0. C) $ 26 

Gulp/Arrow Graphics (D.C) * 26 

GolfClassic/Compubar $ 26 

Frenzy/Flip Flop (D.C) $ 26 

Battling Bugs/Concentration (D.C) $ 26 

Thorn EMI 

Submarine Commander (CT) $ 34 

Jumbo Jet Pilot (CT) $ 34 

Soccer (CT) $ 34 

Kickback (CT) $ 34 

Darts (C) * 22 

Snooker and Billiards (C) $ 22 

Pool(C) * 22 

Dominoes and Cribbage (C) $ 22 
Humpty Oumpty and Jack and 

Jiil(C) * 22 
Hickory Dickory Dock and Baa 

Baa Black Sheep (C) $ 22 
British Heritage Jigsaw 

Puzzles (C) * 22 
European Scene Jigsaw Puzzles (C) $22 

Owari and Bull and Cow (C) $ 22 

Datamost 

Pig Pen (0) * 20 

Intocom 
Starcrosa(O) * 27 

Zork III (O) * 27 

The Computer Outlet is an 
associate ol The Computer 
Learning Center for Chil 
dren We are experts in 
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Ten Little Robots (ATARI) $12 95 

PreSchool Math (ATARI) $19 95 

Funbunch — Elem $25 d 

Funbunch - Int $25 d 

Funbunch — SAT Prep $25 d 

Ships Ahoy Math $20 d 



Entertainment 

Frogger $23 

Ulysses & The Golden Fleece $23 

Cyborg $23 

Deadline $34 

Zork I $27 

Zortr II $27 

Apple Panic $20 

Temple ol Apshai $27 

Upper Reaches of Apshai $15 

Jabbertalky $20 

Curse otRa $15 

The Warp Factor $27 

Call to Arms $20 

Snooper Troops «1 $29 

Snooper Troops #2 $29 

Story Machine $23 

Face Maker $23 

Pig Pen $20 

Space Strike $20 

Lost Colony $20 

Galaxy $17 

Midway Campaign $15 

Computer Stocks and Bonds $17 

Voyager $17 

Draw Poker $15 




•*• SPECIALS OF THE MONTH *** 

SLAQH 24K MEMORY BOARD - VIC 20 $ 145 

VERBATIM DISKS(BOX) « 27 

HAYES SMARTMODEM 1200 $ 519 

WICO TRACKBALL * * 9 

WICO JOYSTICK * 23 

WICO JOYSTICK DELUXE * 28 

WICO FAMOUS RED BALL JOYSTICK $ 24 

CARDCO 6 SLOT EXPANSION MOTHER BOARD $ 79 

CARDCO 3 SLOT EXPANSION MOTHER BOARD $ 39 

CARDRITER LIGHT PEN (VIC 20) $ 29 

POINTMASTER JOYSTICK * 15 

USI AMBER MONITOR (12") $ 169 

KIDS AND THE VIC (BOOK) * 1* 

KIDS AND THE ATARI (BOOK) S 18 

Computer Outlet 

Park Place — Upper Level 

1095 E. Twain — (702) 7960296 

Las Vegas. Nevada 89109 

Ca F '^°" BOO-634-6766 ^y^ 

Order Inquiries (702) 796-5523 
We accept Major Credit Cards 

Mon.-Fri. 8 A.M. -6 P.M. 
Sat. 9 A.M. -5 P.M. 

Dealer Inquiries Invited 

CIRCLE 139 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SPECIALS 



Business 

Screenwriter II $ 99 

Visicalc3 3 $179 

The Word Handler $129 

Magic Window $ SS 

Magic Mailer $ 45 

Magic Words $ 45 

Real Estate Analyzer II $125 

Supercalc $179 

PFS Report (New) $ 65 

PFS: $80 

PFS: Graph $ 89 

The General Manager $97 

OB Master $159 

Pascal Programmer $ 89 

Pie Writer $ 95 

Wordstar $219 

Datafax $129 

Datalink $ 65 

The Home Accountant $ 52 

Payroll Manager $199 

The Basic Compiler $69 

Pie Writer'MuIti 80 column $105 

Pro Easy wnteKMail Combo $209 

Executive Briefing System .$139 

The Sensible Speller $ 89 

Peripherals 

Micromodemll $ 269 

Novation Apple-Cat II Modem $ 319 

The Joyport $ 53 

The Grappler Plus $129 

Game Paddles $ 28 

Ramplus32K $ 159 

Card Reader $1219 

The Clock $ 229 

Rana Elite One Disk Drive $ 369 

System Saver $ 65 

NEC 3510 Printer $1699 

NEC 12" Green Screen Monitor $ 169 

Microline 84 Printer $1089 

Amdek Color II Monitor $ 899 

Versa Writer Graphics Tablet $ 209 

Ramcard $ 139 

Soltcard $ 249 

Entertainment 

BezWars $ 19 

Bez Man $ 15 

Baseball $20 

Ah Baba & The Forty Thieves $ 22 

Fly Wars $ 20 

Kabul Spy $ 23 

The Gauntlet $ 24 

Sea Fox $ 20 

The Oueen ot Phobos $ 23 

Zero Gravity Pinball $20 

Amoeba Man $ 24 

Marauder $ 24 

Knight ol Diamonds $24 

Cytron Masters $ 27 

Star Blazer $ 22 

Swashbuckler $ 23 

Twerps $ 20 

Minotaur $23 

Lemmings $ 20 

Bandits $ 23 

Dueling Digits $ 20 

Cyclod $ 20 

Frogger $ 23 

Choplilter $ 23 

Serpentine $ 23 

David's Midnight Magic $23 

Escape (A2SG1) $22 

Congo $ 23 

Goldrush $23 

Pig Pen $20 

Cannonball Blitz $23 

Threshold $ 27 

Time Zone $ 85 

Ulysses 8 The Golden Fleece $ 23 

Gorgon $ 27 

Celling Zero $ 20 

Raster Blaster $ 20 

Pandora's Box . .S 20 

Guadacanal $ 30 

Juggles Rainbow $ 30 

Bumble Games $ 30 

Gertrude's Secrets $ 40 

Snooper Troops #1 $30 

Snooper Troops #2 $30 

Story Machine $23 

Face Maker $ 23 



The Apple lie Personal Computer 



creative 
computing 
equipment 
evaluation 



A First Hand Examination 



It was a November week of visits to 
computer and other high-tech compa- 
nies in California's Silicon Valley, a rich 
territory noteworthy enough to qualify 
for recent Sixty Minutes and National 
Geographic treatments. Highway 101 is 
the standard bus that connects the 
sprawling communities around San Jose, 
where the electronics industry knows lit- 
tle of recession. In fact, practically every 
office or factory visited fell into one of 
two categories. Either they had just 
moved into larger facilities, or expansion 
into a new building or wing was 
underway. 

Veil of Secrecy 

My job for the morning of the twelfth 
was to see firsthand one of the best kept 
secrets of the computer industry: the 
specifications and features of a machine 
that would have the onerous responsibil- 
ity of becoming the successor to the 
world famous Apple II Plus. All I knew 
about it was its name: Apple He. 

Directions I was given over the phone 
led me to a seven story Cupertino office 
building still undergoing final construc- 
tion and outfitting for its first round of 
tenants. Fortunately, the directions also 
included the floor on which the meeting 
was to occur, because the sparsely-filled 




Danny Goodman 



Danny Goodman. I75B Island View Lane, Harrington 
II. 60010. 



building directory did not list Apple 
Computer, nor anything else on that 
floor. "What better way to keep a secret 
than to have offices on an unlisted 
floor," I muttered to myself. 

When the elevator door opened, how- 
ever, I was unmistakably in the lobby of 
an Apple Computer facility. Literature 



An outgrowth of the 
flexibility of the II has 

been an enormous 

following of software 

developers. 



and retail displays boasting the merits of 
the Apple II Plus and Apple III added 
color to the predominantly grey color 
scheme. 

Our meeting was delayed a few min- 
utes at the bidding of a Murphy's Law 
application ("If anything can possibly go 
wrong, it will."). The room in which the 
new computer and its predecessor had 
been set up and checked out the night 

116 



before suddenly had no power at all. 
Such are the mysteries of working in a 
new facility. Critics of the dependence of 
a company or professional on a com- 
puter should note this incident and con- 
clude that we are instead dependent on 
more fundamental needs. Electricity, for 
example. 

Before long, I met Paul Dali, general 
manager of Apple's Personal Computer 
Systems Division. Together we entered a 
small meeting room with what at first 
looked like two Apple II Plus 
systems — both with tops removed — set 
up along the windows. But no, the two 
machines were decidedly different. 

Apple II Facts and Figures 

As background to the development of 
the new model, Paul analyzed the suc- 
cess of the Apple II. He noted that over 
the years Apple has been pursuing five 
distinct markets with the Apple II. First 
is the office, where a computer is used as 
a productivity tool in basic tasks such as 
word processing, database management, 
communications, and the like. Such 
productivity applications represent 
Apple's biggest market. 

Related to the office is the very small 
business market, a difference denoted 
not necessarily by company size (al- 
though generally with sales under $20 
million) but by specific applications for 
the business — vertical systems, Apple 

March 1983 c Creative Computing 



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Parallel card w/cable $ 79.95 

Grafitti Card * 94.95 

Kensington System Saver $ 64.95 

Hayes Micro Modem II $274.95 

Micro Modem w/Terminal Program $289.95 

Hayes Smart Modem 300 Baud $209.95 

Rana Elite w/controller $389.95 

Rana Elite $314.95 

IBM Personal Computer 

Microsoft 256K Ramcard $629.95 

Printer Cable (IBM.) - $ 39.95 

VisiCalc $179.95 

VisiFile $224.95 

BLANK DISKETTES 5%" SS, SO 

ELEPHANT (10) $21.95 

VERBATIM (10) $28.95 



PRINTERS 

NEC 8023AC $469.95 

EPSON MX 80 FT III with Graftrax Call for 

EPSON MX 100 Prices 



MONITORS 

AMDEKColorl $319.95 

NEC 12" Hi-Res Green $169.95 

NEC IBM-PC Hi-Res RGB Color $699.95 

Videoterm $239.95 

Enhancer II $11995 

Joyport $ 39.95 



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ATARI 400 $219-95 

ATARI 810 Disk Drive $419.95 

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UPS Shipping: 3% for Hardware. $3 for Software. Sorry No COD Orders. 




CIRCLE 207 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Apple He, continued... 




calls them. Into this category fall uses 
such as accounting, payroll, credit union 
systems, and banking systems. He es- 
timated that today there are about 
250,000 Apple lis in the office, and that 
most of these were brought into the of- 
fice initially by an individual who spent 
his or her own money on the unit. 

A third market — and still quite a large 
one at that — is the educational one. 
Twenty-five percent of Apple's sales are 
to the educational market — I would 
never have guessed such a large figure. 
The balance of Apple lis go to the 
scientific/industrial and family/ 
consumer markets. 

Addressing so many and such diverse 
markets should be a nightmare for any 
kind of product. But the Apple II has a 
built-in feature that lets it meet needs in 
all these areas: expansion slots. The unit 
is an open system that lets the user put 
in anything that transforms the basic 
machine into a special purpose com- 
puter. Paul summarized the Apple II 
this way, "Flexibility is and always will 
be the single biggest reason why the ma- 
chine sells. It is so adaptable." 

An outgrowth of the flexibility of the 
II has been an enormous following of 
software developers. Apple counts well 
over 10,000 programs available for the 
II. Paul maintained that the installed 
base of the II is so big that it represents a 
market too big for programmers to over- 
look. "We can't stop the software 
development momentum. Every time 
someone writes more software, they'll 
tend to write for the Apple also." 

Although the Apple II has gone 
through some revisions during its life- 
time (replacing 4K RAM chips with 
16K chips, improving color graphics, 



and meeting FCC radio frequency 
requirements), the basic features have 
remained essentially unchanged. The 
mother board has seven expansion slots. 
The display output is a 40-column width 
format and characters are shown in up- 
per case only. Finally, the Apple II has 
exhibited a good reliability record, 
according to an informal and totally un- 
scientific dealer poll I have taken over 
the years. 

Paul was quick to point out that de- 
spite its popularity, the Apple II Plus 
has several disadvantages. Lower case 



A number of significant 
changes were made in 

the manufacturing 

process of the lie as 

well. 



letter display is not standard. On-board 
memory (RAM) is limited to 48K. The 
teletype-like keyboard has a limited 
character set. The attachment of 
peripherals (printers, modems, game 
controllers, etc.) requires removing the 
top and plugging onto the appropriate 
circuit card. An 80-column display 
(particularly useful in professional 
applications) is a costly add-on. And, al- 
though some of these deficiencies could 
be corrected with add-ons, not all cards 
were compatible with one another. 

(At this juncture, Paul and I were 
joined by Walt Broedner, who designed 
the insides of the new Apple, and Rick 

118 



Rice, production coordinator. Walt 
brought along a chip-filled circuit board, 
and Rick had a complete computer as 
props for their parts of the presentation. 
More about those later.) 

Enter Apple He 

Paul then went on to formally in- 
troduce the newest Apple, the Apple He, 
"e" for "enhanced." And enhanced it is. 
While the changes in the He will be 
more apparent to current Apple follow- 
ers, the end product for the first-time 
shopper is a machine with many built-in 
features. 

To the uncritical eye, the He cabinet 
looks like a clone of the II. The dif- 
ferences in appearance lie in the key- 
board (see below) and the logo. The 
proper designation is Apple //e (as in 
Apple ///), and the logo is now at the 
lower left corner of the removable top 
instead of at the bottom center. 

The basic ("vanilla," Paul called it) 
He will be sold with a minimum of 64K 
RAM, expandable to 128K with an 
additional memory board. That's getting 
the He up to where the Apple III starts 
taking over for heavy-duty business 
applications. 

Applesoft Basic is no longer on a sepa- 
rate language board that takes up an 
expansion slot. It is now resident on the 
motherboard as part of a new custom 
integrated circuit. 

Upper and lower case characters are 
both standard. Display characters on the 
monitor are composed in a 5x7 picture 
element array within a 7x9 field, allow- 
ing for lower case descenders. 

The 63-key keyboard in many ways 
resembles that of the Apple III (without 
numeric keypad). The full 128-character 

March 1983 e Creative Computing 



The speed and power of an IBM PC 
on a $345 Apple® card. 




FAST 5 MHZ OPERATION, 
TRUE MULTIPROCESSING 

ALF's AD8088 Processor Card adds a fast 16-bit 
8088, the processor used in the IBM PC, to your 
Apple II. It runs programs from its on-board memory 
at a full 5 MHz— 12% faster than the IBM PC— while 
the Apple also runs at full speed. And two or more 
AD8088's can be used in one Apple, to tackle 
problems that are beyond many mainframe systems. 

CP/M-86 AND 192K MEMORY 

CP/M-86® , the 8088 version of the industry stan- 
dard CP/M operating system, is available for the 
AD8088 for only $200. AD8088 CP/M-86 uses the 
popular Microsoft Softcard® disk format so you can 
buy the latest programs direct from major software 
distributors like Lifeboat Associates. 

CP/M-86 uses only 18K, leaving 46K for pro- 
grams on a 64K Apple— easily enough memory to 
assemble 12K of object code. For large programs, 
our $370 AD128K Memory Card provides 110K 



program space, or 174K program space (192K 
system memory) for an extra $75. 

THE 8087 NUMERIC DATA PROCESSOR 

The AD128K Memory Card features a socket for 
the Intel 8087 Numeric Data Processor. The 8087's 
80-bit internal format gives 18 digits of accuracy 
(Applesoft has only 9) . Its speed is equally impres- 
sive: it multiplies two 80-bit floating-point numbers 
faster than the Apple runs 10 machine codes! 

FASTER APPLESOFT FOR SCIENTIFIC & 
ANALYTICAL PROGRAMS 

Any program can be rewritten for fast operation 
with the 8088, but ALF's "FTL" program speeds up 
math in your existing Applesoft programs— without 
modification. FTL is activated simply by typing RUN 
FTL. Programs produced by TASC® or Expediter II® 
also run faster. The graphs below show the dramatic 
improvement with FTL. 



51.7 



10 PRINT "2 3 "; 
20 FOR B = 5 TO 

1000 STEP 2 
30FORC = 3TO 

SQR(B)STEP2 
40 IFB/C = INT 

(B/C)THEN70 
50 NEXT 
60 PRINT B;" ": 
70 NEXT B 

Program to compute 
prime numbers 
from 2 to 1000. 







_l 




t 


23.2 




(- 




O 




O 




I 




(- 


_i 


5 


t 



41.5 



40.8 







-1 




o 

X 

1- 
5 


12.9 


_i 
£ 



i 



12.2 



APPLESOFT TASC EXPEDITER II 

execution time in seconds 



RELIABLE LOW POWER OPERATION 

The clean design of the "AD" series separates the 
two main components— processor and expansion 
memory, when needed— on two cards. Low-power 
components are used for cooler operation: each card 
draws less than an Apple ROM card— far less than a 
typical 80-column card. 

SEE YOUR APPLE DEALER TODAY 

An Apple II computer with 64K (48K plus 
Language Card equivalent) and 13- or 16-sector disk 
drive is required. The AD8088 and AD128K can be 
used in any slot. 

Trademarks: Apple" Apple Computer. 'TASC'. "Sottcard": Microsoft. -Expediter II": Einstem/Goodrow. "CP/M-86": Digital Research 




ALF 



A L F PRODUCTS INC. 1-4-4E3 ESTES DENVER. CO E30215 

[303] 23-4-OB71 



H 



Apple He, continued. 



E BBBBBBBBBBBB 




Apple He Keyboard 



ASCII set is on the keyboard. All keys 
also have auto repeat (holding a key 
down causes the character to repeat — 
especially helpful in fast cursor move- 
ment). The key layout of the He includes 
four cursor keys (all in a row at the 
lower right) and Open Apple/Solid Ap- 
ple limited function keys (on each side of 
the space bar). A raised dot on the D, K, 
and one cursor key help touch typists 
keep on track. 

The RESET key has been moved to the 
far upper right of the keyboard and an 
accidental press won't clear out your 
machine and an hour's keyboard input. 
That operation now requires a delib- 
erate, three-key sequence (simulta- 
neously pressing c irl-open 
APPLE-RESET). The new reset procedure 
is also aimed at saving the power switch, 
one of the biggest service problems on 
the II Plus. 

The motherboard, although still 
presenting a 40-column display as stan- 
dard, is equipped to accept a new, "in- 
expensive" 80-column card that has only 
five integrated circuits. No price for the 



card was available, but it was to com- 
pare favorably with II Plus 80-column 
cards which cost in excess of $300. The 
Apple 80-column card fits into an auxil- 
iary connector located out of the way 
from the seven slots, but is still equiva- 



How will the hundreds 
of companies currently 

selling Apple 

supporting products 

respond to the new 

unit? 



lent to slot 3. The decision to offer 80 
columns as an option was based on cost- 
conscious education and consumer mar- 
ket needs for only 40-column displays. 
With the He 80-column board in place, 
the user has mixed screen modes avail- 
able. There can be graphics on the upper 



screen and either 40- or 80-column text 
on the bottom four lines. 

Low resolution color graphics are 
40x48 elements in 16 colors. With 64K 
RAM installed, optimum color graphics 
resolution is 290x192 (six colors). But 
this increases to a 560x192 array if the 
full complement of I28K RAM is 
installed. 

There are significant improvements in 
the back panel, or "backplane," as it is 
known. The panel is now metal, with 
several holes precut to accept female 
connectors attached by cable to the 
accessory cards installed in the expan- 
sion slots. There is room for up to four 
each of the following D-connectors: 25, 
19, and 9-pin. The 9-pin holes also ac- 
cept DIN-type connectors, popular in 
Europe. 

Additionally, the game controller 
connector has been permanently in- 
stalled on the backplane, yet the old 
connector has been left inside the cabinet 
(a small clock card was installed in the 
He for our demonstration). The use of 
panel connectors will make switching 
peripherals a much easier task. In- 
cidentally, the design better seals the 
unit against RF leakage. All Apple- 
manufactured cards will have connec- 
tors and short cables, as well as an 
adapter that will let II Plus owners slide 
the connector into their plastic 
backplane slot. 

Hidden Improvements 

There are many changes, too, that 
may not be apparent to the user, but are 
no less important. 

The microprocessor is a newer version 
of the older 8-bit 6502. The chip is called 
the 6502A which can operate at a speed 
of 2 megaHertz (mHz.), but in the lie is 
kept at the old speed of 1.8 mHz. 

A number of signifcant changes were 
made in the manufacturing process of 
the He as well. In the Apple II Plus de- 




120 



March 1983 c Creative Computing 



3» 



riveTorAppie 



Modems 



CP/M 3.0 Upgrade I Single Board Computer 



SIGNALMAN - Anchor 

Dir0d -connect automatic answer originate selection. 300 
Baud full duplex. Bell 103. includes RS-232 cable 
IOM-5600A Signalman $89.95 

SMARTMODEM - Hayes 

Sophisticated direct-conned auto-answerlauto-dtal 
modem, touch-tone or pulse dialing. RS-232C interface, 
programmable 

IOM-S400A Smartmodem $224 95 

IOK-1S00A Hayes Chronograph $219.95 

IOM-2010A Micromodem II $328.95 

IOM-2012A Terminal program tor MMII $89 95 

IOM-1100A Micromodem 100 $3«a.»5 



APPLE-CAT - Novation 

Software selectable 1200 or 300 Baud, direct connect, auto- 
answer autodial. touch A pulse dialing, auxiliary 3-wire RS- 
232C serial port lor printer 
IOM-S232A Save S50 00 $324.95 



1200 BAUD SMARTMODEM - Hayes 

1200 and 300 baud, all the features of the standard 

Smartmodem plus 1200 baud. 212 compatible, full or halt 

duplex. 

IOM-5500A Smartmodem 1200 $59».*S 



1200 BAUD AUTO CAT - Novation 

212 Auto Car. 1 200 4 300 baud, auto dial/answer/disconnect. 
LED readout displays mode, analog/digital loop-back sell 
tests, usable with multi-line phones 
IOM-S231 A 212 Auto Cat $649.95 



Video Monitors 



HI-RES 12" GREEN - Zenith 

15 MHz bandwith 700 lines/inch. P31 green phosphor, 
awitchable 40 or B0 columns, small, lightweight A portable 
VOM-201201 List price S189 95 $1*9.95 

12" GREEN SCREEN - NEC 

20 MHi bandwidth. P31 phosphor ultra-high resolution 
video monitor with audio. 

VDM-651200 Deluxe model $199.95 

VDM-6512M Economy model $149.96 

12" COLOR MONITOR - NEC 

High resolution color monitor with audio 

VDC-651212 Color monitor $389.95 

NEC-1202D RGB color monitor $999.95 

13" COLOR MONITORS - BMC 

18 MHz RGB A composite video color monitors. 

VDC-421320 13" RGB Color $369.95 

VDC-421310 13" Composite video $329.95 

VDX-420090 RGB card lor Apple $149.95 

COLOR MONITORS • Amdek 

Reasonably priced color video monitors. 

VDC-M130 13" Color I $379.95 

VDC-801320 13" Color II $994.95 

IOV-2300A DVM board lor Apple $199.95 

AMBER or GREEN MONITORS - Jade 

High resolution 18 MHz compact video monitors. 

VDM-751210 12" Amber phosphor $149.95 

VDM-751220 12" Green phosphor $139.95 

VDM-7S0910 9" Amber phosphor $149.95 

VOM-7SO920 9" Green phosphor $139.95 



EPROM Erasers 



NEW CP/M 3.0 • Digital Research 

CPIM 3.0 is Digital Research's latest version of the industry 
standard disk operating system It features many 
performance improvements such as intelligent record 
buffering, improved directory handling. "HELP" facility. 
time/date stamping of tiles and many more improvements. 
AND A TREMENDOUS INCREASE IN SPEED HI. it IS fully 
CP/M 2 2 compatible and requires no changes to your 
existing application software Available only to Versalloppy 
II owners with SBC-200 CPUs 

SFC-55009057F CPM 3 8" with manuals $200.00 

SFC-5SO09OS7D CPIM 3 manual set $30.00 



Apple II Accessories 



APPLE DISK DRIVE - Fourth Dimension 

Totally Apple compatible. 143.360 bytes per drive on DOS 
3 3. hall-track capability ■ reads all Apple sottware. plugs 
right in to Apple controller as second drive. DOS 3.3. 3.2.1. 
Pascal. A CPIM compatible. 

MSM-123200 40 Track add on Apple drive $289.95 
MSM-1 23200 Controller with tree DOS 3.3 $99.95 

16K RAM CARD - tor Apple II 

Expand your Apple II to64K. use as language card, lull 1 year 

warranty Why spend $175 00 F 

MEX-16700A Save Over $100 00 $S9.95 

Z-80 CPU CARD - tor Apple II 

Two computers in one. Z-80 A 6502. more than doubles the 
power and potential o/ your Apple, includes Z-80 CPU card 
CPM and complete manual set 
CPX-62S00A A A T with sottware $249.95 

APPLE-CAT - Novation 

Software selectable 1200 or 300 baud, direct connect, auto- 
answer/auto-dial, auxiliary 3-wire RS232C serial port lor 
printer 
IOM-5232A Save $50 O0<" $325.95 



8" DISK CONTROLLER - Vista 

New from Vista Computer, single or double sided, single or 
double density, compatible with DOS 32/33. Pascal. A 
CPM 2 2. Shugart A Qume compatible 
IOD-2700A At T $499.95 

2 MEGABYTES lor Apple II 

Complete package includes: Two 8" double-density disk 

drives Vista double-density 8" disk controller, cabinet. 

power supply. 4 cables. DOS 32/33. CP/M 22. A Pascal 

compatible. 

1 MegaByte Package Kit $1495.00 

1 MegaByte Package A A T $1695.00 

2 MegaByte Package Kit $1795.00 

2 MegaByte Package AST $1995.95 



VISION 80 - Vista Computer 

80 column x 24 line video card lor Apple II. 128 ASCII 
characters, upper and lower case. 9x10 dot matrix with 3 dot 
descenders, standard data media terminal control codes. 
CPIM Pascal 4 Fortran compatible. 50160 Hz 
IOV-24O0A Vista Vision 80 $299.95 

CPS MULTICARD - Mtn. Computer 

Three cards in one' Real lime clock/calendar, serial 

interlace. 4 parallel interface ■ all on one card. 

IOX 2300A AST $179.95 



Power Strips 



ULTRA-VIOLET EPROM ERASERS 

Inexpensive erasers tor industry or home. 

XME-3100A Speclronics w/o timer $69.50 

XME-3101 A Speclronics with timer $94.50 

XME-3200A Economy model $39.95 

Prices may be slightly higher at our retail locations. Please call the store nearest 



ISOBAR - GSC 

Isolates 4 protects your valuable equipment from high 
voltage spikes A AC line noise, inductive isolated ground. 15 
amp circuit breaker. U.L. listed 

EME 11S103 3 socket $39.50 

EME-115105 4 socket $49.50 

EME-115100 8 socket $54.50 

EME-115110 9 socket rackmount $74.50 



SUPEROUAD - Adv. Micro Digital 

Single board, standard size S-100 computer system. 4 MHz 
Z-80A. single or double density disk controller for 5%" or 8" 
drives. 64K RAM. extended addressing, up to 4K of EPROM. 
2 serial A 2 parallel I/O ports, real time interrupt clock. CPIM 
compatible. 

CPC-30600A A A T $724.95 

IOX-4232A Serial HO adapter $29.95 



Z-80 STARTER KIT - SD Systems 

Complete Z-80 microcomputer with RAM. ROM. I/O. 
keyboard, display, kludge area, manual. A workbook. 
CPS-30100K Kit with workbook $299.95 

CPS-30100A A A T with workbook $469.95 

AIM-65 - Rockwell International 

Complete 6502 microcomputer with alphanumeric display, 
printer, keyboard. A instruction manual 

CPK-50165A IK AIM-65 $424.96 

CPK-50465A 4K AIM-65 $474.95 

SFK-74600008E 8K Basic ROM $64.95 

SFK-64600004E 4K assembler ROM $43.95 

SFK-74600020E PL '65 ROM $64.96 

SFK-74600010E Forth ROM $64.95 

SFK 74600030E Instant Pascal $99.95 

PSX-030A Power supply $64.95 

ENX-000002 Enclosure $54.96 

SPECIAL PACKAGE 

4K AIM-65. 8K Basic, power supply. A enclosure 
Special Package Price $649.95 



S-100 EPROM Boards 



PROM-100 - SD Systems 

2708. 2716. 2732 EPROM programmer with software. 

MEM-99520K Kit with sottware $199.95 

MEM-99520A A A T with software $249.96 

PB-1 - SSM Microcomputer 

2708. 2716 EPROM board with onboard programmer 

MEM-99510K Kit with manual $164.96 

MEM-99510A A A T with manual $219.96 

EPROM BOARD - Jade 

16K or 32K uses 2708 Or 2716 EPROMs. IK boundary 

MEM-16230K Kit w o EPROMs $79.95 

MEM-16230A A A T w/o EPROMs $119.95 



S-100 Video Boards 



SPECTRUM COLOR - CompuPro 

Full -function color graphics board, up to 8 colors. 256 x 192 
graphics, parallel I/O port. 8K RAM 

IOV-1970A 44 7 $346.95 

IOV-1870C CSC $396.95 

MICROANGELO • Scion 

Ultra-high- resolution 512 x 460. 256 color or black 6 white S- 

100 video board 

IOV-1500A A A T $799.96 



S-100 MotherBoards 



ISO-BUS - Jade 

Silent, simple, and on sale - a better motherboard 

i Slot csy." n »%■) 

MBS-061B Bare board $22.95 

MBS-061K Kit $39 95 

MBS-061 A A A T $69.96 

12 Stot m.- * St.") 

MBS-121B Bare board 

MBS-121K Kit 

MBS 121 A A A T $109.96 

18 Slot f »«V M *%") 

MBS-181B Bare board $64.66 

MBS-181K Kit $99.95 

MBS-191 A Air $149.96 

ACTIVE TERMINATOR - CompuPro 

A true mother's helper. 
TSX-100A AA T $S».45 

you for local price and availability. 



ree CP/M 3.0* !!! 



S-100 CPU Boards 



8086/8087 - CompuPro 

16 bit. 8 or 10 MHz 8086 CPU with provisions lor 8087 S 
80130 

CPU-70520A 8 MHz 8086 A S T $624.95 

CPU-70520C 8 MHz 8086 CSC S764 95 

CPU-70530A with 8087 AST $1224 95 

CPU-7053OC with 8087 CSC $1455.95 

8085/8088 - CompuPro 

Both 8 6 16 (vi CPUs, standard 8 bit S-100 bus. up to 8 MHz. 
accesses 16 Megabytes ol memory 

CPU-20510A 6 MHz A & T $396 95 

CPU-20510C 6 6 MHz CSC ... $497 95 

CPU-Z - CompuPro 

2 4 MHz Z80A CPU. 24 bit addressing 
CPU-30S00A 2 4 MHz AST $279.95 

CPU-305OOC 3 6 MHz CSC .... $374.95 

SBC-200 - SD System* 

4 MHz Z-80A CPU with serial S parallel I O. IK RAM. 8K 

ROM space, monitor PROM included 

CPC-30200A At T $329.95 

THE BIG Z - Jade 

2 or 4 MHz switchable Z-80 CPU board with serial 10. 
accomodates 2708. 2716. or 2732 EPROM. baud rates from 
75 to 9600 

CPU-30201B Bare board w manual $35.00 

CPU-30201K Kit mth manual $149.95 

CPU-30210A A & T with manual $199.95 

CB-2 - SSM Microcomputer 

2 or 4 MHz Z-80 CPU board with provision tor up to 8K ol 
ROM or 4K ol RAM on board, emended addressing. IEEE S- 
100. tront panel compatible 

CPU-303O0K Kit with manual $229.95 

CPU-3O3O0A AST with manual $274.95 

2810 Z-80 CPU - CCS. 

2 or 4 MHZ Z-80 CPU with serial I O port S onboard monitor 

PROM, tront panel compatible. 

CPU-30400A A S T with PROM $269.95 

2820 Z-80 DMA CPU - CCS. 

4 MHz Z-80 CPU board with 2 serial I O ports S Centronics 
parallel I O port, separate data 6 status ports. DMA daisy 
chain compatible 
CPU-30420A AST with manual $569.95 



S-100 Disk Controllers 



DISK 1 - CompuPro 

8" or 57," DMA disk controller, single or double density 
single or double sided. 10 MHz 

IOD-1610A AST $449 95 

IOO-1810C CSC $554 95 

SFC-525O6580F 8 CP M 2 2 lor Z-80 $174 95 

SFC-S2506S86F 8 CPM 2 2 lor 8086 $299.95 

SFO-54158000F Oasis single user $499.95 

SFO-54158002F Oasis multi-user $649.95 

VERSAFLOPPY II - SD System* 

Double density disk controller lor any combination ol 5' ," 
and 8" single or double sided, analog phase-locked loop 
data separator, vectored interrupts. CP M 22 S Oasis 
compatible, control diagnostic sottware PROM included 

IOD-1160A AST with PROM $359 95 

SFC-55O09O47F CP M 2 2 with VF II $99.95 

2242 DISK CONTROLLER - CCS. 

5' 4 "' or 8" double density disk controller with on-boerd boot 

loader ROM. tree CP'M 22 S manual set 

IOD-1300A AST with CP'M 22 $399.96 

DOUBLE D - Jade 

High reliablity double density disk controller with onboard 
Z-80A. auxiliary printer port. IEEE S-100. can function in 
multi-user interrupt driven bus 

IOD-1200B Bare board S hdwr man $69.95 

IOD-1200K Kit w hdwr S sttwr man $299.95 

100- 1200 A AST wlhdwr S sltwr man $325.95 

SFC-59002001F CP M 2 2 with Double D $99.95 



S-100 Memory Boards Free CP/M 3.0 Offer 



256K RAMDISK - SD System* 

ExpandoRAM III expandable Irom 64K to 2S6K usmg64K x 1 
RAM chips, compatible with CP/M. MPiM. Oasis. 
Cromemco. S most other Z-80 based systems, lunctions as 
ultra-high speed disk drive when used with optional 
RAMDISK sottware 

MEM-65064A 64K AST $474.96 

MEM-65126A 128K AST $574 95 

MEM-65192A 192K AS T $674.96 

MEM-652S6A 256K AS T $774.96 

SFC-5SO09000F RAMDISK sltwr CP/M 2 2 $44.96 

SFC-5S009000F RAMDISK with EXRAM III $24.96 

128K RAM 21 - CompuPro 

128K x 8 bit or 64K x 16 bit static RAM board. 12 MHz. 24 bit 
addressing. 

MEM-12810A AST $1609.95 

MEM-12810C CSC $1794.95 



64 K RAM 17 - CompuPro 

64K CMOS static RAM board. 10 MHz. low power less than 4 
watts. DMA compatible. 24 tut addressing. 

MEM-641S0A 64K A S T $549.95 

MEM-64160C 64K CSC $696.96 

64K RAM 16 - CompuPro 

32K x 16 bit or 64K x 8 bit low power static RAM board. 10 
MHz. 24 bit addressing. 

MEM-32180A RAM 16 A S T $5*6.95 

MEM-32160C RAM 16 CSC $696.95 



64K STATIC RAM - SSM 

IEEE 696 S-100 standard, up to 6MHz>8 Bit. 12MHzi 16 Bit. 24 
Bit extended addressing, disableable in 2K increments 
MEM-64300A AST $499.95 



64K STATIC RAM - Mem Merchant 

64K static S- 100 RAM card. 4 to 16K banks up to 8 MHz 
MEM-64400A 64K A S T $499.95 



64K STATIC RAM - Jade 

Uses new 2K x 8 static RAMs. hilly supports IEEE 696 24 bit 
extended addressing. 200ns RAMs. lower 32K or entire 
board phantomable. 2716 EPROMs may be subbed tor 
RAMs. any 2K segment ol upper 8K may be disabled, low 
power typically less than SOOma 

MEM 991528 Bare board $49.96 

MEM 99152K Kit less RAM $99 95 

MEM-32152K 32K kit $199 95 

MEM-561S2K 56K kit $289 95 

MEM-641S2K 64K kit $299 95 

At«embl*d * Te»l»d tlia $50.00 



2066 64K RAM - CCS. 

64K RAM board with bank and block select switching 
lunctions lor Cromemeco Cromix S Alpha Micro 
MEM-64566A 64K A S T $424 95 



64K EXPANDORAM II - SD Systems 

Expandable RAM board Irom I6K to 64K using 4116 RAM 
chips 

MEM 16*30 A 16KAST $344 95 

MEM 32631 A 32K AST $364.95 

MEM-46632A 48K AST $364 95 

MEM-64633A 64K A S T $399.95 

MEMORY BANK - Jade 

4 MHz S- 100 bank selectable expandable to 64 K 

MEM-99730B Bare board wimanual $49 95 

MEM-99730K Kit with no RAM $179.95 

MEM-32731K 32K */( $199.95 

MEM-64733K 64 K kit $249 95 

Aawmbtad 6 Tntad add $60.00 

16K STATIC RAM - Mem Merchant 

4MHz lo-power static RAM board. IEEE S-100. bank 
selectable, addressable in 4K blocks, disable-able in IK 
segments extended addressing. 
MEM-16171A 16KAST $149.96 



THREE BOARD SET - SD System* 



I 

I 



S-100 board set with 4 MHz Z BOA. 64K of RAM 
expandable to 256K. serial and parallel I/O ports, 
double-density disk controller tor 5'/," and 8" disk 
drives, new and improved CP/M 3 manual set. system 
monitor, control and diagnostic sottware Includes SD 
Systems SBC-200. 64K ExpandoRAM III. Versafloppy II. 
and FREE CP'M 3 0- all boards are assembled A tested. 

MK Board Set with FREE CP/M 3.0 $1195.00 

256K Board Set with FREE CP/M 3.0 $1395.00 



S-100 I/O Boards 



SYSTEM SUPPORT 1 - CompuPro 

Real time clock, three 16 bit interval timers, dual interrupt 
controllers! IS levels), up to 4K EPROM RAM RS-232C 
serial channel, provision lor 951 1 A/9512 math chip 

IOX-1850A SSI A S T $359 95 

IOX-18S0C SSI CSC $459 95 

IOX-1655A with 951' AST ... $554.96 

IOX-1855C with 95 11 CSC ... $664.96 

IOX-1860A with 9512 A S T $554.95 

IOX-1660C with 951? CSC ... $664.95 

INTERFACER 1 - CompuPro 

2 serial I/O ports 50-19 2K baud 

IOI-1610A AST $316.** 

IOI-1610C CSC $288 95 



INTERFACER 3 - CompuPro 

5 or 8 channel serial I 'O board lor interrupt driven multi-user 
systems up to 250K baud 

IOI-1635A 5 port AS T $556 95 

IOI-1835C 5 port CSC $628.95 

IOI-1836A 8 port AST $628 95 

IOI-1836C 8 port CSC $749 95 

INTERFACER 4 - CompuPro 

3 serial. 1 parallel. 1 Centronics parallel 

IOI-1640A AST $314.(6 

IOI-1840C CSC $414.95 



MPX - CompuPro 

Multiuser HO multiplexer S interrupt controller with on- 
board 8085A-2 CPU S 4K or I6K ol RAM 

IOI1875A 4K MPX AS T $444 95 

IOI-1875C 4K MPX CSC $534 95 

IOI-1860A 16K MPX AST $584 95 

IOI-1660C I6K MPX CSC $674 95 



I/0-8 - SSM Microcomputer 

Eight sottware programmable serial I O ports. 110 -19.2K 

Baud, ideal tor multi-user systems 

IOI-1016A AST $4*9.95 

I/0-5 - SSM Microcomputer 

Two serial S 3 parallel I/O ports. 110-19 2K Baud 
IOI-1015A AST 



Prices may be slightly higher at our retail locations. Please call the store nearest 



MPC-4 - SD System* 

Intelligent 4-port serial I/O card, onboard Z-80A. 2K RAM. 
4K PROM area, onboard lirmware. lully buttered, vectored 
interrupts, lour CTC channels, add to SD Board set lor 
powerful multi-user system 
IOI-1604A AST wisotlware $496.00 

1/0-4 - SSM Microcomputer 

2 serial I/O ports plus 2 parallel I/O ports 

IOI-1010B Bare board w/manual $36.00 

IOI-1010K Kit with manual $179.96 

IOI-1010A AST with manual $249.95 

2710 4 PORT SERIAL - CCS. 

Four RS-232C serial 10 ports with lull handshaking 
IOI-1060A AST with manual $319.95 

you for local price and availability. 



■jraai 



^£±: 



rive 

Save $500.00 Dual 8" Disk Drive Sub-System Kit - $695.00 Assembled & Tested - $795.00 



Printers on Sale 5 1 / 4 " Disk Drives 



JEW EPSONS with GRAFTRAX-plus 




MX-80 MX-80FT MX-100 

I Available only from your local Jade Retail Store 

Dallas, Woodland Hills, 

Santa Ana, San Diego, 

Sunnyvale, Los Angeles 

Call the store near you for price or Information. 



INDUSTRIAL QUALITY PRINTERS - Okidata 

We Can Beat Any Price... Call Us III 

Mlcrollna 82A 80/ 132 column. 120 CPS. 9 « 9 dot matrix, 
Inchon leed. pin lead, adiustable tractor leed (optional), 
handles 4 part forms up to 9 5" wide, rear 4 bottom teed, 
paper tear bar. 100% duty cyclel200.000.000 character print 
head, bi-directional logic seeking, both aerial a parallel 
Interface* Included, front panel switch 4 program control ol 
10 different form lengths, uses inexpensive spool type 
ribbons, double width 4 condensed characters, true lower 
case descenders 4 graphics 
PRM-43062 Friction 4 pin lead CmH 

Mlcrollna 83A 132 232 column. 120 CPS. forms up to 15" 
wide, removable tractor, plus all the features of the 82A 
PRM-43063 with FREE tractor Call 

Mlcrollna 84 132/232 column. Hi-speed 200 CPS. lull dot 
graphics built in. plus all the features of the B3A 
PRM-43064 Centronics parallel Call 

PRM-43065 Serial with 2K buffer CeH 

PRA-27M1 Apple card $39.95 

PRA-27M2 Apple cable $19.95 

PRA-27M7 TRS-BO cable $24.95 

PRA-43091 2K hi speed serial card $99.95 

PHA 430*2 Hires graphics ROMs 82A $49.95 

PRA-43M3 Hi-graphics ROMs 83A $49.95 

PRA-43068 Tractor option lor 82A $49.95 

PA A 430*0 Extra ribbons pkg ol 2 $9.95 

8023 DOT MATRIX - NEC 

100 CPS. proportional spacing, hiresoluiion graphics, 
correspondence quality printing, bidirectional tractor 4 
Inction teed. 

NEC-S023A 8023 parallel $499.95 

NEC-S023-01 8023 ribbon $11.95 

TP-1 LETTER QUALITY - SCM 

12 CPS daisy wheel printer trom Smith Corona. 

PRD-45101 Centronics parallel $648.95 

PRD-45102 RS-232C serial $64*95 

LETTER QUALITY PRINTER - Jade 

Uses standard daisy wheels and ribbon cartridges. 16 CPS 
bidirectional printing, semiautomatic paper loader (single 
sheet or Ian told). 10/12 15 pitch, up to 16" paper, built-in 
noise suppression cover. 

PRD-11001 Centronics parallel $699.95 

PRO-11002 RS-232C serial model $969.95 

PRA-11000 Tractor Option $169.95 

KSR DAISY WHEEL - Anderson-Jacob»on 

Letter quality communications 'terminal printer with full 
typewriter keyboard. 30 CPS Diablo print mechanism. RS- 
232 interface, includes tree printer stand with deluxe casters, 
print wheel, ribbon. Inction lead standard (tractor teed 
optional), factory refurbished with 30 day warranty, shipped 
treight collect. 

PRD-99100 AJ KSR printer $995.00 

PRA-99200 Tractor option $150.00 



PRINTER PALS - F.M.J. Inc. 

Desk top printer stand and continuous torm paper holder. 
PRA-99060 lor MX-80. MX-BOFT. Oki 82A. NEC $29.95 
PR A- 99100 tor MX 100. Oki 83A 4 84 $34.95 

PRA-99700 lor letter quality printers $49.95 



Tandon TM100-1 single sided double-density 48 TPI 
MSM-551001 $219 95ea 2 lor $199.95 •• 

Shugart SA400L single-sided double-density 40 track 
MSM-104000 $234 95ea 2 for $224.95 *a 

Shugart SA45S hall-sue double-sided 48 TPI 
MSM-104550 $349 95 ea 2 lor $329.95 •• 

Shugart SA46S hall-sire doutesided 96 TPI 
MSM-104650 $399 95ea 2 for $379.95 M 

Tandon TM 100-2 double-sided double-density 48 TPI 
MSM-551002 $294 95 ea 2 for $269.95 ta 

Shugart SA450 double-sided double-density 35 track 
MSM-104500 $349 95 ea 2 for $329.95 M 

Tandon TM100-3 single-sided double-density 96 TPI 
MSM-S51003 $294 95 ea 2 for $269.95 ea 

Tandon TM100-4 double-sided double-density 96 TPI 
MSM-S51004 $394 95 ea 2 for $374.95 ea 

MPI B-S1 single-sided double-density 40 track 
MSM-155100 $234 95 ea 2 for $224.95 ea 

MPI B-S2 double-sided double-density 40 track 
MSM-15S200 $344 95 ea 2 for $334.95 ea 

MPI B-91 single-sided double-density 77 track 
MSM-15S300 $369 95 ea 2 for $359.95 ea 

MPI B-92 double-sided double-density 77 track 
MSM-155400 $469 95 ea 2 for $459.95 ea 

5%" Cablnatt with Power Supply 

ENO-000216 Single cab wspower supply $69.95 

END-000226 Oual ceb w power supply $94.95 



8" Disk Drives 



Shugart SA810 half-sue single-sided double-density 
MSF-108100 $424 95ea 2 for $394.95 ea 

Shugart SA860 hall-sue double-sided double-density 
MSF-106600 $574 95ea 2 for $549.95 ea 

Shugart SA801P. single-sided double-density 
MSF-10601R $394.95 ea 2 tor $3*9.95 ea 

Shugart SA851R double-sided double-density 
MSF-10851R $554 95ea 2 for $529.95 ea 

Tandon TM848-1 single-sided double-den thinlme 

MSF-S584S1 $379 95 ea 2 lor $369.95 ea 

Tandon TM848-2 double-sided double-den thm-hne 
MSF 55*4*2 $494 95ea 2 for $464.95 ea 

Quota DT-8 double-sided double-density 
MSF-7500S0 $524 95 ea 2 for $496.95 ea 

Mitsubishi M2894-83 double-sided double-density 

MSF-2S9463 $<94 95 ea 2 for $474.95 ea 

Siemens FDD 100-8 single-sided double-density 
MSF-201120 $274 95 ea 2 lor $249.00 ea 



Dual Disk Sub-Systems 



Disk Sub-Systems - Jade 

Handsome metal cabinet with proportionally balanced air 
flow system, rugged dual drive power supply, power cable 
kit. power switch, line cord, luse holder, cooling Ian. never- 
mar rubber feet, all necessary hardware to mount 2-8" disk 
drives, power supply, and Ian. does not include signal cable. 

Dual r Sub- Assembly Cabinet 
END-000420 Bare cabinet $59.95 

END-000421 Cabinet kit $225.00 

END 000431 A AT $359.95 

6" Subsystems - Single Sided, Double Density 

END-000423 Kit w 2 FD100-8DS $695.00 

ENO-000424 A 4 T w 2 FD100-8DS $795.00 

END 000433 Kit w 2 SABOIRs $999.95 

ENO-000434 AST w 2 SA-BOIRs $1195.00 

I Sub-Systems - Double Sided. Double Density 

END-000426 Kit w 2 07-85 $1224.95 

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CIRCLE 188 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



IBM PC Accessories 



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Apple He, continued.. 



speaker . 



main memory 
auxiliary slot 



6502 processor 



internal power-on light 
power supply case — 




RF modulator connector 
expansion slots 



GAME I/O connector 
keyboard input connector 



sign, the circuit boards were installed in 
the cabinet of the unit at an early stage 
of production. Burn-in testing took up 
much manufacturing space because fin- 
ished computers could be tested only in 
their cabinets. If a bad unit was discov- 
ered, the case could be damaged in the 
handling, causing costly reworking of 
the unit. 

The He, however, is just one circuit 
board for most of its production life. All 
parts are now insertable by machine. 
Burn-in testing is done on the circuit 
board in specially designed racks. Rick 
Rise pointed out the edge connectors 
that send signals from the testing rack 
through the computers and a red LED 
that is designed into the board to in- 
dicate that everything is working prop- 
erly. Now, just the circuit board need be 




tested, in much less manufacturing 
space. 

Goodbye, Mr. Chips 

When looking at a II Plus and He side 
by side with their tops off, it is clear that 
a great deal of design energy went into 
reducing the number of integrated cir- 
cuits for the He. For one thing, the de- 
signers have combined the old mother- 
board, separate keyboard circuit board, 
and Applesoft language card into a sin- 
gle motherboard. The 109 chips of the 
old system are now only 31. This 3-to-l 
chip reduction is accomplished in sev- 
eral ways. 

Solid state memory prices have 
dropped dramatically, opening the way 
for the inclusion of high capacity devices 
in place of many more lower capacity 

124 



chips. For example, all of the 64-kilobyte 
RAM of the He is contained on eight 64- 
kilobit dynamic RAM chips. The key- 
board character set is housed in a single 
32-kilobit ROM chip. For international 
sale, Rick pointed out on the Swedish 
Apple He he had brought into the room, 
the He has a 64-kilobit ROM which 
holds both the American English 
character set and a completely separate 
character set for the language of the 
country in which the computer is sold. 
The international user can choose which 
set to use. 

(The He will be released simulta- 
neously in Europe as it is here in the 
U.S., one of the first such products to 
perform this feat.) 

But one of the biggest chip-saving 
efforts went into two custom ICs de- 
signed by Walt Broedner. The story be- 
hind their development deserves 
retelling. 

Custom Effort 

With a set of ideal properties for a 
new Apple in mind, Walt set out to de- 
sign a new Apple about two years ago. 
After no small effort, Walt delivered his 
designs of two chips to Synertek (a semi- 
conductor manufacturer) for the pro- 
duction of samples. Walt's designs used 
two 40-pin integrated circuits (like the 
6502 microprocessor) instead of a single 
64-pin pack, because Apple didn't have 
the experience of working with such 
packages in production. 

March 1983 e Creative Computing 



Confidence with computers 
and the way they operate is 
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and arithmetic. Parents and 
teachers can build that 
confidence with well-designed 
software systems from Edu-Ware. 



Packages like Counting Bee, 
Spelling Bee and Reading Primer, 
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motor skills, eye-hand 
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required, (also available in 
Atari BASIC. 48k, Disk drive.) 
S39.95 

With graphics and sound, 
these companion programs 
introduce reading and spelling 
to young learners by linking 
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Parents or teachers can design 
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CIRCLE 161 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Apple lie, continued. 



7, 10, 11, 12 (25-pin connectors) 
1-4 (19-pin connectors) 



video out 

cassette out 

cassette in . 

hand control 

5, 6, 8, 9 (9-pin connectors) 
power switch 




One chip, called the Memory 
Management Unit (MMU), contains the 
Applesoft Basic language, 80/40-column 
support, the enabling ROMs, and key- 
board reading circuitry. The other, the 
Input/Output Unit (IOU), acts as 
controller for the CRT display, cassette 
interface, and speaker. Getting properly 
functioning samples can take as long as a 
year. But because Walt kept both chips 
at a relatively small size (110 mils on a 
side, or 12,100 square mils, compared to 
a typical 64K RAM chip size of more 
than 30,000 square mils), and by using 
similar gate design in both, Synertek 
delivered two custom chips in December 
1981, just 26 weeks after Walt handed 
them his design. 

In his development, Walt used an 
emulator circuit board — the chip-filled 
board he had brought into the 
meeting — configured such that all he 
had to do was unplug two jumper cables, 
disabling 102 smaller chips he used as 
initial building blocks, and plug in the 
two custom chips to see if they worked. 
Both sample chips worked the first time! 

Compatibility 

The prime concern among potential 
customers, of course, is the compatibility 
of Apple II software, hardware, and 
firmware with the new Apple He. And 
how the hundreds of companies cur- 
rently selling Apple supporting products 
will respond to the new unit. 

From the outset, the design of the Ap- 
ple He was built around making the new 



machine as compatible as possible with 
II Plus. But Apple went one step further 
as we'll see. 

Peripherals such as disk drives, mon- 
itors, printers, and modems are reported 
to be 100% compatible. Expansion slots 



There is a single, 140- 
page spiral bound 
"Owner's Guide" that 
not only gets the user 
up and running, but is 
one of the best 
introductions to 
personal computing I 
have seen in a long 
while. 



are completely compatible, because the 
same signals are at the same pin loca- 
tions as on the old II Plus. 

Software is largely compatible. The 
only difficulties would occur in a word 
processing software program, for exam- 
ple, that is not written to support an 80- 
column display. In that case, only the 
40-column mode would be operable. 

In tests of a lot of software, Apple en- 
gineers discovered that some software 

126 



utilizes copy protection schemes that 
look for very specific codes in memory 
locations throughout the machine. This 
way, if the program fails to receive the 
right codes, it "thinks" it is on a non- 
Apple machine thay may be trying to 
copy the disk, and won't boot the disk. 
On the Apple He, those codes may not 
be in the same place as in the Apple II, 
so the disk would not be usable. 

Another incompatibility problem will 
occur in accessory cards or firmware 
that play tricks on the Apple II to op- 
erate. For example, some cards require 
the removal of a chip from the Apple II 
motherboard. On the He, that chip may 
be incorporated in another, larger chip, 
making it impossible to disable its func- 
tions. Also, programs written in the 
monitor using entry points not recom- 
mended by Apple will have problems. 
Applesoft Basic programs, however, will 
be compatible. 

To smooth the changeover from II to 
He in the software and hardware acces- 
sory ends, Apple has been actively en- 
gaged in notifying every vendor of 
Apple-compatible products they could 
unearth about impending changes in the 
Apple. For more than six months, the 
company has been providing cooperat- 
ing companies, on a non-disclosure ba- 
sis, with an Apple He for software/ 
hardware evaluation and development. 
(The in-house name for this effort was 
the Apple Seeding program, perhaps 
with apologies to Johnny Appleseed.) 
Those vendors who needed or wanted to 

March 1983 e Creative Computing 




PRINTS LIKE A DAISY... COSTS LIKE A MATRIX. 



,n 



Integral Data Systems introduces the 
only low-cost dot matrix printer on the 
market that features Maisey™ printing. 
Maisey printing is a technique that 
allows you to produce correspondence- 
quality text approaching that of more 
expensive daisy -wheel printers, but at 
much faster speeds. 

How fast? With Microprism Printer's 1 
dual speed capability, you can output 
at 75cps in correspondence-quality 
and UOcps in high-speed data mode. 
And it also features sharp, high-density 
graphics in an 84 x 84 dpi format. 

You'll get cleaner, crisper output 
than you ever thought possible in a 
single pass. 

Other standard features of the 
Microprism include proportional 




spacing, text justification and, of course, 
software compatibility with our more 
expensive Prism Printer™ line. 

The Microprism Printer is the 
perfect system mate that can handle 
all of your printing requirements . . . 
it's the best of both worlds. So if 
you've been waiting for the price of 
daisy-wheel printers to come down, 
or the quality of dot matrix to go up, 
now is the time to check out the 
exciting new Microprism Printer from 
Integral Data Systems. 

Stop in at your local dealer today 
and ask for a demonstration. If you 

need the name of the dealer nearest 
you, call us toll-free at (800)2581386. 
Or write Integral Data Systems, 
Milford, NH 03055. 



MICROPRISM 



Integral Data Systems, Inc. 



Mk i Htt— i Prinlrr. Prtoo Prinlrr iixl Milvy 

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CIRCLE 185 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





Recommended Slots 
Peripheral Card 


DOS 


Pascal Operating 
System 


Apple Me 80-Column Text Cards 


AUX CONN 


AUX CONN 


First disk controller 
drive 1 cable 
drive 2 cable 


slots 1-7* 
opening 1 
opening 2 


slot 6 
opening 1 
opening 2 


Second disk controller 
drive 3 cable 
drive 4 cable 


slots 1-7* 
opening 3 
opening 4 


slot 5 
opening 3 
opening 4 


Silentype interface 
printer cable 


slots 1-7' 
opening 6 or 9 


slot 1 
opening 9 


Parallel interface 
printer cable 


slots 1-7* 

opening 7, 10, 11 or 12 


slot 1 

opening 12 


Super Serial interface 
for printer 
printer cable 

for terminal 
terminal cable 

for communications 
cable to modem, etc. 


slots 1-7* 

opening 7, 10, 11 or 12 

slots 1-7* 
openings 10, 11 or 12 

slots 1-7* 
opening 7, 10 


slot 1 
opening 12 

slot 3** 
opening 7 

slot 2 
opening 10 


Graphics Tablet 
interface 


slot5 
opening 5 


(does not work with this Op Sys) 


Do not use slot 3 if there is a card installed in the AUX CONNECTOR slot 
"If you connect a term.nal using slot 3 under the Pascal Op Sys. make sure there is no card in the AUX CONNECTOR slot 



make changes have had time to make 
those changes and have software ready 
in time for the introduction of the 
machine. 

Apple claims that most vendors wel- 
comed the advance information. The 
companies were apparently pleased to 
learn that, although the He necessitated 
some changes or additional software 
offerings, their products would continue 
to enjoy a growing market with the new 
machine. 

Apple itself will have two redesigned 
programs from its own software library 
to be introduced with the He. Apple 
Writer will support the 80-column dis- 
play (when installed), as will a fast- 
sorting electronic database management 
program I saw, called Quick File. Both 
programs will also make use of the 
128K, expanded RAM in systems so 
equipped (the 6502A. of course, can ad- 
dress only 64K RAM directly— the bal- 
ance will be under software direction). 

One Manual For All 

Documentation supplied with the Ap- 
ple lie deserves special note. Gone, but 
available as options, are the "techy" 
Applesoft reference and DOS manuals 



that have overwhelmed many a com- 
puter novice. Instead, there is a single, 
140-page spiral bound "Owner's Guide" 
that not only gets the user up and run- 
ning, but is one of the best introductions 
to personal computing I have seen in a 
long while. 

Chapter One goes through the initial 
set up of the system. The next chapter is 
a guided tour of the system and instruc- 
tions on loading a tutorial disk, called 
"Apple Presents Apple," supplied with 
the manual. Chapter Three presents an 
uncomplicated and cleverly illustrated 
explanation of how the Apple and disks 
work. Then a chapter devoted to DOS 
3.3 (in which you learn that DOS and 
Basic require the caps lock key to be 
engaged), plus its most important com- 
mands and error messages. 

Chapter Five discusses all the things 
you can do with your Apple from an 
application point of view (electronic 
work sheets, word processors, database 
management, telecommunications, 
graphics) along with suggested software 
and peripherals — some even from out- 
side suppliers. There is no Basic lan- 
guage instruction here, but the manual 
discusses several languages to pursue on 

128 



your own with the help of other Apple 
manuals or software. Featured are 
Applesoft and Integer Basics, Pascal, 
Fortran, Logo, Pilot, and 6502 Assem- 
bly Language. 

The balance of the manual covers 
other peripherals, troubleshooting tips 
(there is a limited self-test built into the 
He), books and magazines worth reading 
(of course Creative Computing is listed!), 
glossary, and index. 

The last point in our discussion — and 
one in which I was particularly in- 
terested, having seen all this simplified 
power set up before me — was pricing. 

Paul Dali returned to field this sub- 
ject. Final pricing was not completed, 
but the cost of a basic 64K, 40-column 
Apple was planned to fall between 
$1300-1400, or roughly the cost of the 
48K Apple II Plus. The best bargains, 
Paul was quick to note, will be in pack- 
aged systems, just as they were for the 
Apple II. System packages featuring the 
old II Plus computer, one disk drive, a 
monochrome monitor and a software 
package or two for around $2000 repre- 
sented good consumer values. Such 
packages will exist for the He, with sev- 
eral "soft solutions" available by the end 

March 1983 • Creative Computing 



programming by numbers 



Jflaydei 



• •• 




r -i 




The BASIC Conversions 
Handbook for Apple™, 
TRS-80™. and PET™ Users 

(Brain Bank) A complete guide to con- 
verting Apple II and PET programs to 
TRS-80. TRS-80 and PET programs to 
Apple II. and TRS-80 and Apple II 
programs to PET. Equivalent com- 
mands listed for TRS-80 BASIC 
(Model I. Level II). Applesoft BASIC, 
and PET BASIC, as well as variations 
for the TRS-80 Model III and Apple 
Integer BASIC. Also describes varia- 
tions in graphics capabilities. PEEK. 
POKE, and CALL statements, and 
much more. #5534. $8.95 

Programs for Beginners on the 
TRS-80™ 

(Blechman) Learn ttep-by-step how 21 
■ample programs work. Program tech- 
niques are described line by line 
within the programs, and a unique 
Matri-Dex™ matrix index will enable 
you to locate other programs using the 
same BASIC commands and state- 
ments. Each includes a detailed 
description, a complete listing, an ex- 
planation of what the program does, 
and instructions for modification. 
#5182. $9.95 

Available on TRS-80 tape (Models I 
and III. 16K). #10003. $10.95 

BASIC Computer Programs 
for the Home 

(Sternberg) "This is one of the very 
tidiest books of its type, a model of 
how such books should be laid out." 
Creative Computing. Contains over 75 
practical home application programs 
helpful to the novice or experienced 
owner in increasing the usefulness of 
any home computer. Each program is 
documented with a description of its 
functions and operation, a listing in 
BASIC, a symbol table, sample data, 
and one or more samples. 
#5154. $11.95 

Available on Apple 11 disk. #10509, 
$24.95 



New! BASIC Computer Programs 
for Business, Vol. 2 

(Sternberg) Provides an invaluable 
variety of application programs that 
make your microcomputer pay for itself 
as soon as it enters your office. Over 
70 programs for use on a daily basis in 
the critical aspects of a business opera- 
tion. Each can be easily modified to 
meet your firm's specific needs. 
#5178, $13.95 

BASIC Computer Programs for 
Business, Vol. 1 

(Sternberg) ". . . a gem of programming 
design and documentation, and there- 
hire well worth the money.'' Library 

fournol. Bach program is documented 
with a description of its functions and 
operation, a listing in BASIC, .1 symbol 
table, sample data, and one Or more 
samples. #5162, $12.50 

Stimulating Simulations, 2nd Ed. 
[Engei] An exciting handbook contain- 
ing 12 "simulation" programs which 
are actually game programs. Clearly 
written in BASIC format compatible 
with all microcomputers, all original 
and well documented. Each program 
is presented with a listing, sample run. 
instructions, and program documenta- 
tion, including flow-chart and ideas 
for variations. #5170. $6.50 
Atari™ Version, request #5197 

Library of PET™ Subroutines 

(Hampshire) Officially approved by 
Commodore for use with the PET. 
This book will save the software 
designer considerable time in writing 
applications programs. Provides 53 
proven subroutines as well as a logi- 
cal framework to build new programs. 
Each is supported with complete infor- 
mation describing its purpose and 
problems that may arise in its imple- 
mentation. Most subroutines written 
in PET BASIC but machine-language 
programs are also presented for par- 
ticular applications. #1050, $16.50 
Available on PET disk. #11720. $25.00 



Apple and Applesoft are register^ lr.dem.rk. of Apple Compter Co .Inc.; TRS-80 hi a registered trademark of 
K.dn> Shark ln< a dmsion of Tandv Corp ; PET is a registered trademark of Commodore Business Machines. 
Inc Alan is a registered trademark of Alan. Inc ; none is affiliated with H.yden Book Company. Inc. 



PET™ Graphics 

(Hampshire) Officially approved by 
Commodore for use with the PET. 
Instructs the PET user on how to pro- 
gram graphic displays. Contains a col- 
lection of BASIC and machine- 
language subroutines that enable the 
PET owner to write more efficient pro- 
grams. Provides a wide range of nor- 
mally unavailable graphic funi lions. 
#1051. $18.75 
Available on PET disk. #11620. $25.00 

BASIC Computer Programs in 
Science and Engineering 

(C.ilder) 114 ready-to-run programs in 
BASIC for the hobbyist and engineer. 
All have hern tested and .ire fairly 
universal #0761. $11.95 



Available at your local computer Mora nr 

BBBBBfj Order by Phone , 
■aVaaas 1-800-631-0856 r"""7 
operator ( '.i ' 33 
In N) call 201-843-0550. ext 382 



Mail to: 



Hayden Book Company, Inc. 
Dept. CC 33 
50 Essex Street 
Rochelle Park. N| 07662 

Please send me the item)s) listed below by 
code number. II I am not t omphtely satisfied. 
I may return the BOOKISI ONI.V undamaged 
within 10 days fnr a complete refund (SOFT- 
WARE IS NOT RETURNABLE) 

Resident! of N| anil CA must add sales lax 

Enclosed is my Check or money order 

Bill my r. Visa :: MasterCard Exp 



Name 



Address 



City 



State/Zip 



Visa/MasterCard • 



Signature 



B915 



CIRCLE 174 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Apple lie, continued... 

of 1983 depending on the markets the 
company is pursuing. 

Impressions 

That the new model sports the same 
case design and color as the veteran II 
Plus was no disappointment. Even after 
all these years, it is still a pleasing shape 
which I am not tired of seeing. And 
while a detachable keyboard would be a 
nicety, I fully understand maintaining a 
form factor that has such ready recog- 
nition with the Apple name. 

The degree to which care had been ap- 
plied to making the lie as compatible as 
possible with its forerunner was a happy 
surprise. A company with the apparent 
marketing muscle of Apple could have 
tried to "brute force" its way into creat- 
ing some new personal computer stan- 
dard that would have been much less 
compatible. 

A consumer benefit coming from the 
redesign of the motherboard is not the 
increased reliability coming from two- 
thirds fewer chips, but ability to assess 
all chips with the top off. This will speed 
service turnaround if one circuit should 
go bad. 

The reduction in chip count also light- 
ens the load of a power supply. The 
eight 64K dynamic RAMs in the lie dis- 
sipate less power than all the 16K. 



RAMS in the II. In fact, in an early 
stage of design, the power supply (at first 
it will be the same as in the II Plus) was 
"looking" at a circuit that wasn't meet- 
ing even the minimum load require- 
ments for a properly functioning II Plus. 
The supply had to be artificially loaded 
by converting some of the excess capac- 
ity to +5 volts available to peripheral 
cards. The net result is about one extra 
ampere of current available for the seven 
slots to share. Moreover, the 6502A, 
running at less than optimum speed, 
does so, only cooler. All this leads to a 
cooler running computer, likely to be 
even more reliable than the II. 

Apple has been testing working mod- 
els for about a year. Reliability studies, 
Walt Broedner claims, have shown the 
He to be more reliable than the II. The 
units have survived operation in tem- 
peratures below 0° Celcius and over 90° 
Celcius. 

The biggest disappointment came at 
the discussion of price, especially after 
hearing how efficiently the unit could be 
manufactured and tested. I didn't expect 
the He to wallow around in the under- 
$300 mud with the popular home 
computers, but I did expect, or hope to 
see the He come in at around $700-800, 
even for just 48K RAM. So the 
standalone price of $1300-1400 for a 



64K unit seemed terribly high to me. 

That's the benefit of making a com- 
puter with over 10,000 applications on 
the shelf. Serious computer shoppers are 
looking for solutions. If the software 
solution exists, and it happens to run 
only on an Apple, then Apple it will be, 
even if it is more expensive than other, 
comparably equipped machines. 

The advance planning with outside 
software and hardware vendors was 
equally encouraging. The company ap- 
pears to want everything 100% right be- 
fore it unleashes its new offspring. That 
Apple was ramping up production and 
had a finished, printed Owner's Manual 
more than two months prior to formal 
announcement augurs well for a con- 
sumer-painless introduction of a product 
that will be in high demand and ex- 
pected to work the first time. 

Strip away the price factor, and you 
are left with a near perfect computer 
with enough power to take most per- 
sonal computer users up to moderately 
sophisticated applications. The He is 
everything the Apple II Plus should 
have been a year or two ago, when it 
underwent development. Emerging, 
therefore, as it does in these turbulent 
times in the industry, the Apple He is a 
remarkably evolutionary personal 
computer. □ 



PINBALlf-ATARI 



10 selectable modes of play, including 
Easy, Competition, High Speed, and Cosmic. 

40 user-adjustable parameters: create and 
save your own custom games. 

an instruction card, a hi-score disk label, and 
a 16-page manual explaining all of the 
variations available. 

all for only $29.95 (for the Apple. $34.95) 



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(217)359-8482 
Telex: 206995 




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WE WILL NOT BE UNDERSOLD 



TERMINALS 




APPLE ACCESSORIES 


MONITORS 




Zenith ZT-1 


1679.00 


16K Card by Microsoft 


$79.00 


Sanyo9"BAW 


$159.00 


Zenith ZT-100 


$59500 


32K Card by Saturn 


$199.00 


Sanyo 9" Green 


$165.00 


leievideo910+ 


$595 00 


64K Card by Saturn 


$419.00 


Sanyo 12"B&W 


$179.00 


WavMeoHB 


$779.00 


128K Card by Saturn 


$585.00 


Sanyo 12" Green 


$199.00 


Televideo950 


$969.00 


Softcard Plus by Microsoft 


CALL 


Sanyo 13" Cokx 


$399.00 






Keyboard Enhancer II by Videx 
Videoterm by Videx 


$125.00 
$259.00 


SMD 13" Cokx 
Zenith 12" Green 


$329.00 






$99.00 


RAM 




Game Paddles by TG 


$49.00 


Zenith 13" Cokx 


$339.00 


16K Flam Kit lor Apple II. TRS80 




Joystick by TG 


$4900 


Electrohome 13" HI- RES Color Monitor 


$829.00 


200 nanoseconds, 41 16 chips 


$17 50 


Pkaso Cards 


CALL 


Electrohome 13" Color 


$379.00 






ALF 3 Voice Board 

System Saver by Kensington 


$229.00 
$75.00 


Electrohome 12" BAW 
Electrohome 1 2" Green 


$179.00 






$189.00 


DISKETTES 




Microbufler II 16K w/graphics 


$259.00 


Electrohome 9" B&W 


$149.00 


Maxell 5' «" single side 


$39.00 


Microbufler II 32K w/graphics 


$229.00 


Electrohome 9" Green 


$159.00 


Maxell 8" single side 


$49.00 
54500 


APPLE INTERFACE CARDS BY CCS 
Serial Asynch #7710 


$139.00 






Maxell 5V 4 " double side 


DISK DRIVES 




Maxell 8" double side 


$55.00 


Centronics #7729 


$149.00 




BASF 5V«" 


$26.95 


ADVANCED LOGIC 




CC1 100 for the TRS-80 Model 1 




BASF 8" 


$36.00 


Add-Ram16KCard 


$79.00 


5Vi" 40 track 


$299.00 


Verbatim 5V.T 


$26 95 


ZCard CP/M (or the Apple II 


$225.00 


CC1 1 89 for the Zenith Z 89 5 V 40 track 


$379.00 


Verbatim 8" 


$36.00 


Smarterm 80 Column Board w/Softswrtch 


$249.00 


CORVUS 5M with Mirror 


$2895.00 


5V4 File Box 


$19.96 






CORVUS 10M with Mirror 
CORVUS 20M with Minor 


$4195.00 




APPLE SOFTWARE 

MICROPRO'" 




$4895.00 


TELECOMMUNICATIONS 




CORVUS Interfaces i»«* 
RANA SYSTEMS add-on Disc Drive for the Apple II 


Novation Cat Modem 


$13900 


WordStar 


$379.00 


Elite One 40 Track 


CALL 


Novation D-CAT 


$155.00 


MailMerge 


$190.00 


Elite Two 80 Track 


CALL 


Novation AUTO-CAT 


$209.00 


SpellStar 


$190.00 


Elite Three 


CALL 


Novation APPLE CAT 


$319.00 


DataStar 


$259.00 


Elite Controller 


CALL 


Hayes Smart Modem 
Hayes Smart Modem 1200 
Hayes Micro- Modem 


$249.00 
$589.00 

$319.00 


CaicStar 
VISICORP 

tfWCafc 


$115.00 
$199.00 






IBM PC ACCESSORIES 


Hayes Chronograph 


$229.00 


VisiTerm 


$79.00 


64K Card by Microsoft 


$299.00 


Signalman Mark 1 


$85.00 


VisiDex 


$199.00 


128KCard 


$469 00 






VisiPtot 


$169.00 


192KCard 


$599.00 

$789.00 

CALL 


COMPUTERS 




ViStFUe 
VisiSchedule 


$199.00 
$259.00 


256KCard 
Quaddram 


Sanyo MBC 1 00 64K 


CALL 


VisiTrend/Ptot 


$239.00 


Joystick by TG 


$49.00 


Call lor information on the complete Sanyo line 




MISCELLANEOUS 




Combo Card by Apparat 


$249.00 


Sanyo MBC 1200 


CALL 


Micro/Terminal 


$79.00 


Tandon TM 100-2 for the IBM 


CALL 


Sanyo MBC 2000 


CALL 


Screenwriter II 


$129.00 


Call for more IBM PC add-ons 




Sanyo MBC 3000 
Sanyo MBC 4000 
Franklin Ace 1000 


CALL 
CALL 
CALL 


Executive Briefing System 

Supercalc 

Personal Filing System 


$169.00 
$279.00 
$115.00 






IBM PC SOFTWARE 




ZENITH 




PFS Report Writer 


$75.00 


INFORMATION UNLIMITED 




Z-B948K 


CALL 


Word Handler 


$169.00 


Easy Writer 


$289.00 


Z-9064K 


CALL 


PFS Graph 


$99.00 


Easy Speller 


$149.00 


Z-100 


CALL 


Multiplan by Microsoft 


$229.00 


Easy Filer 


$319.00 


Call lor prices on the complete Zenith line 








VISICORP 
VisiCalc 256K 


$199.00 


SOFTWARE 

MICROPRO'" 




PRINTERS 

NEC 7710 Serial 
NEC 7720 KSR 


$2395.00 
$2749.00 


VisiFHe 

VisiTrend/VisiPlot 

VisiDex 


$219.00 

$259.00 

$209.00 

$99.00 


WordStar 


$379.00 


NEC 7730 Parallel 


$2395.00 


VisiTerm 


MaeMerge 

Customization Notes 


$195.00 
$359.00 


NEC 3510 Serial 
NEC 3520 


$1850.00 
$2099.00 


MICROPRO'" 
MailMerge 


$195.00 
$379.00 


SpeHStar 
Data Star 


$195.00 
$259.00 


NEC 3530 Parallel 

NEC 3550 for the IBM PC 


$1850.00 
$2095.00 


WordStar 
MISCELLANEOUS 


CalcSlar 
MICROSOFT 
Basic Interpreter 
Basic Compiler 
Fortran 80 

CaM M 

DATA BASE 
dBase II 


$119.00 

$349.00 
$389.00 
$499.00 
$695.00 

$495.00 


Antex Generic Model of the Prownter 

Epson MX 80 

Epson MX-80FT 

Epson IOO100 

IDS Micro Pnsm 

IDS PRISM 80 

IDS PRISM 132 

Okidata Microline 80 

Okidata Microline 82A 

Okidata Microline 83A 


$479.00 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 


Supercalc by Sorcim 

Superwriter by Sorcim 

Home Accounting Plus 

ENTERTAINMENT 

Deadbne 

Temple of Apshai 

Curse of Ra 

Cat For More IBM Software And Accessories 

CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Res 


$279.00 
$289.00 
$139.00 

$39.00 
$29.00 
$15.99 




The CPU Computer Corporation 


sarch 




Announces: 




Okidata Microline 84 


CALL 







CPU net 

The Local Area Network that uses 

real CP M " for Apples CPUnet 

allows you to run hundreds of 

popular CP M " programs, on your 

Apple terminals, without disk drives! 

Call for more information. 

$2995.00 



SPECIAL OF THE MONTH 
RANA ELITE THREE 

80 TRACK, 

DOUBLE SIDE DRIVE 

$ CALLS 



TO ORDER CALLTOLL FREE 
1-800-343-6522 

For fast delivery, send certified checks, money orders, or 
call to arrange direct bank wire transfers Personal or com- 
pany checks require one to three weeks to clear. Al prices 
are mall order only and are subject to change without 
notice Call tor shipping charges. 



master charge 



Shop 

1 -Ann-'<«i.'*-7n.'sfi *■» 




DEALER INQUIRIES PLEASE CALL 1-800-343-7036 

420-438 Rutherford Ave., Dept CR15 . Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129 
9 PM (EST) Mon.-Fri. (Sat. till 6) TWX- 710-348-1 796 Massachusetts Residents call 61 7/242-3361 



Hours 9 AM 

Technical information call 617/242-3361 



Massachusetts Residents add 5% Sales Tax 



CIRCLE 151 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Color Computer Disk Drive 



ireative 
computing 
equipment 
evaluation 



Getting Serious 

With The 
Color Computer 



The TRS-80 Color Computer has 
been a part of my life for over a year. I 
started a project to write a book, and af- 
ter spending a few long hours in front of 
the typewriter, I realized a word proces- 
sor for my computer would be nice. 

One of the necessary accessories 
would be a disk drive. Cassette program 
files have their place, but for a project as 
large as text files, a disk system is 
indispensable. 

The current choice is between Radio 
Shack's disk system and the Exatron 
disk operating system. I chose the Radio 
Shack system for two reasons: it should 



/ felt only slightly 

handicapped by having 

to relinquish 2K for the 

disk buffer. 



be compatible with future Tandy soft- 
ware releases, and the DOS is in ROM. 
Tandy has provided an excellent 
operating system for the Basic pro- 
grammer who doesn't want to learn to 
use a disk operating system. The 35- 

John Sterner. 508 4lh Avenue N.W.. Riverside. ND 

58078 



John Steiner 



track double density system is com- 
pletely transparent to the programmer. 
No "system" or special DOS handling is 
required to operate the system. Even 



though I am a novice programmer, I was 
able, using the Disk System manual, to 
write and use a Basic word processor. 

Another advantage of the ROM-based 
DOS is that no space is taken either on 
the disk or in RAM for DOS. The only 
disk space not available for user files is 
track 17, the disk directory. Only 2K of 
overhead is required for disk buffers, 




132 



March 1983 c Creative Computing 



SOFTWARE 


Applied Software Technology 


Vertaform 


$291.75 


Art-Sci./Softape 




Magic Window 


$74.95 


Basic Mailer 


52.49 


Magic Spall 


52.49 


Avant Garda 




Hi- Res Golf 


$22.50 


Hi Res Secrets 


94.95 


Zaro-Gravlty Plnball 


22.50 


Sentence Diagramming 


18.75 


Brod around 




Galactic Empire 


$18.75 


Apple Panic 


22.50 


Payroll 


296.25 


Ganerel Ledger 


371.25 


Budgeco 




Raster Blaster 


$22.50 


California Pacific 




Budge's 3D Graphics 


$29.95 


Continental Software 




General Ledger 


$188.75 


Accounts Receivable 


188.75 


Accounts Payable 


188.75 


Peyroll 


188.75 


Property Management 


371.25 


Home Accountant 


56.50 


Guardian 


22.50 


First Class Mall 


56.50 


Man 8 




Rings of Saturn 


$29.95 


Depreciation Planner 


295.00 


Budget Planner 


111.50 


Bus. Bookkeeping Sys. 


295.00 


Datamost 




Thief 


$22.50 


Snack -Attack 


22.50 


Tax Beater 


97.50 


Real Estete Anal Progra 


m 97.50 


Edu-Ware 




Algebra 1 


$29.95 


Compu-Math: Arithmetic 37.50 


Com pu Math: Fractions 


29.95 


Compu-Math: Decimals 


29.95 


Spelling Bee 


29.95 


Perception (3.0) 


18.75 


Algebra II 


29.95 


Howard Software 




Creative Financing 


$146.75 


Real Estate Analyzer 


146.75 


Tax Preparer 


112.50 


Innovative Design 




Pool 1.5 


$24.95 


Shuffleboerd 


22.50 


Trick Shot 


29.95 


IUS 




Easv Writer 


$75.00 


Easy Mailer 


52.50 


Date Dex 


112.50 


L&S Computerware 




Crossword Magic 


$37.95 


LJ.K. Enterprises 




Letter Perfect 


$112.50 


Data Perfect 


75.00 


Mesa Research 




Investment Decisions 


$75.00 


Micro Lab 




Dog Fight 


$22.50 


The Learning System 


112.50 


The Invoice Factory 


150.00 


Tax Manager 


112.50 


Asset Manager 


1 50.00 


Vislfactory 


56.95 


Vlsiblend 


37.50 


Roach Hotel 


24.95 


Data Factory (5.01 


225.00 


Muse 




Super-Text 40/80 


$135.00 


Form Letter Module 


75.00 


Castle Wolfensteln 


22.50 


Three Mile Island 


29.95 


ABM 


18.75 


Data Plot 


43.95 


Elementary Math 


29.95 





f 



barge 



DISK DRIVE 



FRANKLIN 




$ § $ 



Apple II compatible 
64K of RAM 
Upper and lower case 
Typewriter-style keyboard 
12-key numeric pad 
Alpha lock key 
VisiCalc keys 
50-watt power supply 
Built-in fan 




On Line Systems 




HI Res #1 : Mystery 




House 


$18.75 


HI Res #2: Wizard and 




Princess 


24.95 


HI Res #3: Cranston 




Manor 


29.95 


HI Re* #4: Ulysses 


29.95 


Hi Res Football 


29.95 


Screen Writer II 


97.50 


HI Res Soccer 


22.95 


The General Manager 


112.50 


Time Zone 


75.00 


Memory Management 




System 


37.50 


The Dictlonery 


75.00 


Frogger 


24.95 


Screen Writer Pro 


150.00 


Silicon Valley 




Word Handler 


$188.00 


List Handler 


60.00 


Appointment Handler 


29.95 


Sirius Software 




E-Z Draw (3,3) 


$37.50 


Space Eggs 


22.50 


Gamma Goblins 


22.50 


Gorgon 


29.95 


Sneakers 


22.50 


Beer Run 


22.50 


Computer Football 


22.95 


Fly Wars 


22.95 


Penguin Software 




Complete Graphics II 


$60.00 


3D Drawing System 


24.95 


100 Color Drawing 




System 


24.95 


Special Effects 


29.95 


The Graphics Magician 


45.00 


Additional Fonts & Sets 


Magic Paintbrush 


22.95 


Complete Graphics 




(TABLET VER.) 


90.00 


Special Effects (TABLET 


VER.) 


60.00 


Personal Business Systems 


Executive Secretary 


$188.00 


The Executive Speller 


60.00 


Piccadilliy Software 




Warp Destroyer 


$22.95 


Star Blaster 


22.95 


Professional Software Tech 


Executive Briefing 




System 


$150.00 



PACKAGE 

• ACE 1000 

eDISK DRIVE 

e CONTROLLER CARD 



PRICE 
$1690 



$1595 

N/C 

95 



DISK DRIVES 



Franklin 
M-SCI A-2 
MSCI A-40 
M-SCI A 70 
Controller Card 



$549.00 

400.00 

395.00 

535.00 

99.00 



Sir-Tech 

Wizardry $37.50 

Software Publishing Corp. 



PRINTERS 



$93.95 
60.00 
93.95 



1 -404-487-7538 



PFS 

PFS REPORT 

PFS Graph 

Southwestern Data 

Apple Doc 

The Correspondent 

Apple II Utility Pack 

ASCII Express 

On-Llne Oiel Up 

Norad 

Stoneware 

D. B. Master 

Strategic Simulations 

Computer Bismark 

Warp Factor 

Computer Baseball 

Synergistic Software 

Program Line Editor 

The Data Reporter 

The Directory Manager 

Planetary Guide 

Game Animetion Package 37.50 

Globel Program Line 

Editor 
USA Software 
Supercram 
Request 

3D Supergrephlcs 
Micro Pro 
Wordstar 
Spellstar 
Mailmerge 
Detastar 
Supersort 
Calcstar 



Ga. Residents Add 4% Tax 



$37.50 
45.00 
14.95 
60.00 
75.00 
29.95 

$175.00 

$45.00 
29.95 
29.95 

$29.95 
165.95 
22.95 
22.95 



45.00 

$135.00 

169.95 

29.95 

$250.00 
125.00 
78.95 
175.00 
125.00 
175.00 



Okidata 

80 

82 A 

84P 

84S 

Bytewriter 

Transtar 

Daisywheel 



$375.00 

560.00 

1,195.00 

1 ,295.00 

$995.00 

$1,395.00 



MONITORS 



BMC 

12" green phos. 
Amdek 
12" B & W 
12" green phos. 



$99.00 

$135.00 
175.00 



ACCESSORIES 

Microtek 

16K RAM BD $110.00 

Para. Inter 100.00 

Videx 

Video term $295.00 

Enhanced 125.00 

Orange 

Grapplerplus $145.00 

ALS 

Z Card $245.00 

Smart term 295.00 

Mt. Hdwe. 

CPS Card $1 75.00 

TG Joy Stick 49.00 

Prometheus 

Verse Cerd $189.00 



CIRCLE 272 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



THE INCREDIBLE 

JACK 



a single fully 
integrated program 

[7] word processing 
|7] calc analysis 
[7] file management 

$129? 



How good can a 
$129 package be? 

JACK is a single program that performs word processing, 
calc analysis, and file management in a fully integrated 
easy to use environment. JACK competes with integrated 
packages selling for $495, $695, and "under a $1000 
Why did we price JACK at $129? Because we believe 
that everyone needs integrated software and we think 
we can sell ten copies of JACK to our competitions one. 



available from these dealers... 



The Software Spot. CA 213-477-7561 
Computer Postot Newark CA415-790-0410 
Silicon Station, CA 415-8284960 
Shoreline Software. CA 415-459-5800 
Energy Alternatives. CA 916-345- 1 722 

Third Wave Products. CO 303-694-3428 
Computers Etc . CO 303-779-5256 

Compulertand. FL 904-731-2471 
Byte Shop, FL 305-486-2963 

Business Computers. NE 402-895-2440 



Work) o* Computers. NY 914-937-6662 
Berliner Computer. NY 516-775-4700 
Computer Factory. NY 212-687-5000 

Computer Center. OK 405-233-3883 

H»L Electronics. PA 215-245-0554 

S-C Software Corp . TX 214-324-2050 
Computer Solutions. TX 512-341 8851 
Computer Center. TX 512-327-5864 
Computer Patch. TX 915-362-0681 

North Shore Computers, Wl 414-963-9700 



Process words with ease. 

For starters, JACK allows 1 , 2 or 3 column on-screen 
editing - try that with another word processor. With 
JACK, what you see is what you get. There are no 
hidden formatting directives to confuse you. JACK lets 
you insert, delete, copy, set tabs and margins, do fill and 
right justification. All commands are menu driven so you 
always know what comes next. For serious word pro- 
cessing you will want an 80-column card (we 
recommend Videx) and a shift key wire mod - but JACK 
works with a 40 column screen, too. 

Free form calc analysis. 

JACK lets you embed calculated values right in the 
middle of your text. Calculation rules are spelled out in 
English using names of fields you create (like INVEN- 
TORY or PROFIT). Full IF THEN ELSE logic, +-*/, 
exponentiation, string matches, greater than, less than, 
AND, OR, and NOT operations let you specify very 
complex calculations. JACK allows up to 100 calculation 
rules. If you are doing large spreadsheet work, use a 
spreadsheet program (we recommend our Senior 
Analyst Package available exclusively from Apple 
Computer of course). But for the rest of your calc 
analysis, you'll find JACK a pleasure to use. 

Manage files your way. 

JACK supports 60 files on an Apple II floppy disk A 
maximum of 1000 records can be stored in these files 
Each record can have up to 100 fields ranging in size 
from 1 character to 1000 characters. JACK lets you sort 
and select these records by any arithmetic combination 
of fields. Best of all, you can use the word processing 
features of JACK to create and modify your file defini- 
tions and the cafe rules to automatically calculate values. 

Which way is up? 

Since JACK provides all these features in a single 
program, you need no longer worry about where the up 
arrow key has gone when you switch from calc to word 
processing. Screen handling, backspacing, and file 
naming don't change with each new application. You 
need not bother about data interchange formats, file 
structuring techniques or the other nonsense that you 
have to go through to transfer information from one 
package to another. You also don't have to worry about 
whether your new word processor wants an 80 column 
card that your old calc package can't stand. In a single 
simple environment, JACK does it all. 



or call. 



fbusinessl (800) 645-4513 

Isolutionsj (516-269-1120) in NY. 



requires Apple II with 64K 
memory and 2 disk drives 



CIRCLE 1 19 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Color Computer Disk, continued... 

and this can be reduced using the in 1 S 
command. 

As a result, you can have a disk 
operating system on a machine with only 
16K of memory. Before upgrading my 
machine to 32K, I felt only slightly 
handicapped b\ having to relinquish the 
2K for the disk buffer. 

Disk user file capacity is 156.672 
bytes, and a maximum of 68 files can re- 
side on a single side, of a soft-sectored 
5 1/4" disk. The files are catalogued in 
TRSDOS fashion, with an 8-byte file 
name and 3-byte extension. 

The drive package includes a single 
drive unit, a ROM disk controller pack, 
drive connecting cable, and an 
instruction/programming manual. An- 
other drive can be added to the system if 
required, and an optional four-drive ca- 
ble allows interfacing of up to four drive 
units. One requirement of the disk svs- 
tem is that your Color Computer have 
Extended Color Basic. 

A single drive unit has been in opera- 
tion on my Color Computer for about 
six months, and has operated almost 
flawlessly. The only problem I have 
noted concerns television interference. 
There •s a notice included with the unit 
that warns of television interference 
when you are using the drive on an early 
model' computer. My computer, serial 
number 337, certainly qualifies 1 was. 
therefore, not surprised to notice inter- 
ference on my home television when I 
used the drive. I have not noticed any 
interference on my monitor. Tandy of- 
fers to modify any computer that re- 
quires correction of the problem. I have 
never felt it was severe enough to have 
corrected. Besides. I couldn't bear to be 
without the computer for the few days 
that the modification would take. 

Since the drive unit has gone out of 
warranty, I have had only a couple ol 
minor problems. Occasionally the DOS 
would not initialize properly, and either 
the computer would be locked up or Ba- 
sk would work but disk Basic com- 
mands would only bring a response o( 
?SN ERROR. I traced the trouble to 
dim contacts on the ROM pack where 
it plugs into the Color Computer, and 
used a pencil eraser to clean the 
contacts. 

The only other problem I have had 
occurred when the drive unit would re- 
spond only with I/O errors. I tried 
LOAD, swi. and UIR. and all gave the 
same error message. Since the unit was 
out of warranty, and since 1 have had 
some experience with electronics. 1 used 
a phillips screwdriver to remove the 
drive from its case. 

The problem turned out to be quite 
simple. The drive belt had simply 
slipped off the flywheel. After reinstall- 
ing the belt, the drive again performed 

March 1 983 c Creative Computing 



flawlessly. 1 don't know why it slipped 
off, and it hasn't happened again in 
nearly two months. 

First, The Bad News 

As you can probably tell, I have no 
real complaints with the drive, however 
as with all equipment, there are a few 
things that I dislike. Included in this list 
are the following. Utilities seem to lack 
sophistication. As an example, BACK- 
UP requires a formatted disk, unlike 
Model I and III TRSDOS which for- 
mats during the backup process. BACK- 
UP also copies all bytes on a disk, 
whether it contains only one small file or 
a full disk. For disks with little informa- 
tion on them it is easier to load and 
resave those files. 

COPY will transfer files from one disk 
to another, but it requires at least two 



It provides many 
features and capa- 
bilities that are unheard 
of on systems that cost 
twice as much. 



drives. File access protection routines 
are lacking. There is no lock or pass- 
word protection capacity. The only file 
protection is the write-proteet tab. 

Another feature I would like is 
autostart, or DO files. There is no way 
to provide a turnkey system as the drive 
is now equipped. Though variables can- 
not be transferred from one program to 
another easily, it is possible to load and 
run a program from inside another pro- 
gram. My last gripe is the lack of an on 
ERROR (.()!() statement. 

The Good News 

There. I got all my gripes off my 
chest; now for some good news. First, 
the cost. Though the $599 price on the 
disk system itself seems high and is com- 
parable to prices for other disk systems 
(e.g.. Atari, Apple), total system price is 
very competitive. A TRS-80 Color Com- 
puter disk system with 32K, and a single 
drive can be purchased for under $1200 
from many suppliers. Compare that to 
Atari and Apple with the same capacity. 

The user manual is written to the 
same high standards as the two Basic 
programming manuals. Even though I 
was completely unfamiliar with file han- 
dling on a disk system, I was able to 
learn as the manual took me step-by-step 
through sequential and direct access 
files. I found, to my surprise, that my 
eassette file programs were transferred 
to disk with little problem. 

135 



Listed below are two file command 
lines, the upper line creates a text file on 
cassette; the lower line does the same on 
disk. 

1000 OPEN "I", #-1 , 
"MA ILL 1ST" 
1000 OPEN " I " . #1 , 
"MA ILL 1ST" 
As you can see, the only difference is 
in the buffer number. This buffer num- 
ber specifies which file is to be used. To 
transfer cassette file programs to a 
sequential disk file, use the line editor to 
remove the minus signs in the disk state- 
ments. Up to 1 5 disk buffers can be open 
at the same time. These details are best 
left to the disk manual. 

Another handy command you can use- 
is POKE &HFF40.0. With this com- 
mand, you can turn off the drive motor. 
Normally this is not required, as DOS 
does this for you. I wrote a simple pro- 
gram to transfer disk files to tape for 
tape backup purposes. One problem with 
it was that the drive continued to run 
during the tape write procedure. This is 
because opening a tape file causes pro- 
gram control to leave DOS and enter the 
cassette file write routine. DOS doesn't 
get a chance to shut off the drive. Never 
use this command while a file is still 
open. In other words, the command 
must be preceded by a CI osi command. 
The manual includes several sample 
programs that can be used. The list in- 
cludes a membership file, checkbook and 
budget programs among others. 

A service manual is available for those 
hobbyists who are technically oriented. 
There is a wealth of practical material 
on preventive maintenance, as well as 
service and repair information. Mainte- 
nance is straightforward; however you 
run the risk of voiding the warranty 
should you open the drive unit during 
the warranty period. 

For example, drive speed adjustment 
is easy. My drive has strobe bars on the 
flywheel. To adjust for proper speed, in- 
sert a disk and use DIR to start the motor 
turning. Use a small insulated handle 
screwdriver to adjust the motor speed 
control while viewing the strobe bars un- 
der a fluorescent light. When the row of 
bars marked 60 Hz looks stationary, the 
drive is adjusted properly. 

When I compare the Color Computer 
with other home computer systems, I 
am impressed with the TRS-80 
cost/feature ratio. It provides many fea- 
tures and capabilities that are unheard of 
on systems that cost twice as much. The 
Color Computer, coupled with the disk 
system is sure to make large inroads in 
the home computer market. I have 
found over the last year that the system 
is vastly underrated, and has far greater 
capacity than most people give it credit 
for. 



The Data Factory 




Foolproof, Flexible Database 
Management 



My search for a database management 
system (DBMS) began about three years 
ago when I realized that bringing per- 
sonal computing into my day-to-day 
business life could make me more ef- 
ficient and my business more profitable. 

As sales representative for the eastern 
region of a major company selling paper 
products — a highly competitive 
business — my job entails a lot of cus- 
tomer record keeping: competition, con- 



Data Factory has 

allowed me to design 

my own record-keeping 

system without 

becoming a 

programmer. 



tracts, calls, customer facilities, and a 
myriad of other details. 

After deciding on an Apple II because 
of the vast amount of software available 
for the machine, I studied most of the 
database management systems available 
and finally settled on the Data Factory 
from Micro Lab. I am not a pro- 



Rodney O'Rourkc. X Pleasant View PI., Old Green- 
wich. CT 06R70 . 



Rodney O'Rourke 



grammer, and I don't want to be a com- 
puter expert. My use for a computer is 
straightforward: I want it to assist me in 
the performance of my job, make me 
more efficient, and help me serve my 
customers. 

I have never regretted the choice of 
Data Factory. First, it is a truly friendly 
and virtually foolproof program that 
provides me with the power I need. Sec- 
ond, it was at that time, and still is, the 
most flexible DBMS available for a 
small computer. Third, when I signed 
my first licensing agreement, I found 
that I had bought people and support as 
well as software. 

Data Factory has allowed me to design 
my own record-keeping system without 
becoming a programmer or learning 
what amounts to a new computer lan- 
guage. But it goes beyond that. Data 
Factory also allows me to manipulate the 
data in the base in several unique ways 
and to produce reports customized to 
my specific requirements. Finally, the 
sophisticated math package which is an 
integral part of Data Factory lets me 
massage the figures in ways that ap- 
proach some of the well-known 
spreadsheet programs. 

136 



Extended Warranty 

Data Factory is a single program 
which includes a first-year "extended 
warranty" against destruction of the 
program disk (you get two identical 
copies of the program disk which cannot 
be copied). The extended warranty pro- 
vides for replacement of a damaged or 
destroyed disk any time in the first year 
and also provides you with any updated 
versions that might be issued. I started 
with Version 3 and recently received my 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Data Factory 

Type: Database manager 

System: 48K Apple II 

Format: Two identical sets of 

two 5 '/«" floppy disks, one report 
disk and one utility disk. 

Language: Applesoft Basic with 
6502 Assembly subroutines. 

Summary: Excellent, easy-to-use, 
virtually foolproof system for 
business and personal uses. 

Price: $300 

Manufacturer: 

Micro Lab 

2310 Skokie Valley Rd. 

Highland Park, IL 60035 



March 1983 e Creative Computing 



Videx, a ffrontrunner in 
microcomputer peripherals and software, 
announces two exciting new programs that 
I will make existing software compatible with 
the 80-column VIDEX VIDEOTERM. 

APPLE WRITER ][ 

pre-boot with 80-Column Display 

lis program allows an 80-column display for your APPLE 

/RITER ][, and access to true upper and lower case input 

i the keyboard. When combined with the ENHANCER ][, 

;his program will provide a complete word processing 

;kage. 

Interested in word processing in different languages? The pre- 
Doot program has been set up to allow APPLE WRITER ][ to 
prompt in other languages. With 

Ian Enhancer ][, the keyboard 

lean be programmed to be 

I compatible with different 

(languages. 

$19.00 

Suggested retail price 





VisiCalc™ 



pre-boot with 80-Column Display 

Now you can view the VisiCalc electronic worksheet window in 
80 columns. Since the entry line is also 80 columns wide, 
complex formulas can now be seen in their entirety for editing 
ease. An added bonus is the ability to display upper and lower 
case. $49.00 

Suggested retail price 

For those who need even more power, a more advanced ver- 
sion combines all the above features with the ability to use 
many of the memory expansion boards currently available. A 
configuration editor allows VisiCalc to use a mixture of dif- 
ferent kinds of memory expansion cards. Just tell it what 
memory cards you have and which slots they are in. For exam- 
ple, you could use more than one language card equivalent. The 
memory cards can be combined 
to give you access up to 
176 K of memory! 

$89.00 

Suggested retail price 





897 N.W. Grant Ave. • Corvallis. Oregon 97330 • 503/758-0521 



CIRCLE 284 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Data Factory, continued... 

latest copy, Version 5.0, automatically 
under Micro-Lab's policy, which costs 
$30 annually after the first year. 

In addition, data files developed under 
older versions of Data Factory are still 
compatible with the newer versions, and 
can be accessed through Basic, which is 
not the case with some competitive 
products. The features in each new ver- 
sion are worth many times the cost of 
the warranty. 

Data Factory can be used with a one- 
drive system, but it would be clumsy and 
slow, as is the case with most such pro- 
grams. My two-drive 48K Apple system 
uses an IDS 560 printer which I chose 
for its high speed and 220-column print 
output. But the features of the software 
program itself are what make that hard- 
ware useful. While some other computer 
manufacturers have built bigger, faster, 
and more sophisticated machines than 
the Apple, no one has built a machine 
that is more flexible or easier to use. 

Special Features 

Those features of Data Factory that I 
particularly like include a menu-driven 
start-up routine that asks you a series of 
questions about the database you wish to 
design. After selecting a name for the 
file, you are asked how many fields you 
wish to specify in each record, up to a 



maximum of 88. Each field may be any 
length up to 239 characters long. You 
are then asked to enter a maximum 
length and name for each field. The next 
step is to tell the program the length of 
the longest field that you will sort or 
search, whether you have a printer, and 
the day's date. 

Just that simply, your database has 
been structured. After that startup ses- 
sion, the program calls its own main 
menu to allow you to work with the 
database you have created. 

One of the real strengths of the start- 
up routine is that you don't have to 
make long-term, unchangeable decisions 
before you are really sure what the 
database is going to contain and how 
you will use it. It is a relatively simple 
matter to change a field — from 8 charac- 
ters to 12 characters, for instance — at 
some later stage. 

The item entry in the main menu is 
data entry. When you select that option, 
it prompts you for input from the key- 
board by displaying the titles of each 
field you selected and waiting for input. 
When all field prompts have been an- 
swered, the program asks if you wish to 
store the results in memory or on disk, 
start over, or correct an item. This last 
feature allows instant editing without 
retyping an entire record. 



A second data entry procedure allows 
custom data entry. This mode lets you 
set up a customized format on the 
screen, placing constant names any- 
where you want, then entering the data 
to the full screen by using the cursor 
control keys of the Apple (I,J,K,M) to 
move the cursor about the screen. You 
design the custom entry format right on 
your screen with cursor movements and 
simple commands. 

In addition, a set of control characters 
lets you back up or move forward a field 
in the record, whether you have entered 
anything in the current field or not, ad- 
vance to the next page, or back up a 
page. This is a remarkably simple system 
to use, especially for those situations in 
which data is incomplete at the time of 
entry. 

Powerful List Command 

The list command from the program 
menu allows you to display your files on 
either the screen or the printer by se- 
lected record number. It gives you three 
ways to do this: in the order originally 
entered, in a sorted format, or in the or- 
der of the last filter (a special sort that 
selects and sets up an index of records 
containing certain data you specify). 

The menu then goes through a series 
of questions about how you want the list 



It's not Magic, it's NEC. 

NEC distributors 



pull miracles out of 
a thimble. 

NEC Spinwriters." Their supernatural reliability 
and versatility have made them the world's most 
popular letter-quality printers. Here are some of the 
miracles they can perform for you. 

The Spinwriters' rapidly growing catalog of print 
thimbles give you incredible versatility. One NEC 
thimble can print in 35 different languages. Another 
has complete technical and mathematical symbols. 
Another a full scientific symbol font. The thimbles 
snap in and out in seconds. And they each last for 
more than 30 million impressions. 

Of all printer companies, only NEC designs and 
manufactures its own comprehensive family of 
forms handlers. We've got eight of them, enough to 
handle any form you can conjure up They're all user- 
changeable, too. 

Spinwriters have remarkable reliability, more 
than two years between failures in normal usage. 
And they need no preventive maintenance or 




routine lubrication. Ever With only 3 major 
spares, mean time to repair is only 
15 minutes. 

The NEC Spinwriters. Reliable, quiet, 
compact, flexible and easy to use. 
For more information on NEC Spin- 
writers, or to find out how to become 
an NEC distributor yourself, contact the 
authorized NEC distributor nearest you. 

NEC Information Systems, Inc. 

CIRCLE 217 ON READER SERVICE CARO 



presented — print field names, line feeds, 
continuous print, etc. The list command 
gives the user great selectivity and 
flexibility in what he actually sees or 
what is printed out from the data file. 

The printer set-up routine sets the 
parameters for producing hardcopy of 
your efforts. It includes standard print 
parameters along with such niceties as 



Unlike most of the rest 

of the program, the 

custom output routine 

demands patience and 

forethought. 



right justification of fields and the 
specification of the number of horizontal 
fields before executing a carriage return. 
One of the most powerful of all the 
capabilities of the program is the custom 
output routine, which allows you to cre- 
ate custom outputs to the printer or 
monitor and to operate the comprehen- 
sive math functions intrinsic to the pro- 
gram. You control every phase of the 
final apppearance of the report, enter 



text of up to 4000 characters any place 
you wish, place the fields at any location 
on a form, and print out up to 254 col- 
umns wide and 249 lines deep. Using the 
custom output mode, you can write the 
particular document back to the disk as 
a separate file at any time, which I be- 
lieve is a unique capability among micro- 
computer database systems. 

Unlike most of the rest of the pro- 
gram, the custom output routine de- 
mands patience and forethought since it 
must be told what to do at every step. 
Once the report looks the way you want 
it to, the custom format can be saved 
and called up instantly for future use, or 
edited still further with powerful editing 
commands. 

Using custom outputs, you can com- 
mand simple formats such as two-up 
mailing labels or complex formats such 
as checkbook entries related to a 
companion general ledger database 
structure. 

The math and manipulation routines 
give you such standard operations as 
addition, subtraction, power, sine and 
cosine, and random number generation, 
as well as such complex capabilities as 
natural logs, conversion of degrees to 
radians, modular arithmetic, and logical 
not operation. All are handled in reverse 
Polish notation, which may be the most 



logical kind of computer entry system 
for arithmetic computation. Instead of 
saying 2 + 2 = as we have been .aughi 
from our pencil and paper days, t he- 
equation is entered from the keyboard as 
2 enter 2 enter + 

Move Data To New Format 

While Inspect /change functions arc- 
common to most databases, the addi- 
tional update and transfer routines of 
Data Factory allow you to change i he- 
existing database input or output Itruc- 
ture. then move the data over to the new 
structure without reentering the data. 
These are among the most useful and 
powerful of all the Data Factory features 
in that your own database can grow and 
change with your needs, rather than be- 
ing locked into whatever format you set 
up at the beginning. 

A related feature is the construct and 
append routine, which may be ihc most 
powerful routine in the entire system. 
With the C&A routine, you can add up 
to 10 new fields to an existing structure. 
decrease the number of fields, change in- 
dividual field length, switch field po- 
sitions around in the file, append records 
to the existing file and select which 
records to transfer by moving them in 
selected blocks. With C&A. you can 
selectively back-up individual files on a 






W.A. Brown Instruments, lac 
(205) 883-8660 
Hall-Mart Electronics Corp. 
(205) 837-8700 
HuntsvHIe. AL 

ALASKA 

Transalatka Data Sy» .. Inc. 
Anchorage. AK 
(907) 27G-S616 

ARIZONA 

Hall-Mart Electronics Carp. 

1602) 243-6601 

International Data Systems 

(602) 231-0888 

Phoenix. AZ 

The Photnii Group. Inc. 

Tamp*. AZ 

(602) 894-9247 

Spirit Electronics 

Scottsdale. AZ 

(602) 998-1533 



CALIFORN IA 

Byte Industries 
(415) 783-8272 
CampalerLand Corp. 
(415) 487 5000 
Hay ward, CA 

Consolidated Dala Terminals 

Oakland. CA 

(415) 638-1222 

Data Systems Marketing 

San Diego. CA 

(619) 560-9222 

Eakins Associates. Inc. 

Mountain View. CA 

(415) 969-4533 

Electronic Mklg Specialists 

Tustin, CA 

(714) 832-9920 

Electronic Mklg. Specialists 

Sunnyvale, CA 

(408) 245-9291 

Electronic Mklg. Specialists 

Reseda. CA 

(213) 708-2055 

Electronic Mklg. Specialists 

San Diego. CA 

(619) 560-5133 

Emerson Enterprises 

San Ramon. CA 

(415) 837-8728 

Hall Mark Eleclronics Carp. 

Sunnyvale. CA 

(408) 773-9990 

Hall-Mart Eleclronics Corp. 

San Diego. CA 

(619) 268-1201 

Leasametric 

Foster City. CA 

(415) 574-4441 



Leasametric 

Culver City. CA 

(213) 670-0461 

Micro Business World 

Tarcana. CA 

(213) 996-2252 

NC Data, lac. 

San Jose. CA 

(408) 946-3800 

Renaissance Tack. Corp. 

Concord. CA 

(415) 676-5757 

Terminal Rentals. Inc. 

Tustin. CA 

(714) 832-2414 

Terminal Rentals. Inc 

San Jose. CA 

(408) 292-9915 

Umled States Data Syslems 

San Mateo. CA 

(415) 572-6600 

Vllak 

San Marcos. CA 

(714) 7448305 

Waybern Carp. 

Garden Grove CA 

(714) 554-4520 

Western Microtecnnology 

Cupertino. CA 

(408) 725-1662 

COLORADO 

Acorn Data Products 

Englewood CO 

(303) 779-6644 

Data Design i Developmeni 

(303) 296-3807 

Hall-Mart Eleclronics Corp. 

(303) 9343111 

Denver. CO 

FLORIDA 

W.A. Brown Instruments. Inc. 

Orlando. FL 

(305) 425-5505 



W.A. Brown Instruments, sac. 

Fort Lauderdale. FL 

(305) 776-4800 

W.A. Brown Instruments. Inc 

Melbourne. FL 

(305) 723-0766 

W.A. Brawn insiruments. Inc. 

Tampa. FL 

(813) 985-0394 

Cala t Bultman. Inc. 

Jacksonville. FL 

(904) 356-4812 

Hall-Mart Eleclronics Carp. 

Fort Lauderdale. FL 

(305) 971-9280 

Hall-Mart Electronics Corp. 

Orlando. FL 

(305) 855-4020 

Hall-Mart Electronics Corp. 

St Petersburg. FL 

(813) 576-8691 

GEORGIA 

W.A. Brawn instruments, sac. 

Atlanta GA 

(404) 455-1035 

Digital Solutions. Inc 

Marietta. GA 

(404) 955-4488 

Hall-Mart Eleclronics Carp. 

Nor cross. GA 

(404) 4478000 

HAWAII 

Gray Associates 

Kailua HI 
(808) 261-3751 

ILLINO IS 

Dytec/Central. taw. 
Arlington Heights. IL 
(312) 394.3380 
Hall-Mark Electronics Carp. 
Bensenvine, IL 
(312) 860-3800 



Data Factory, continued- 
disk rather than copying the entire disk, 
manipulate the previously entered 
search and sort characters, append files 
even though the field lengths do not 
match, and fix a bad record caused by 
garbled data, hardware error, or even 
physical fault in the media. 

Many Ways To Search 

The search routines are highly flexible 
in Data Factory. You can search by 
record number or by any of the fields. In 
addition, you may direct a regular 
search, which will respond to the search 
characters CAT with CATholic, CAT- 
alog, and CATerer. The command to 
use internal search would also report 
back such strings as eduCATe and 
duCAT. Still another search option finds 
those records that do not match the 
search category. 

The next level of combining the file is 
the master search routine which allows 
you to indicate several items to search 
for ("scope searching," as it is known on 
minis and mainframes). The process is 
known in Data Factory as using a filter. 
You construct as complex a filter as you 
need to conduct a particular search. A 
screen menu prompts you through every 
step of the construction of the filter, 
which also allows you to implement the 
logical operators "and" and "or" to pro- 



duce levels of filter. While levels of filter 
cannot be added once a filter has been 
constructed, the command "nop" (no 
operation) can be designed into the 
structure and later changed to an "and" 
or an "or". 

Filters can be saved and reused or al- 
tered at any time. When a filter is used 
to process a data file, the index of the file 
is displayed, showing which records 
match through all stages and levels of 
the filter; those that meet all require- 
ments are automatically written to an in- 
dex on the disk. The save and re-run 
feature of having the filtered index on 
disk is a powerful tool for situations in 
which various reports must be generated 
over time using the same sorted records. 

Like the other routines in Data Fac- 
tory, the sort function allows great 
flexibility. When entering records, the 
latest record goes to the end of the file. 
However, through use of the sort rou- 
tine, the records can be rearranged 
numerically, alphabetically, or by date 
and can be restructured in either ascend- 
ing or descending order. The Data Fac- 
tory also allows sorting by one-level (the 
regular sort) or by multi-level which per- 
mits up to four levels of sort, such as 
sorting one field by name and another by 
date. 

The sort routine automatically com- 



pacts all files as it is used, giving you 
maximum data storage efficiency on the 
disk. 

Three Ways To Index 

Another powerful, automatic feature 
of the Data Factory is its index routine, 
which provides three different kinds of 
indexes to the data in the file. 

First, you can print out or display on 
the screen the first appearance of data in 
the field searched. The routine will show 
the record number of that first appear- 
ance. Second, you can construct an in- 
dex for all appearances of the particular 
search word. Finally, you can get a 
count of the number of times it appears 
in a file. 

As an example, let's presume that 
Data Factory is being used in a hospital 
emergency ward. By using the first op- 
tion, you could search a field called 
"location of injury." The first option 
would print out a list: arm, hand, eye, 
ankle . . Using the second option, the 
listing would present arm 12,23,39; hand 
16,26,27,41; eye 6,9,20,45, showing 
which records contained the search 
word. By using the third option, the list- 
ing would show arm (15), hand (11), eye 
(7), ankle (12), indicating the number of 
times each type of injury appeared in the 
file. 



Arlington I 
(312) 228 MS 
Kaltreeics 
Noflhbro6li.lt 
(312)291-1220 
Nabih's. fee. 
Evanston. IL 
(312) 869-6140 
Tek-Aids Industries. Inc. 
Arlington Heights. IL 
(312) 870-7400 

INDIANA 

Oytec/Ceaj/ai. ate. 

Indianapolis. IN 

(317) 247-1316 

Giimal Microcomputer 

South Bend. IN 

(219) 277-4972 

Grehem Elec Supply. Inc 



Pi 



nrjianapolis IN 
317)634-8202 



(317) 



Stir-Tronic Distributor Co 
Catmel IN 
(317) 8440102 

IOWA 

Dyteo/Central. Inc. 
(319) 363-9377 



Hall-Mart Electronics Corp 

Leneta 

i "13| 888-4747 

Inland Associates. Ik. 

Otathe. KS 

(913) 764-7977 



LO UISIAN A 

W.A Brown Instrumenls. 
ManOtville LA 
(504) 626-9701 

MARYLAND 



Bartletl A __. 

Bethesdi. M0 

(301) 656-3061 

Hall Mark Electronics Corp 

Baltimore. MD 

(301) 798-9300 

M/A-Com Alanthiis 

(301) 770-1150 

Micro Distributors. Inc 

(800)638-6621 

Rockville, MD 

Ths Zamalstl Ca 

Baltimore. MD 

1301)644-2900 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Bartlelt Associates, hie. 
Fram.ngham MA 
(617) 879-7530 

The Computer Start. hM. 
Sudbury. MA 
(617) 879-3700 
Coallaental Resources. Inc 
Bedford. MA 
(617) 275-0850 
CPU Compuler Carp. 
Charleston MA 
(617) 242-3350 



Mlcroamenca Distr Co.. lac 
Needham, MA 
(617) 449-5807 
Slmslm, lac. 

Naucli. MA 
(617) 655-64ID 



Gaatral Data Company. Inc. 

Brighton Ml 

(313) 227-3046 

Star Tronic Distributor Co 

Farmmgton Hills. Ml 

(313) 477-7586 

Madison Heights.MI 
(313) 588-2300 

MINNESOTA 

Hall-Mart Electronics Carp. 
Btoommgton. MN 
(612) 854-3223 
Inland Associates, lac. 
Minneapolis. MN 
(612)379-5354 



St Paul. MN 
(612) 293-0385 



Minneapolis. MN 
(612) 623-3850 
Tele-Terminals, lac. 
Brooklyn Park. MN 

(612) 536-6000 



Hall-Mart Electronics Carp. 
Maryland Heights. M0 
(314) 291-5350 



inland As s ad M at , lac. 
St. Louis. M0 
(314) 391-6901 

NEW JERSEY 

Hall-Mart Electronics Carp. 

Cherry Hill. NJ 

(609) 424-7300 

Hall-Mart Electronics Carp. 

Fairfield. NJ 

(201) 575-4415 

logon. Inc 

Hackensack NJ 

(201)646-9222 

TransNet Corporation 

Union. NJ 

(201) 688-7800 

WP Per iph A Supply Co . Inc 

(201) 946-4995 
NEWYtJJJf. 

Bartletl Associates. Inc. 

White Plains. NY 
(914) 949-6476 
Bartletl Anot, alts. Inc. 

6309 
The Compuler Fadery 
New York. NY 
(212) 687-5000 
Erin Computer Distr Carp. 
Farmingdale. NY 
(516) 293-4114 

Ossmann Computer Tact., ate. 
East Syracuse, NY 
(315) 437-6666 

Ossmann Compuler Tack.. Inc 
Rochester. NY 
(716) 473-5720 

Ossmann Compuler Tech . Inc 
Vestal, NY 
(607) 785-9947 



Applying It In Business 

In any database manager, the ability 
to delete data, formats, files, and records 
is vital in keeping the file up-to-date. 
With Data Factory, which stores up to 
10 formats, any one can simply be killed. 
All such deletions are done from a 



You could have Data 

Factory show everyone 

in the Boston area, and 

then schedule visits 

around those 

customers and 

prospects. 



prompting menu. Individual files can be 
killed in one action, which is a great 
time-saver. Records can be deleted from 
files individually, in groups according to 
a common field, or by blocks of record 
numbers. In many cases, Data Factory 
asks a fail-safe second question to make 
sure you really mean to delete what you 
ordered deleted. 

How this all can come together in 



your business life is shown in the 
database that you can design using Data 
Factory and use every day in dealing 
with customers and prospects. 

The database could be made up of up 
to 86 fields and contain all the normal 
kinds of identifying data, such as name, 
ownership, address, phone, key contact, 
estimated paper usage, and so on. In 
addition, it could contain a section on 
how the customer handles its paper sup- 
plies, storage available, amount used, 
type of paper used, cores preferred, etc. 
Another section could deal with con- 
tracts with these customers, how much 
paper they cover, cumulative sales his- 
tory in volume and dollars, expiration of 
contracts, and related information. Still 
another section could deal with com- 
petition: who else the customer buys 
from, how much, when their contracts 
expire, plus some confidential informa- 
tion for use in dealing with individual 
customers. 

You could access this information in a 
number of ways to make your produc- 
tive hours — the hours spent with 
customers — more profitable. One ob- 
vious way is to check expiring contracts 
regularly, both yours and your com- 
petition's, and then make special efforts 
against those prime prospects. 

Another way might be in scheduling 



trips. Say you are going to Boston. You 
could have Data Factory list all your 
customers and prospects in the Boston 
area and then schedule visits around 
them. 

Still another use is in emergency situa- 
tions. Say there is a fire in one of the 
plants that means production will be 
down for a significant time. You could 
have Data Factory instantly produce a 
list of customers who rely on production 
from that mill, and find them alternative 
sources of supply even before they know 
that there is a problem with their pri- 
mary source. That is the kind of service 
to which a customer is entitled, but 
which is very hard to do manually. It is 
just the mindless kind of filter that the 
Apple does very well. 

Summing Up 

Salesmen used to do all those things 
manually — with a lot of difficulty, pieces 
of paper, and time. Now they can do 
them all with an Apple computer and 
Data Factory, and find that they can be 
more efficient, more valuable to their 
customers, and especially, more profit- 
able. I recommend Data Factory to any- 
one who needs quick access, with 
tailored output, to a complex database, 
but who does not want to become a com- 
puter expert. C 



NORTH CAROLINA 

W .». Irawn Instruments. Inc. 

Durham. NC 

(919) 683-1580 

Hall-Nut Electronics Corp. 

RiH.Qh.NC 

(9191 832-4465 

OHIO 

General Oata Co.. mc 

Cincinnati. OH 

(513) 851-2585 

General Data Co.. Ine 

Laktwood. OH 

(216) 228-8833 

General Oata Co . Inc 

Fostona. OH 

(419) 435-1191 

Haii-Mait Electronics Corp. 

Highland Heights OH 

(216) 473 2907 

Hall-Mart Electronic! Caff. 

Westerville OH 

(614)891-4555 



Defiance. OH 
(419) 782-1115 



Cleveland. OH 
(216) 524-5930 
National Initr Olalr. Inc 
Dayton. OH 
(513) 435-4503 
Star-Tronic Distributor Co 
Fairview Park. OH 
(216) 779-9660 
Star-Tronic Distributor Co 
Engjewood. OH 
(513) 836 0951 

OKLAHOMA 

Data Applications Corp. 



Hall-Mart Electronics Carp. 
(918) 665-3200 
Tulsa. OK 

OREGON 



Aloha. OR 
(503) 642-7679 

PENNSYL VANIA 

Bartlett Associates, lac. 

Nomstown. PA 

(215) 666-7100 

General Data Company 

Pittsburgh. PA 

(412) 788-4800 

Star Tronic Distributor Co 

Monroeville, PA 

(412) 372-3340 

WKM Associates 

Pittsburgh. PA 

(412) 892-2953 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

W A Brown Instruments. Inc. 
Columbia. SC 
(803) 798-8070 

TENNESSEE 



Data Applications 

San Antonio. TX 

(512) 732-7176 

Oil Data Systems 

Piano. TX 

(214) 422-7910 

DAB Oata Systems 

Houston. TX 

(713) 463-7561 

Hall-Mart Electronics Carp. 

Dallas. TX 

(214) 343-5000 

Hall-Mart Electronics Carp. 

Austin, TX 

(512) 258-8848 

Halt-Mart Electronics Corp 

Houston. TX 

(713) 781-6100 

Southern Micro Distributors 

Irving. TX 

(214) 2586636 

UTAH 

Acorn Data Products 
Salt Lake City. UT 
(801) 973 7958 



W A Broam li 
Oak Ridge. TN 
(615) 482-5761 

TEXAS 

Data Applications 
Addison. TX 
(214) 931-1100 
Oata Applications 
Houston. TX 
(713) 686-8413 



VIRGINIA 



Nine* 
Fairfax VA 
(703) 273-1803 
Terminals Unlimited 
Fans Church. VA 
(703) 237-8666 



WASHINGTON 

Micro Tachnola jy Inc 
Tacoma. WA 
(206) 272-3347 
Sigma Distributing 
Belevue.VVA 
(206) 4546307 



Hall Mark Electronics Corp 
Oak Creak. Wl 
(414) 761-3000 




iVfX 

NEC Information Systems, Inc. 




If you just bought another computer, 
boy are you gonna be sorry 



Epson. 



The new Epson QX-10 is unlike any per- 
sonal computer you've ever seen. It's a com- 
puter for people who don't have the time to 
learn computers; a computer you can be 
using within minutes. 

And fortunately, you don't have to take 
our word for it. Here's how Byte, one of the 
computer industry's most prestigious maga- 
zines, describes the QX-10. 
The first anybody-can-use-it computer. 
"The Epson QX-10 (is) a computer for less 
than $3000 that may well be the first of a new 
breed of anybody-can-use-it 'appliance' 
computers ... In addition to being a highly 
integrated word processing/computer sys- 
tem that offers as much usable processing 
power as almost any existing microcompu- 
ter, the QX-10 . . . system is designed to be 
used by people with minimal technical 
knowledge. We've certainly heard that 
claim before, but Epson has delivered on 
this promise in a way and to an extent that 
no microcomputer manufacturer has done." 

That's nice to hear from a magazine like 
Byte, of course, but it doesn't surprise us. 
It's just what we intended the QX-10 to be 
all along. 

More computer. Less money. 
But useability isn't the only thing the QX-10 
has going for it. As Byte says, "the QX-10 
gives you a great deal for your money. 

"Help is available at any time through the 
HASCI (Human Application Standard 
Computer Interface) keyboard Help key . . . 
Text can be entered at any time just as you 
would in a conventional word processor. 
The Calc key turns the system into a basic 



4-function calculator. Graphics can be cre- 
ated via the Draw key. The Sched (schedule) 
key gives you access to a computer-kept 
appointment book, a built-in clock/timer/ 
alarm, and an event scheduler." 
Advanced hardware for advanced 
software. 

As for hardware, Popular Computing, 
another industry leader, says: "The QX-10 
includes ... a number of advanced hardware 
features . . . The basic components of the 
system are a detachable keyboard, a high 
resolution monochrome display, and a sys- 
tem unit containing two 5V4 inch disk 
drives. The drives use double-sided, 
double-density disks (340K bytes per disk) 
and are amazingly compact . . . The QX-10 
uses an 8-bit Z80A microprocessor. The sys- 
tem contains 256 bytes of RAM. Some of the 
RAM is . . . battery powered . . . which lets 
the computer retain information when the 
power is off." 

You won't have to wait much longer. 
The new Epson QX-10 may very well be the 
computer you've been waiting for. And for- 
tunately, you won't have to wait much 
longer — it will be appearing soon in com- 
puter stores all across the country. In the 
meantime, write Epson at 3415 Kashiwa 
Street, Torrance, CA 90505, or call (213) 
539-9140. We'll be happy to send you copies 
of our reviews. 

After all, as Popular Computing puts it, the 
QX-10 will "do for computing what the 
Model T did for transportation." 

And we couldn't have said it better 
ourselves. 




EPSON 

EPSON AMERICA, INC. 

COMPUTER PRODUCTS DIVISION 



3415 Kashiwa Street 
Torrance, California 90505 
(213) 539-9140 

CIRCLE 164 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Paint 



Electronic 
Canvas 




The Possibilities 

You may be getting tired of hearing 
me rave about the graphics potential of 
the Atari. Well I'm not going to rave 
anymore — I am just going to show you 
some pictures. They will save me thou- 
sands of words. 

Paint is the most ambitious joystick- 
based drawing system available for the 
Atari computer. It has capabilities that 
outstrip systems that cost five times as 
much. It allows even the absolute begin- 
ner to experiment with most of the 
graphics potential the Atari brings to 
microcomputing. And it is so simple, 
even a child can use it. In fact, it was 
designed with children in mind. I cannot 
think of a better inducement to kids than 
a program such as this. 

There are actually two drawing pro- 
grams included with Paint, SimplePaint 
and Superpaint. SimplePaint is an unim- 
posing, scaled-down version of the main 
program, Superpaint, devoid of power- 
ful features and therefore also of all com- 
plexity. SimplePaint stands more as a 
tutorial starting point than a valuable 
program in its own right. It is doubtful 
whether the user, child or adult, will 
spend much time with it. Not after he 
discovers the majesty of Superpaint. 

The Features 

The joystick is manipulated to move a 
blinking cross hair around the screen. 
Press the trigger, and the cursor draws. 
You may choose from nine different 
"brushes." in nine different widths, for 
a total of 81 styles of brushstroke. You 
may choose a brush that paints a wide 
swath in one direction, and a narrow one 



John Anderson 



in another. You can choose a fine line 
(resolution to graphics 7), or paint huge 
areas at a time. 

At the bottom of the screen ten "paint 
pots" are displayed. Move the cursor 
into one of the pots, and press the trigger. 
Your brush will pick up the new color. 
Four of these are solid colors, six are 
patterns — plaids, if you like. Each of 
these colors as well as their luminosities 
can be changed. Each of the plaids can 
be altered as well. They default to a very 
pleasing set, but it is tough to avoid play- 
ing with them. 

Next to the paint pots are two other 
symbols. One is an H, and when the 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: Paint 

Type: Graphics composer 
System: Atari 800 48K 
Formal: Disk 
Language: Machine/Basic 

Summary: Impressive, powerful 

graphics package making 
full use of the Atari. 

Price: $39.95 

Manufacturer: 

Reston Software 
11480 Sunset Hills Rd. 
Reston, VA 22090 



1< 



cursor is moved onto it and the trigger 
pressed, the help menu appears. Every- 
thing about Paint can be accessed from 
its superbly designed system of nested 
menus. As the user gains proficiency, 
commands can also be input to the key- 
board directly. Thus the system is able to 
cater to the beginner and the expert 
alike, without inconvenience to either. 

The symbol to the far right, looking 
like squares within squares, is the zoom 
symbol. Move the cursor onto it and 
press, and the picture enlarges to graph- 
ics 5. Press it again to move to graphics 
3. Move the cursor from within these 
modes, and smooth scrolling takes 
place. You can travel smoothly through- 
out the painting in these magnified 
modes, doing detailed work with great 
accuracy. 

Other commands place real graphics 
power in your hands. Aside from the 
direct drawing mode, you can choose the 
automatic generation of straight lines, 
rectangles, and circles. They will place 
themselves exactly where you indicate, 
in the size and brushstroke you have cho- 
sen. This capability is indispensable in 
building designs. Once closed shapes 
have been formed, either freehand or 
automatically, they can be filled with 
any color or plaid. The fill coloring is 
quick, perfect, and fun to watch. 

Colors and luminosities can be 
changed as you look at a painting, or as 
you look at an electronic palette, which 
indicates the choice on a rainbow-hued 
color menu. Plaids can be changed only 
while you are looking at the color menu. 
The cursor then becomes a roving 
square. You choose the pattern you want 

March 1983 c Creative Computing 




II 



the Frontiers of Intelligence 




4 Variations ol blind-fold play-camouflaged or invisible pieces 

4 Invert board to play black on bottom 

4 Change pieces on board during game, or set up position 

4 Change between 15 levels of ploy, plus postal and mate-tinder modes 

4 Show move thot Chess is thinking about 

4 List played moves tor each side 

4 Lines of force in: attacks and defenses on a square 

4 Lines of force out: squares attocked and defended 

4 Chess suggests a move 

4 Show moves Chess thinks you will make, and its responses 

4 Evaluation of a position 

4 Return to board or switch to command menu 

4 Take back a move (repeatable) 

4 Play move suggested by look-ahead search 

4 Chess plays neither side 

4 Switch sides 

4 Chess plays against itself— one level against another 

4 Replay through most advanced position 

4 Skip to most advanced position 

4 Start new game 

■4 Leave program 

4 Save, get, and delete games to and from disk 
All features self-documented; all choices cursor-controlled 
Screen shows "outword" and "look" features being used 



THE PEOPLE BEHIND THE PROGRAMS: 



Larry Atkm & David Slate: Authors of the 
Northwestern University Chess 4.7 program- 
World Computer Chess Chompion.1977-1980 



Peter Frey: Northwestern University professor 
Editor: Chess Skill in Man and Machine 
One of U.S. Othello Assoc.'s top-ranked players 









Checkers features 



Black to move and win 

(From Checkers documentation) 



"Scores' feature in Odin 



A clue to the secret of Odin: 
Black is destined to lose. 




930 Pitner 
Evanston, IL 60202 
(USA) 



Chess: $69 95 
Checkers: $49.95 
Odin: $49 95 



See your local software dealer, or order 

(Mastercard or Visa): 

800-323-5423 

(in IHinois. call 312-328-7101) 



For Apple II, Apple II Plus 48K disk 
systems, and Atari 48K disk systems 
Odin is also available tor TRS-80 Model 
1 & 3 32K disk systems. 



CIRCLE 218 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



C 88200ESTA 



Paint, continued. 






^;1 




<tt(W , . 




ft/i 



Figure I Rectangles filled with a variety 
of plaids Black circles " cut" out of the 
background with a jagged brush suggest 
1/ fi ulptured effect 









m'WMWM 

MMMJ 






~ Ml iW 


■!*, 


WAWAW 


::-:■:■: 

■"■"■'»"•"■■■'■" 


"■" " 








1 

v. 

■:-;- 
::: 




^^^ 




£*& 



Figure 4 



All pictures b\ the author, created with 
the Paint i>raphii v < omposing s\ stem 



id' 


an 


3 .• - ••. 

■■UJM- — ■> 


I 






ras ma 


'2 



Figure 3 \ \i<n shaped brush resulted 
in these broad strokes oj color and pat- 
tern 



The system is able 

to cater to the 

beginner and the 

expert alike, without 

inconvenience to 

either. 




Figure! Varied brushstrokes canevokt 
images o) splashes of paint. 



/mux s " Cin les Number 2 










J 






Figur, \httime Cityscape I re 

saved this painting m </</»/;. daytime. 
<///</ dusk color schemi s Viewing them 




wXBa«WtoiV*i:aikx0w<« 



Figure 8 The color menu Vote paint 
pois ni the hoiiom oj the st reen Pattern 
bars determine plaids. Rainbow oj Inns 
indicates color and luminem < 

March 1983 : Creative Computing 



IS THIS LEVEL OF RELIABILITY 
REALLY NECESSARY? 

ACCUTRACK 






INCPMBNG* 







*& 



*&* 



<^ 



^ 



^ 



If you've ever lost data due to a 
faulty disk, you know how impor- 
tant reliability can be. 

That's why Accutrack disks are 
critically certified at 2-3 times the 
error threshold of your system. 
Why they're precision fabricated for 
higher signal quality, longer life and 
less head wear. And why we take- 
such extra steps as testing single- 
density mini disks at double-density 
levels. So you don't have to worry 
about the reliability of your media. 



Accutrack disks. OEMs have 
specified them for years. You can 
trust them for your data. Call toll- 
free (800 225-8715) for your nearest 
dealer. 



ACCUTRACK 

Dennison KYBE Corporation 

82 Calvary Street. Waltham. Mass. 02254 
Tel (617)899-0012; Telex 940179 
Outside Mass. call toll tree (800) 225*71 5 
Offices & representatives worldwide 



CIRCLE 191 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



K 


V 


fi 


e 



Dealers: Give your customers a 
choice— Accutrack's OEM perform- 
ance as well as your heavily adver- 
tised brand. We have the industry's 
only complete line of disks, cas- 
settes and mag cards, including 
virtually all special formats. 
If you want a quality line, small 
minimums, the ability to mix 
and match, private labeling, 
fast delivery and great price, call 
today. Find out how responsive a 
media supplier can be. 



Paint, continued.. 



by placing the cursor on displayed pat- 
tern bars and pressing the trigger. 

Other features round out the strengths 
of the program. The responsiveness of 
the nondrawing cursor can be damped. 
as can the responsiveness of the cursor 
when it is drawing. This may seem a 
trivial feature, but is very handy when 
doing detail work. I tended toward using 
a quick cursor when moving without 
drawing, and a slower cursor when 
drawing, for added control. 

Okay, so you have created a master- 
piece. What to do with it? Save it to disk, 
of course. Multiple pictures can be saved 
to a single disk. The Art Show feature 
allows all pictures on a disk to be dis- 
played. You can use multiple drives, and 
retrieval time is very quick. You may 
even number the order in which you 
want paintings to be displayed. You 
could conceivably create sequences 
approaching animation using this tech- 
nique. Press the space bar to pause on a 
single picture. Press it again to continue. 
Another command allows pictures to be 
deleted. 

The Concept 

Paint is an effort of SuperBoots, a 
talented and promising software team 
working for the Capitol Children's 



Museum in Washington. D.C. The pro- 
grammers are Eric Podietz, Jimmy Sny- 
der, and Mark Scott. 

Obviously intended to be an educa- 
tional package. Paint manages to convey 
fully the flavorful, imagination-spurring 
mood fostered at the Children's 
Museum. As a program designed to 
involve children, it is a masterpiece. 

The Shortcomings 

Accompanying the remarkable soft- 
ware is an equally ambitious softcover 
book, which in addition to documenting 
the package, attempts to present an over- 
view of art history from the dawn of man 
to the dawn of microcomputers. 

On this account it does not do any- 
where near as well. The scope of the 
task, in contrast to the space alloted, 
nearly dooms it to failure on the launch 
pad. The fact that the text suffers from a 
terminal case of the "cutsies" strikes the 
fatal blow. 

Certain passages of the book strike, 
like a blow to the vitals. "Nothing, with 
the possible exception of fire, acne, the 
wheel and sex, will have a greater impact 
on your life than the computer," reads 
the introduction to chapter two. A para- 
graph in chapter three reads "Yes. no. 
yes, yes. maybe, hmmm, I don't know. 



BY TtWttlT€* 



DAISY WHEEL 
PRINTER 




• Full Ollv< 
typewrite 
warranty 

• t l.. 
Listed 



$695 

shipping 

x I IRIS 

• typewriter operation with nothing to disconnect • to, 12 or 15 characters per 
Inch switch selectable • Portable with carrvins case • Entire Interface mounted 
Internally In the Olivetti Praxis SO typewriter • Underlining • Cables available tor 
omputerss Service from Olivetti dealers* Centronics compatible parallel 
Input • Built id self icsi • cartridge ni>ix>n • 2nd kevboani switch selectable 



CBYTE WRITER 



125 NORTHVIEW RD., ITHACA. NY. 14850 
(607) 272 1 132 



CIRCLE 120 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



148 



could be, yes, no, no, yes. yes. kind of, 
oh. who knows?" This kind of drivel 
typifies what some adults think kids cat 
up. Sorry; only dumb adults, if anyone, 
see value in patronizing kids. 

In fairness, the book is well-inten- 
tioned, and includes some handsome 
color plates, ranging from Matisse to 
computer-generated graphics by Mark 
Lindquist. The book unfortunately 
ignores the work of Tom deFanti. Abel 
Associates, and MAGI. In its ineffective 



Unfortunately, no 

provision is made for 

recalling paintings from 

any other programs. 



but passionate argument for the legiti- 
macy of computer-generated art. it 
nearly makes the case of opponents like 
Robert E. Mueller (sec "When is Com- 
puter Art Art," in the January issue). 
Proponents of computer art will cringe at 
the uneven and pronouncement-packed 
propaganda presented in the text of 
Paint. 

But wait a minute. The package was 
designed to stimulate the imagination, 
and that it does. And despite the fact that 
the accompanying text is putrid, the 
package remains superb. 

Of course it could have been better. 
Unfortunately, no provision is made for 
recalling paintings from any other pro- 
grams, Basic or otherwise, aside from 
Paint itself. This is a shortcoming that 
could have been easily set right. Further, 
the paint pot portion of the screen, which 
comprises what would otherwise be the 
text window, cannot be removed, and 
the images arc, therefore, always 
cropped on the bottom. It was wasteful 
not to have allowed for paintings to take 
up all the available screen area, with an 
option to toggle the paint pots on and off 
the screen. Perhaps these improvements 
will appear in a future version of the 
program. 

In the title card of the program, fill 
routines are used to "animate" the 
image. It would be wonderful if this 
power were made available to the user. 
Reston Software has announced another 
package. Quick Flix, for release shortly. 
It is an animation development package, 
which may offer this kind of capability. 

Despite my occasionally strong reser- 
vations about the text, I unreservedly 
recommend Paint as a must for the Atari 
graphics enthusiast, and the enthusiast's 
kids as well. At $39.95, it is a worth- 
while bargain. □ 

March 1983 e Creative Computing 




A word 
processor 

should be an 

extension of 

your mind. ~ 





A good word processor should feel 

comfortable, and let you put your thoughts 

down quickly, almost effortlessly. It should 

have automatic everything, and include 

footnotes, merge, columns and math. The 

screen should be uncluttered and give you an 

honest view of your text without annoying 

codes. 

^Jl WordPerfect does all this and 

has proven itself at places 
like Harvard, RCA, State Farm, and 
Texaco. The software is well 
documented, is guaranteed, and is 
available for immediate delivery. For 
more information write or call 



SOFTWARE 
INTERNATIONAL 



OPEM, UTAH 04057 



CIRCLE 251 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



We don't 

which computer you own. 

Well help you 

get the most out of it. 



CompuServe puts 
a world of information, 
communications, and 
entertainment at your 
fingertips. 

CompuServe is the versatile, easy to use 
interactive videotex service designed especially 
for the personal computer user. It's dynamic, 
growing and changing daily to satisfy 
its subscribers' needs. It's an industry 
leader, created and managed by 
the same communications pro- 
fessionals who provide busi- 
ness information and 
network services to 
over one fourth of i M 
the FORTUNE 500 w " : -„^- 
companies. 

From current events to current assets, 

CompuServe offers a wealth of useful, profitable 

jt* - ;j or just plain interesting information. 

\ ,\ Electronic magazines and national 

news wires plus worldwide weather, 

current movie reviews, electronic 

banking and shop at home services, 

and some of the most sophisticated 

financial information available are 

all offered to current subscribers. 

From words to music. CompuServe offers 
a communications network that gives special 




G& 




interest groups from hardware enthusiasts to 
computer composers a chance to get 
together. There's a bulletin board 
for selling, swapping, and 
personal notices and a CB 
simulator for real-time com- 
munications between sub- 
scribers. There's electronic 
mail, the fastest, surest, way to 
communicate with other users across the street 
or across the country, plus file retention and 
editing, and lots, lots more. 

Fun and games are expected whenever 
computer users interact, and CompuServe has 
the best Games you can play alone or with 
other CompuServe subscribers 
anywhere in the country. Classic 
puzzlers, sports and adventure 
games, and fantastic space games 
featuring MegaWars, the "ultimate 
computer conflict." 

But, that's just the tip of 
the chip. CompuServe offers a 
menu of thousands of items 
that make subscribing edu- 
cational, fun and sometimes downright profitable. 
If you'd like to know more about CompuServe, 
call toll free, 800-848-8990 to receive an illus- 
trated guide to the CompuServe Information 
Service. A videotex service for you no matter 
which computer you own. 

CompuServe 

PO Box 20212 

5000 Arlington Centre Blvd . Columbus. Ohio 43220 

800-848-8990 

In Ohio call 614-457-8650 
An H&R Block Company 

CIRCLE 132 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





Pick Six 
for the TRS-80 

Our Favorite Games Feature Apples, Paintbrushes, 
Frogs, Mines, and an Outhouse 



Owen Linzmayer 



Very few computers are advertised as 
game machines, but we all know that 
more home computers are being used to 
battle alien forces than to balance check- 
books. The TRS-80, although a rel- 
atively primitive computer for game 
playing, has a wealth of arcade software 
currently available for it. Reviewed here 
are the six best TRS-80 games I have 
seen during the last month. 



Apple Panic 

In Apple Panic, you play the role of a 
space farmer whose crop of apples has 
mutated and turned against him. To 
combat these creatures, you dig holes in 
the platforms that make up the screen. If 
an apple falls into a hole, you must bash 
it until it plummets to its death on the 
concrete below. If an apple touches you, 
you lose a life. 

The Apple Panic packaging promises 
voice and sound effects. This is a bit 
misleading. The only time the computer 
speaks (through the AUX port), is when 
it displays the banner page. At this time, 
it says only two words, "Apple Panic." 
Most of the other games on the market 



that advertise voice effects offer a much 
larger vocabulary. 

In addition to the printed instructions, 
Apple Panic has thorough documenta- 
tion accessible from within the program. 
This includes a scoring table and a re- 
view of the controls. The game can be 
played by one or two players with either 
the keyboard or a joystick. 

The playscreen is divided into five 
platforms that are connected by ladders. 



creative couepatiRg 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Apple Panic 

Type: Arcade 

System: 16K Mod I/III TRS-80 

Format: Tape/disk 

Language: Assembly 

Summary: Enjoyable ladder-climbing 
game 

Price: $19.95/524.95 

Manufacturer: 

FunSoft Inc. 

28611 Canwood St. 

Agoura, CA 91301 




152 



The position and length of the ladders is 
random, allowing for an almost infinite 
number of board configurations. 

The graphics are detailed, and the 
animation is very clear. When one object 
passes in front of another, it overlays the 
object in the background, rather than 
blocking it out. 

The sound effects in Apple Panic are 
sparse, but come at appropriate times. 
The computer breaks into a rich, full- 
bodied musical number as an aural 
reward for completing a screen. 

If you set a high score, you may enter 
your name or initials (up to 10 charac- 
ters) to be added to the high score table. 
These names and scores are saved 

March 1983 c Creative Computing 




APPLE 

AND 

TRS-80 

TEXT-ONLY VERSION 

$ 34.95 



ATARI 

VERSION 

WITH FULL 

COLOR GRAPHICS 

s 39.95 



<M| «-»v 



jS3Mdventui& 

V^£^ INTERNATIONAL 

A DIVISION OF SCOTT ADAMS, INC. 




NOW AVAILABLE FROM YOUR LOCAL DEALER OR DISTRIBUTOR 

OR ORDER TOLL FREE (800) 327-7172 OR 

BY MAIL FROM ADVENTURE INTERNATIONAL • BOX 3435 • LONGWOOD, FL 32750 

CIRCLE 105 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






FttlSf 



WlO 







c*fii 



THE 



gre* t 



qVW? 




C tfOMP v 



pOt£« 



QfKtf& 




And guess who stars as the 
movie monster You! As any of six 
different monsters More if you 
have the disk version 

You can terrorize and destroy 
four of the world's largest and 
most densely populated cities in 
over 100 possible scenarios. 
From Tokyo to the Golden Gate, 
you are the deadliest creature in 
the air. on the land, or in the sea. 

You can be the deadly am- 
phibian who simultaneously 
smashes street cars, lunches on 
helpless humans and radiates a 
ray of death 

If you were a giant winged 
creature, think of the aerial 
attacks you could make on the 
terrified but tasty tidbits beneath 
you. 

But as in all the best monster 
movies, you're up against every- 
thing the human race can throw 
at you — even nuclear warheads 
and a strange concoction devel- 
oped by a team of mad scientists. 

For only $29.95 you get 6 stu- 
pendous monsters, each with its 
own monstrous summary card, 
4 teeming metropoli displayed in 
graphic detail on your computer 
display and mapped in the 

"npanying 48-page illusl 
ed book, the awesome sounds of 
monsterly mayhem, and spine- 
tingling. real-time, edge-of-your- 
seat excitement 








1 




I 



.20 





GET CRUSH, CRUMBLE & CHOMP 

now at your local dealer for your APPLE, ATARI, 
or TRS-80 before its too late. 

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TRS-80 Arcade Games, continued.. 

permanently on the disk version, and are 
displayed on the instruction screen. 

Apple Panic from Funsoft may be well 
on its way to the top of the charts. 

Crazy Painter 

Crazy Painter brightens up a TRS-80 
software library just as a fresh coat of 
paint brings new life to a drab room. It is, 
as far as I know, an original arcade game 
unlike any other. 

Your job is to maneuver a paintbrush 
around the playfield. trying to "white 
out" the entire screen. Your mission is 
hindered by a group of pests that remove 
the paint that they walk, slither, and 
crawl over. 

Some of the creatures that you en- 
counter are deadly to the touch, others 
may be run over by your paintbrush. Af- 
ter you finish painting the screen, you 
advance to a special bonus round in 
which all of the monsters are vulnerable 
to your paintbrush. As the game pro- 
gresses, the action increases as more 
aggressive foes attack your paint job. 

Crazy Painter is a very professional 
program designed with user-friendliness 
in mind. There are three pages of 
internal documentation complete with 
animation. The game supports both one- 
and two-player games. If you want to 
skip the easy rounds of play, don't 
worry, there are ten selectable levels of 
starting difficulty. In addition to this, 
each player can choose his own level. 

Crazy Painter is written entirely in 
machine language by Robert Pappas, 
author of Bounceoids (see review, 
December 1982 issue). The major attrac- 
tion of this game is that instead of being 
represented on the screen by a little 
graphics character, you actually create 
the graphic images on the computer 
screen. The movement of all of the ele- 
ments in Crazy Painter is remarkably 
smooth, even at high speeds. 

I like Crazy Painter because as the 
game progresses in difficulty levels, dif- 
ferent creatures are brought into play, 




T^Y & 



"l was going to buy a traditional engagement 
ring, but this Donkey Kong ' ring was so 
clever, I couldn 't resist. " 



thus adding variety to the game. The 
bonus rounds that you encounter after 
every screen break up the tension and of- 
fer a chance to augment your score 
considerably. 

The one complaint I have with Crazy 
Painter is that there are very few sound 



creative compafciRg 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Crazy Painter 

Type: Arcade 

System: Mod I/III TRS-80 

Formal: Tape/disk 

Language: Assembly 

Summary: Very nice original game 

Price: $15.95/519.95 

Manufacturer: 

The Cornsoft Group 
6008 N. Keystone Ave. 
Indianapolis, IN 46220 
(317) 257-3227 



effects. Additional sound effects would 
greatly enhance this game. It has been 
proven by coin-op game manufacturers 
that over 50% of the appeal of a game 
depends on the audio output. I hope 
more TRS-80 programmers take note of 
this fact. 

Crazy Painter offers a refreshing break 
from shoot'-em-up games. The idea is 
novel, and Robert Pappas deserves 
credit for taking the time to do some 
innovative programming. 



Demon Seed 

During the summer of 1982, the the- 
aters were filled with horror films. When 
I first heard of Demon Seed, I mistak- 
enly thought it was the title of a new "in- 
sane convict murders entire town" 
movie. Demon Seed is, in fact, a TRS-80 
adaptation of Centuri's coin-op arcade 
game Phoenix. 

In Demon Seed you control a lone 
space fighter that traverses the bottom of 
the computer screen. This ship is 
equipped with an unlimited supply of 
ammunition and a protective shield that 




can be activated for short periods of 
time. 

The enemy takes the shape of large 
winged bats and demons. Each attack is 
made up of five separate waves. The first 
two attack waves consist of bats flying in 
formation. During the third and fourth 
waves, you are confronted by swooping 
demons that you must hit dead-center to 
destroy. On the fifth wave, you face the 
demon attack ship. Before you can shoot 
its pilot, you must blow a hole through 
both the belly of the ship and the revolv- 
ing rim. After you destroy this ship, a 
new attack wave begins. If you survive 
two attack waves, you get to try your 
hand at a special challenge round. 

Demon Seed is designed for only one- 
player. Until you become familiar with 
the workings of the game, it is difficult 
to attain high scores. If you set one of 
the top ten scores, you may enter your 
name (up to 20 characters) to be saved 
permanently on disk. 

The ship is controlled by using the 
keyboard. In addition to the game con- 
trols, there are a few special keys that 
you should be aware of. You can pause 
the game at any time by pressing P. If 
you want to abort the game entirely, 
hold down both the break and CLEAR 
keys. To turn off the sound effects, press 
the break key. Options such as this take 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Demon Seed 
Type: Arcade 

System: 16K Mod I/III TRS-80 
Format: Tape/disk 
Language: Assembly 
Summary: Excellent adaptation of 
Phoenix 

Price: $19.95/524.95 
Manufacturer: 

Trend Software 

Box 741 

Bloomfield Hills. MI 48013 



little time to add to a program, but they 
make a game much more friendly. 

The animation in Demon Seed is very 
good. Attacking creatures flap their 
wings and drop bombs as they swoop 
down at your ship. At limes, game ele- 
ments flicker, thus detracting from an 
otherwise excellent graphic display. 

Anyone who enjoys playing Phoenix 
will find Demon Seed a game well worth 
his money. 



Frogger 

After Frogger, from Sega Electronics, 
proved itself in the arcades, manufac- 



March 1983 c Creative Computing 



155 



TRS-80 Arcade Games, continued. 

turers began clamoring for the home 
rights to the game. The Cornsoft Group 
acquired the rights to produce a TRS-80 
adaptation of Frogger, and they did a 
great job. This licensed version is the 
best I have seen. 

In Frogger, you control a small frog 
that you must maneuver across a bus- 
tling highway and past a rushing river. 
You can move in any of the four com- 
pass directions using either the keyboard 
or a joystick. You must avoid traffic, 
snakes, crocodiles, and diving turtles. If 
you get five frogs safely onto their 
lilypads on the far side of the river, you 
advance to a more difficult level. 



cpcativfi coiiepatiRg 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: Frogger 
Type: Arcade 
System: Mod I/III TRS-80 
Format: Tape/disk 
Language: Assembly 

Summary: Licensed version of 

Frogger, coin-op game 
from Sega/Gremlin 

Price: $19.95/522.95 

Manufacturer: 

The Cornsoft Group 
6008 N. Keystone Ave. 
Indianapolis, IN 46220 
(317) 257-3227 



The sound effects of Frogger are every 
bit as crisp and whimsical as those found 
in the arcade. The program beautifully 
emulates frog sounds of the coin-op 
game. 

One problem many game designers 
face is how to fit an arcade game onto a 
computer screen. Remember, most video 
games have screens that are longer than 
they are wide; the opposite is true of the 
TRS-80. Rather than squeeze the play- 
field down to size, programmer Robert 
Pappas simply split it in two. When a 
game begins, you see only the highway. 
If you reach the other side, the river sec- 
tion scrolls down into place. This is a 
new, effective way to handle an old 
problem. 

This split-screen technique provides 
for much more detailed graphics than 
the versions I have seen that use only 
one screen. Even with the increased de- 
tail, it is easy to lose sight of your frog 
on the river screen, especially when you 
are riding on a log. If it were easier to 
differentiate between graphic elements, 
the game itself would be greatly 
enhanced. 

One or two people can play Frogger, 
each chosing his own difficulty level (0- 



4). If a high score is set, you can enter a 
name or message (up to 17 characters) 
which will be saved on the disk. 

The thing that bothers me about 
Frogger is that the controls aren't as 
responsive as I would like them to be. At 
times you must wait before you can 
move. This is maddening and results in 
many miscalculated jumps — usually into 
the grillwork of an oncoming car and 
flat frogs. 

Frogger lives up the standard for 
arcade programs set by the Cornsoft 
Group. I have never been very fond of 
the coin-op Frogger, but I recommend 
the TRS-80 version to anyone who is. 

Mad Mines 

I have heard it said that borrowing 
from one source is plagiarism, but 
borrowing from two sources is research. 
If this is true, then Mad Mines is an ex- 
cellent piece of software research. Mad 
Mines combines elements of two popular 
Apple II computer games: Ceiling Zero 
and Space Eggs. 

In Mad Mines, you are in charge of a 
small space cannon that slides along the 
bottom of the screen. Your mission is to 
survive as long as possible while 
eliminating the mines that infest inner- 
space. If you shoot a mine, its occupant 
bursts forth and dives down to attack 
you. Anything that passes below the 
force field is restricted to this ever- 
shrinking space. Each time you kill a 
flock of mines, a new group appears and 
the force field is lowered. As the action 
speeds up, your margin for error dimin- 
ishes rapidly. 

You face a total of four different 
aliens, each with its own pattern of 
behavior. The most dangerous of these 
are the ones encountered on the fourth 
attack wave. If you shoot an egg during 
the fourth wave, the creature drops 
straight down at you. If you don't hit the 



creative compatiRg 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Mad Mines 

Type: Arcade 

System: 16K Mod I/III TRS-80 

Format: Tape/disk 

Language: Assembly 

Summary: Combination of two Apple 
games 

Price: $19.95/524.95 

Manufacturer: 

Funsoft Inc. 
2861 1 Canwood St. 
Agoura. CA 91301 
(213) 991-6540 



little bugger before it reaches the bottom 
of the screen, you are dead. This is a per- 
fect example of a "be perfect or die" 
situation. 

The graphics in Mad Mines are ab- 
solutely state-of-the-art. The animation 
of the aliens is excellent and nothing 
flickers, even when the screen is filled 
.with moving elements. One thing that I 
do find annoying is that the stars in the 
background look a lot like the alien 
bombs. This is confusing and could be 
corrected by eliminating the scrolling 
stars. 

Rather than simply switch from one 
screen to another, Mad Mines has a vari- 
ety of transitions that dazzle the player. 
The graphics demonstrated during these 
transitions are original and accompanied 
by sound effects. 

Yves Lempereur, author of Mad 
Mines, did an excellent job of creating 
an all-around enjoyable product. When I 
showed the game to my co-workers. 




156 



most of them commented on how much 
the style resembled a Big Five program. 
If you know anything about the TRS-80 
game world, you know how respected 
the Big Five name is. To have one's pro- 
gram compared to a Big Five game is a 
great compliment. 

Mad Mines is one of the most pro- 
fessional arcade games available. It is 
constantly challenging because it re- 
quires both dexterity and strategy. I 
have a special bunch of games that I 
keep on-hand to show off to friends — 
Mad Mines has earned its place in that 
limited group: 



Outhouse 

So, you have just joined the Inter- 
galactic Defense Force. The recruiter 
promised that you'd see Mars, maybe 
even Venus. Your orders came in today, 
and guess what — you've been placed in 
charge of defending an outhouse located 
somewhere in Iowa. It's a cushy job, but 
someone has to do it. 

For some strange reason, the enemy 
has launched a full scale attack on the 
outhouse. Some of the aliens want to de- 
stroy the outhouse, others want to de- 
March 1983 c Creative Computing 



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TRS-80 Arcade Games, continued 

stroy you. All the while, vandals and 
squatters are trying to use up your lim- 
ited supply of toilet paper. 

You control, via a joystick or the key- 
board, a laser-equipped Tighter that can 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: Outhouse 
Type: Arcade 

System: 16K Mod I/HI TRS-80 
Format: Tape/disk 
Language: Assembly 
Summary: Interesting new game 
Price: $15.95/519.95 
Manufacturer: 

Soft Sector Marketing Inc. 

Box 340 

Garden City, MI 48135 

(800) 521-6504 




move and shoot in eight directions. Run- 
ning into anything, as well as being shot 
by an alien, causes you to lose a ship. 
When you run out of ships or toilet pa- 
per, the game is over. 

The action starts off slow, but be- 
comes challenging after the first three at- 
tack waves have been disposed of. As 
you progress, the game brings more 
aliens into play. There is a total of seven 
different game elements that are pro- 
grammed to eliminate you, each in its 
own special way. 

Although Outhouse is actually a 
shoot'-em-up game, it has a strange sce- 
nario which elevates it above the usual 
death and destruction arcade game. 
Both the game concept and the graphics 
are original, and there is enough variety 
here to satisfy even the most jaded game 
player. 

The sound effects are crisp and add 
much to the program. In addition to the 
normal complement of space war sound 
effects, the disk version of Outhouse is 
enhanced with voice effects. During the 
introduction and intermissions, the com- 
puter speaks through the AUX port. 
The voice is a bit coarse, but everything 
that is said is understandable. 

One or two players can play Outhouse, 
alternating turns at the controls. If you 
set a high score, you are allowed to add 
your name to the scoreboard. There are 
two high score charts: all-time, and 
daily. The top eight all-time scores are 
saved to disk, whereas the daily scores 
disappear when the system is turned off. 
If Outhouse wasn't a good program, it 
would at least deserve credit for being 
original. Luckily, it is a great program. I 
recommend Outhouse to anyone looking 
for a fresh idea in game playing, as well 
as the hardened arcade addict. 

March 1983 c Creative Computing 



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What does it do for programs? 

It makes wizards speak. It makes frogs croak. 
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Bugs, Space Ships and 

Racquetball For 
The Color Computer 



Cheer up all of you TRS-80 Color 
Computer owners, quality programs are 
making their way onto the market. I 
have recently seen many professional 
quality games that I believe are worthy 
of praise. The most notable of these are 
Doodle Bug, Star/ire, and 3-D 
Brickaway. 

Doodle Bug 

In Doodle Bug, you move a hungry 
ladybug through a maze lined with dots 
while avoiding the predatory insects. 
Sounds a lot like Pac-Man, right? Well it 
is, and it isn't. The main difference be- 
tween Pac-Man and Doodle Bug is that 
the former doesn't have rotating turn- 
stiles. And what a difference they make! 

Doodle Bug is an adaptation of Lady- 
Bug, a coin-op arcade game by Univer- 
sal. The object of Doodle Bug is to clean 
out maze after maze of dots. There are 
other special elements scattered ran- 
domly in the corridors that can bring ex- 
tra points of death. These include: 
hearts, letters, and skulls. 

Doodle Bug is controlled with the joy- 
stick, and responds remarkably well to 
the slightest movement of the stick. 
After you have the game loaded and 
running, you never have to touch the 
keyboard unless you want to freeze the 
action, or abort the game in play. 

One thing I really like about Doodle 
Bug is that the computer screen actually 



Owen Linzmayer 

looks like a real arcade game, rather 
than a computer adaptation. Doodle Bug 
features four colors, and the highest 
resolution graphics I have seen on any 
Color Computer game. The graphics are 
very detailed, but the animation of the 
bugs is slightly jumpy. 

One or two people can compete for 
high scores. Using the right joystick, you 
choose the number (3-6) of ladybugs 
with which you wish to begin the game. 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Doodle Bug 

Type: Arcade 

System: 16K TRS-80 Color 

Computer 
Format: Tape/disk 
Language: Assembly 
Summary: Adaptation of Lady Bug, 

coin-op game from Universal 
Price: $24.95/529.95 
Manufacturer: 

Computerware 

4403 Manchester Ave., Box 668 

Encinitas, CA 92024 

(714)436-3512 



162 



This allows for both long and short 
games. 

David Crandall, author of Doodle 
Bug, has done an excellent job of 
converting LadyBug to the Color Com- 
puter. The only change I would like to 
see made would be to have the aggres- 
sive bugs become quicker as the game 
goes on as they do in the arcade game. 
As it stands now, the speed of all of the 
elements remains constant throughout 
the game. Nevertheless, Doodle Bug is 
challenging and a very good buy. 

Starfire 

Starfire is a colorful machine language 
game that combines hi-res graphics and 
interesting sound effects to create a very 
playable Color Computer version of the 
popular arcade game Defender. For the 
benefit of anyone unfamiliar with De- 
fender, a brief description is in order. 

In Starfire, as in Defender, you guide 
a multi-directional space fighter over the 
surface of an alien planet. Your goal is 
to protect the helpless people who 
pepper the planet's surface. 

Although the packaging of the soft- 
ware is rather poor, it does not reflect 
the quality of the game itself. Included 
with the tape or disk is a single page of 
documentation which describes the con- 
trols, explains loading instructions, and 
gives strategy hints. 

March 1983 c Creative Computing 






We Wrote the Book on 
Educational Software 




More Than 200 Pages 
Of Software Listings 
ForTRS-80" Computers— 
Over 800 Listings in All! 

In the rapidly expanding world of educa- 
tional computing, where can you turn for 
information on the hundreds of available 
programs? What subjects and what grade 
levels are covered? What instructional tech- 
niques do they use? 

As Bill Gattis, director of our Education Divi- 
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tions not answered in other educational 
software directories or in typical magazine 
courseware reviews. To find the answers, 
we solicited information from the hundreds 
of software publishers in the educational 
market and compiled their responses into 
the Educational Software Sourcebook." 

The Sourcebook is the most complete list of 
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Each listing contains a brief description of 
the programs content, plus its grade level, 
instructional technique used, hardware 
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In many cases it also includes a "user- 
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out more about the program from a school 
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Apple is a registered trademark o( Apple Computer Inc 
Orange • is a trademark o( Collins International Trading Corporation 
CIRCLE 129 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Color Computer Games, Continued. 

Star/ire uses keyboard controls. Some 
of the other Color Computer versions of 
Defender I have seen use the joystick 
and all of them are much more difficult 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Starfire 

Type: Arcade 

System: 16K TRS-80 Color 

Computer 
Format: Tape/disk 
Language: Assembly 
Summary: Adaptation of Defender, 

coin-op game. 
Price: $21.95/526.95 
Manufacturer: 

Intellitronics 

22 Churchill Lane 

Smithtown, NY 11787 

(516) 543-6642 



any invaders that happen to be within 
firing distance. The scrolling of the land- 
scape is extremely smooth and the alien 
movements are equally non-jumpy. 

Star/ire is an excellent adaptation of 
Williams's arcade classic. If you enjoy 
Defender, then this program is for you. I 
am pleased to report that Star/ire is one 
of the first programs that uses all of the 
neat functions of the TRS-80 Color 
Computer. I hope that Intellitronics will 
introduce more games of this high stan- 
dard. I truly enjoyed "reviewing" this 
game, and I suspect you will be equally 
pleased. 



into 40 tiles that must be knocked out. 
You begin each game with five balls. 
Pressing the fire button on the joystick 
places a ball into play. 

As the ball travels downcourt, its size 
decreases, giving the illusion of depth. 
When the ball hits a wall, it bounces off 



to control. If a coin-op game uses but- 
tons, then the computer adaptation 
should use the keyboard, rather than the 
imprecise Radio Shack joysticks. The 
only problem with the keyboard controls 
is that the up and down keys (2 and Z) 
are too far apart. 

The screen consists of three separate 
displays. In the upper left-hand corner is 
the score box. In addition to the on- 
screen scoring, there is a graphic display 
of the number of ships and smart bombs 
you have left. Located in the upper right 
is a small radar screen to help you plan 
your assault on the aliens before they 
show up on your viewer. 

The main portion of the screen is de- 
voted to the playfield. On the playfield 
you see your ship, the ground below, and 



3-D Brickaway 

Soon after joining the local YMCA 
last year, I took up a new sport, 
racquetball. Ever since I began playing, I 
have wondered if it would be possible to 
write a computerized game of 
racquetball. My question has been an- 
swered. 3-D Brickaway is a variation of 
Breakout that is very similar to a single- 
player racquetball game. 

The computer screen shows a three- 
dimensional view of five walls. The wall 
at the far end of the court is broken up 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: 3-D Brickaway 
Type: Arcade/simulation 
System: 16K TRS-80 Color 

Computer 
Format: Tape 
Language: Assembly 
Summary: Computerized racquetball 
Price: $14 
Manufacturer: 

Britt Monk, CDP 

Box 802 

Elyria, OH 44036 




at logical angles. If the ball strikes a 
filled-in portion of the back wall, that 
tile is knocked out. 

To hit the ball, you must manage to 
keep it in sight through the racquet. If 
you can do this, you will never have a 
problem returning the ball. There are 
two ways to hit the ball: simple deflec- 
tion and power hit. A simple deflection 
occurs when the ball hits the paddle and 
bounces off wildly. For a power hit, you 
must have the fire button depressed. If 
you do this, you have more control of 
the ball, but its velocity increases. 

The graphics in 3-D Brickaway are 
high-resolution, but not very colorful. 
The movement of the ball is not as 
smooth as it could be; this is a case in 
which graphics were sacrificed for 




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March 1983 c Creative Computing 



— — — - 



Color Computer Games, continued. 

payability. The paddle responds quickly 
to the joystick controls, allowing you to 
get from one corner of the screen to the 
other in the blink of an eye. 

3-D Brickaway is more than a game, it 
is an example of how three-dimensional 
graphics can be used on the Color Com- 
puter. The excitement of racquetball is 
lost in the translation from YMCA to 
computer screen, but 3-D Brickaway is 
still a fun game to play and it is very 
reasonably priced. 



Donkey King 



In the world of arcade games, 1982 
was the year of Donkey Kong. Virtually 
no computer or home video game system 
is without a program that resembles the 
original coin-op game. Now, from Tom 
Mix Software, there is Donkey King for 
the TRS-80 Color Computer. 

After evaluating many programs that 
run on the TRS-80 Color Computer, I 
had concluded that, at best, the Color 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Donkey King 
Type: Arcade 

System: 32K TRS-80 Color 

Computer 
Format: Tape/disk 
Language: Assembly 
Summary: The best arcade game 

available for the TRS-80 CC 
Price: $24.95/527.95 
Manufacturer: 

Tom Mix Software 

3424 College N.E. 

Grand Rapids, MI 49505 



Computer was capable of playing only 
mediocre games; programs of redeeming 
entertainment values were few and far 
between. But Donkey King has changed 
all that. It is absolutely the best arcade 
game written for the Color Computer. 

In Donkey King, as in Donkey Kong, 
you portray Mario the Jumpman. It is 
your mission to rescue your girlfriend 
from the sinister clutches of a nasty ape. 
In your struggle to succeed, you must 
scuffle about on metal skyscrapers, jump 
elevators, and avoid fireballs. The path 
to the top is a hard one indeed. 

Donkey King takes up a tremendous 
amount of memory (32K). This is be- 
cause it has all four screens, like the 
original coin-op game, in one large pro- 
gram. The popular ColecoVision car- 
tridge of Donkey Kong has only the first 
three screens. Not only does Donkey 
King have all of the boards, it presents 
them in the same sequence in which they 
appear in the coin-op game. 

One or two players can compete 
alternating turns. There are two game 
modes: regular and practice. If you 
choose the standard game, you begin 
with three men at your command. The 
practice mode gives you 12 lives. This 
may seem like a lot, but believe me, they 
sure don't last long. 

The screens are almost identical to 
those of Donkey Kong, and the game 
plays similarly. Moving your joystick 
causes Mario to move around, and 
pressing the action button makes him 
jump in the direction he was running. 
Donkey King is one of the only Color 
Computer games that effectively uses the 
unfortunate Radio Shack joystick 
controllers. 

The graphics of Donkey King are hi- 
res and about as colorful as any Color 



Computer game on the market. The 
animation of the elements is very 
professional — everything moves 
smoothly with very little flickering. 

Donkey King has everything the ar- 
cade game has except an "insert coin" 
message. The sound effects are very 
good for the Color Computer, and every 
audio effect of the video game has been 
woven into this impressive program. 

The one complaint I have about the 
game is that it becomes far too difficult 
too quickly. I have played many games 
in the practice mode, and rarely do I get 
to the fourth and final board (keep in 




mind that you get 12 men in the practice 
mode). The program would be greatly 
enhanced by selectable difficulty levels. 
As it stands, you often feel that your de- 
mise was not the direct result of your ac- 
tions, but rather of the cruelty of the 
program. 

It is difficult for me to communicate 
just how impressive Donkey King is. If I 
had to pick one program to show off the 
Color Computer, Donkey King would be 
it. If you call yourself a serious 
gameplayer, you can't afford to be with- 
out Donkey King— it alone sits on the 
game software throne. □ 



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John Anderson 



Jen and the Crystal. 



Dar 



irk Crystal is an amazing amalgam. 
Though it is an original, it doubtless 
shares elements of Lucas' Star Wars, 
Williams' Masquerade, and Tolkien's 
Lord of the Rings. It is fantasy adventure 
and mythic fable; it is the story both of a 
world and of a boy. It is a film, a micro- 
computer program, a record, at least 
three books, toys, even fashions. Oh yes, 
and it is the latest gift from the main 
Muppet at Muppet control, Jim Henson. 
Who is better qualified, when you 
come right down to it, to bring a full- 
fledged fantasy adventure to a mass 
audience than Jim Henson, Frank Oz, 
and the other inspired folks who have 
been packaging fantasy for years now? 
That they are puppeteers is certainly 
true, but it is less than the whole truth. 
They are illusionists, purveyors of 
pretending, and they focus all their en- 
ergies on bringing rich imaginary worlds 
to utter, teeming, show-stopping life. 

Henson claims that the project has 
been in some stage of development for 
the past five years, but I know better. I 
can clearly trace its inception to an ex- 
tremely motley gaggle of monsters, more 
seedy than scary, an unnamed troupe I 
can only describe as the "Not Ready for 
Prime-Time Muppets." They occa- 
sionally inhabited the old Saturday 
Night Live program in its heydey (when 
it was funny), back in 1975 or so. In the 
few moments per episode they appeared, 
they invariably stole the show. 

The leader of the group was Scred, a 
snaggle-toothed, baggy-eyed reptile of 
indiscriminate origins, who looked for 
all the world like he had smoked too 
many insects before going on. His world 
was one of fractured myth, where stone 
idols shrugged in embarrassed indif- 
ference, while helmeted sidekicks evoked 
peculiar Norse legends. Beside his 
charismatic anti-hero personality, the 
most magnetic thing about Scred was his 
gaze: his eyeballs were positively real. 
And this was a germ of things to come, a 
breakthrough of sorts. Scred's eyes were 
not of felt or plastic, but rather of glass; 
they had come from a taxidermist. 

The legacy of Scred lives on in the 
icky Skeksis of the Dark Crystal, from 
the reptilian gaze to the "sk" sound in 
their names. And for all his seventies 
cynicism, Scred should be very proud to 
have figured into the ancestry of such a 
project. 

In 1977, Henson took another step to- 
ward realizing his ambitious goal. He be- 
came aware of the work of fantasy artist 



Brian Froud, and was immediately con- 
vinced that Froud was the only person 
who could bring to fruition the charac- 
ters and world growing in Henson's 
mind. Froud saw that Henson was the 
one person who could imbue Fraud's 
creations with life. And so a fortuitous 
partnership was met — one that I hope 
will not be disbanded for some time to 
come. 

Another milestone for the project can 
be accurately marked in 1979, when 
Frank Oz brought the character of Yoda 
to The Empire Strikes Back. This 
partnership brought Henson Associates 
into contact with Gary Kurtz, producer 
of the Star Wars films, and now of Dark 
Crystal. In the following year, when 
Yoda proved to be not only the major 
star of Empire but the most bankable 
star in Hollywood, it became apparent 
that audiences were ready for the kind of 
fantasy Henson wanted to provide. An- 



into the Muppet scheme of things, and 
has successfully made the transition 
from opulent mansion to vital, inviting 
workplace. There I met with the Henson 
folks, along with Chris Cerf and Roberta 
and Ken Williams, to talk about the 
microcomputer version of Dark Crystal. 

Hobby microcomputerists are by and 
large no strangers to adventure fantasy; 
for some, it is the prevalent type of pro- 
gram run on their machines. I wrote 
about technical advances in the graphic 
adventure in the August 1982 issue of 
Creative Computing. While the micro- 
computer adventure is still not quite as 
popular as other fictional forms, I assert 
that it is only a matter of time until it 
emerges alongside the novel, short story, 
and film as a storytelling medium. You 
heard it here first, folks. 

Further, it will flourish due to its 
unique, involving, interactive nature. 
You do not merely observe the action, 




The author wishes to extend his gratitude 
to Mary Ann Horstmeyer and Maureen 
Ruddy of Henson Associates for their gra- 
cious help. 

March 1983 e Creative Computing 



Jen and a Mystic. 



other upstartish director also took note 
of this: Steven Spielberg. He made E T. 
into the Yoda of "82— in fact, he even 
acknowledges his debt in the film. 

Henson's philosophic underpinning is 
not mysterious. He states it in rather 
straightforward terms through his 
alterego, Kermit, at the climax of The 
Muppet Movie. Though I cannot remem- 
ber the exact lyrics of the finale, the gist 
is along the following lines: "Hey," 
Kermit says, "you've been watching a 
bunch of felt, wire, and trickery for the 
past two hours, and were swept into 
what you saw. This is important, be- 
cause it proves that you can still pretend, 
and that is something we should always 
be able to do. That is what keeps us 
young." 

Nestled, one might even say camou- 
flaged, unobtrusively in a fashionable 
cluster of townhouses on New York's 
Upper East Side, is the home of Henson 
Associates. The location fits perfectly 

169 



you are a part of it. Your decisions affect 
the outcome. Your actions count. 

Ken and Roberta Williams, the driv- 
ing force behind Sierra On-Line, are no 
strangers to the adventure form either. 
They developed some of its most popular 
titles, including Wizard and the Princess, 
and the epic Time Zone, which has al- 
ready achieved classic status. Nor is 
Chris Cerf a novice. He is the writer, 
publisher, and microcomputer afficio- 
nado who has worked with Roberta to 
develop the graphic adventure Dark 
Crystal. 

Don't misunderstand. I'm not saying 
that computer games using the names 
and some imagery from popular films 
are a new thing. But all of the stuff we've 
seen so far has come out long after the 
fact, and has built an arcade-style 
"twitch" game out of a few concepts 
from a film. Dark Crystal is the first 
work to be released simultaneously as 
film and computer program; and is the 




first computer adventure to be based on 
a feature film. 

The Plot Thickens 

The Dark Crystal is sure to gain cult 
status in short order. It is the story of a 
world with three suns, a world once 
inhabited by three races: the urSkeks, 
the Gelfings, and the Pod people. They 
coexisted peacefully and productively, 
governed by a huge, glowing crystal, 
which ensured their well-being. 

Every thousand years the three suns 
would come together, and a kind of re- 
birth would take place in the light of a 
Great Conjunction. But something hap- 
pened a thousand years ago, at the time 
of the last conjunction. The urSkeks 
schizophrenic-ally split into two separate 
and opposite beings: the urRu — wise, if 
passive philosophers — and the Skeksis — 




Jen and the Skeksis Chamberlain. 



170 



Aughra, Keeper of Secrets. 
evil, monstrous tyrants. The Skeksis 
seized control of the Crystal, and with it, 
control of the planet. A piece of the crys- 
tal itself broke off, and the remaining 
part darkened. Gelfling prophecy held 
that the missing shard could be replaced 
only during the next conjunction, and 
only by a Gelfling, if the Skeksis were to 
be destroyed. They would otherwise rule 
forever. 

The Skeksis took what they saw to be 
positive action to defuse the prophecy: 
they undertook to kill every Gelfling on 
the planet. And they very nearly suc- 
ceeded. With the exception of Jen, raised 
by the urRu, and Kira, raised by the Pod 
People, every Gelfling on the planet was 
murdered. As the banquet scene will 
verify, the Skeksis simply aren't the kind 
of folks you invite for dinner. 

Jen, of course, is the great Gelfling 
hope, and with Kira's help, attempts to 
realize the ancient prophecy. They en- 
March 1983 e Creative Computing 



b 



MORI THAN EVER, mmm nwn » wn.r, 
ARE SPEAKING YOUR LANGUAGE. 



With more program languages than ever to choose from, you 

now have more opportunities than ever to utilize the amazing 

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importantly, conversion procedures are simple. 
ATARI Macro Assembler - Faster and more powerful than 
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In addition, the macro processor and "include file library 
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And its immediate mode error messages greatly simplify 
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ATARI Assembler Editor- An excellent tool to assist the 
assembler-programmer in creating, editing and debugging 
assembly programs. 

PILOT- ATARI PILOT is an exceptional learning language. 
with built-in "turtle" graphics to let you create spectacular 
designs and pictures with very short programs. Simple one 
or two-letter commands allow you to create a dialogue with 
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ATARI Pascal- An excellent high-level language for 
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ATARI is constantly developing new ways to help you get 
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For more information, write to ATARI, Inc. 
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A 



\1ARI In. All Riiihi. K. 
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ATARI HOME COMPUTERS 

We've Brought The Computer Age Home'. 




The Dark Crystal by Brian Froud. 



counter many strange beings, as well as 
puzzles, dangers, and mysteries en route. 

One of these is Aughra, the sorceress, 
played by Frank Oz. Oz has emerged as 
perhaps an even more phenomenal pup- 
peteer than Henson himself. His 
characterizations of Miss Piggy and 
Fozzy Bear have brought the name Oz a 
new meaning worldwide. When Yoda's 
nose twitched reflexively, when his brow 
crinkled in thought, Frank Oz was ply- 
ing his trade. 

Henson and Froud have worked to 
present a world as rich in complexity 
and detail as possible. Some shots of 
only seconds in length took days to pro- 



An urRu by Brian Froud. 



duce. This is what makes the world of 
the Dark Crystal truly a world. The same 
kind of magic that brought you Kermit 




SkekUng the Garthim-Master by Froud. 




Gel/ling Heiroglyphs by Brian Froud. 



on a bicycle and Fozzy at the wheel, 
here brings you good versus evil on a 
grand scale. 

The microcomputer adventure version 
of the Dark Crystal takes place in ex- 
actly this same world, though some very 
new challenges are offered. You are Jen, 
and your goal is restoration of the crys- 
tal. Knowledge of the film will help you 
along the way, but the action has new 
depths and new levels of complexity. 
Certainly the richness of detail that the 
film affords will heighten the sense of 
magic you experience while playing the 
computer version. 

Creating graphic adventures has be- 



Kira on a Landst rider by Froud. 



SkekZok the Ritual-Master by Froud. 
172 




1 






\.i 


f 




O 




I 




e 


i'k 


tj 


— —mk 



SkekEkt the Ornamentalist by Froud. 
March 1983 c Creative Computing 



ste/Atr/ranr 



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Ken and Roberta Williams 



come nearly second nature for Roberta 
Williams. The Dark Crystal project took 
her a little over a month. "It was easier 
because the map was mostly already 
there," she says, "though we've added 
some surprises." Asking her what comes 
first in game development is like asking 
about chickens and eggs. "It evolves as 
I'm building it. New possibilities always 



pop up. The toughest thing sometimes is 
deciding what to put in and what to 
leave out, because so much could be 
there." 

Roberta works all her plans out on 
paper — sometimes huge sheets of wrap- 
ping paper — with all sorts of notes head- 
ing off in all sorts of directions. No other 
human being can make much out of 



Cerf s Up 



Chris Cerf is a renaissance man. He 
is not only a writer, editor, and pub- 
lisher (son of the late Bennett Cerf), 
but the man who got Jim Henson and 
Frank Oz excited about microcomput- 
ers. Both men told me of their interests 
in the field — Oz is close to purchasing 
a micro. 

When you meet Chris, you realize 
how infectious his enthusiasm can be. 
As a frequent contributor of material 
for TV's Sesame Street, the possibilities 
of microcomputers in education look 
especially promising to him. As does 
the general literary potential of the 
medium. 

"The adventure is a perfect way to 
get 'humanities types' into computers," 
he says. "Especially the ones lacking in 
hand-eye skills." One of his jobs at 
Henson is to act as a bridge between 
the raw talent on both philosophic 
banks of the river: those who are 
strong in programming, and those who 
are strong in verbal skills. "People like 
Roberta Williams are quite rare. Most 
adventures around today are turned 
out by folks who are programmers, not 
writers by any means. I'm working to 
change that." 

"I'd like to coax some humor into 
the form as well," says Cerf. "The 



adventure can become a literary me- 
dium." He states that storyline, as well 
as sound and graphics in an adventure 
program, can achieve a sophistication 
far beyond anything yet seen. 

This bodes well for education as 
well, according to Cerf. "Adventures 
prompt familiarity with the keyboard, 
with textual material, with creative 
problem-solving, as well as making the 
user feel a part of what is going on, 
rather than a mere observer." 

He showed me some promising 
preliminary results of photographically 
digitized images, and predicted that the 
photographic approach would even- 
tually replace the current "graphics 
tablet" approach to adventure graph- 
ics. It saves work, as original art can be 
digitized directly instead of being te- 
diously redrawn. And the results can 
actually be superior. The current dis- 
advantage is extra memory cost per im- 
age. Cerf is undaunted. "We'll get it 
right." 

As for the place of the videodisc in 
all this, Cerf is only a bit less optimis- 
tic. He points out that the cost of 
mastering a disk remains prohibitive. 
"It will happen," he predicts. "But we 
may be talking about ten years from 
now." 



what is there — not without training, 
anyway. When I asked her why she 
didn't use a word processor or database 
package to help with game development, 
she chuckled. "I guess computers still 
intimidate me a little bit. I'd just rather 
work it out on paper." 

Ken spoke of how a tiny family busi- 
ness has grown in three short years. 
"There was a time when the idea of hir- 
ing programmers just for translation 
would have been unthinkable. Right 
now we're putting a big emphasis on 





174 



Preliminary screen art for the micro- 
computer adventure. 

program translation," he says. "We in- 
tend Dark Crystal to be available for the 
Apple, Atari, IBM, and Commodore 64 
machines. We are also translating many 
of our other popular games. The demand 
is there." 

Dark Crystal is destined to introduce 
thousands of computer users to the 
realm of the computer adventure. I can- 
not think of any collaboration that could 
have done nearly as well in the task. To 
the newcomers drawn to adventuring via 
Dark Crystal: Welcome, and hold on to 
your hats. The adventure has really just 
begun. □ 

March 1983 e Creative Computing 



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How To Solve It— With The Computer 



Beyond Turtle Graphics 

Donald T. Piele 



When I run across an interesting computer program while 
browsing through the pages of a computer book or maga- 
zine, I often stop and wonder, "Yes, the program seems to 
work; it appears to be correct. But how can I write such a 
program myself?" Sometimes the author supplies hints on 
how the program works by identifying regions of the pro- 
gram where important things happen. 

By studying other people's programs, I frequently pick up 
new programming strategies and techniques to tuck away 
for use at another time and place. The most important ideas 
are usually very simple and packaged in small bundles. They 
represent little kernels of code that handle some very big 
tasks. 

Mathematicians create new structures in the same way. 
They approach problems by defining new objects, creating 
and proving small packages of relationships called lemmas, 
and then posing and proving new theorems by fitting the 
parts together. The primary reason that mathematics is 
considered a necessary component of formal education is 
that it teaches people to organize and attack problems in a 
structured way. 

"Top Down" structured programming, which we hear so 
much about today in the context of computer programming, 
is not new at all to mathematicians. They have been doing it 
for centuries. Euclid's Elements, one of the greatest in- 
fluences on the development of scientific thinking, is primar- 
ily known for its skillful selection of propositions and their 



Donald T. Piele. University of Wisconsm-Parkside. Box 2000. Kenosha, W! 
53141. 



arrangement into a logical order. Much of the material 
found in today's high school plane and solid geometry texts 
came from this work. 

What is different today is that computers have dramati- 
cally expanded our options for teaching how to organize and 
solve problems in a structured way. We are beginning to see 
new languages and curriculum materials whose major func- 
tion is to teach analytical reasoning skills through the use of 
structured programming exercises. One such language that 
has drawn considerable attention lately is Logo, which was 
developed under the direction of Seymour Papert at MIT. 

Much has been written lately about the problem solving 
ability of Logo [3,4]. The emphasis in all of these writings is 
on teaching problem solving using Turtle graphics. There is 
no question about the effectiveness of Logo in this area. I 
have tried it, teachers have tried it, kids have tried it, and we 
all love it. But what is Logo like beyond Turtle graphics? 

This month, I would like to examine a non-graphics prob- 
lem using the Logo language. Armed with the Apple Logo 
reference manual and Harold Abelson's book, Apple Logo. I 
decided to tackle a problem involving the generation and 
display of factorials. 

Small Factorials 

The only place an exclamation point is used in mathemat- 
ics is to indicate a factorial. For example, 4!, read as "fac- 
torial four," is defined to be the product 4x3x2x1, which 
equals 24. A deck of 52 cards can be dealt out in 52! or 
80,658,175,170,943,878,571,660,636,856,403,766, 
975,289,505,440,883,277,824,000,000,000,000 ways to be ex- 
act. How do you write a program to generate factorials? 

1 80 March 1 983 e Creative Computing 



How to Solve It, continued.. 



Listing 1. 



TO BEGIN 

TYPE CENTER A WHOLE NUMBER-: 

MAKE "N FIRST READLIST 

MAKE "FACTORIAL 1 

(TYPE !N Cf-J) 

LOOP 1 

END 



TO LOOP •• I 

MAKE "FACTORIAL FACTORIAL • : 

IP il r IN CPRINT FACTORIAL 

stop: 

LOOP : I + 1 
END 



First examine the following Basic factorial program. 



10 PRINT "SMALL FACTORIALS" 

20 INPUT "ENTER A WHOLE NUMBER- "SN 

30 FACTRIAL - 1 

40 FOR I » 1 TO N 

50 FACTRIAL = FACTRIAL»I 

60 NEXT I 

70 PRINT Ni ■"«"! FACTRIAL 

80 END 

Type it in and run it for N = 12 and N= 13. 

SMALL FACTORIALS 

ENTER A WHOLE NUMBER- 12 

12' "479001600 

ENTER A WHOLE NUMBER- 13 

13'-6.2270208E+09 

Notice that the above procedure has no provision for be- 
ing precise beyond nine digits. This causes the switch to 
scientific notation between 12! and 13!. Try running the pro- 
gram for N = 33 and N = 34. On the Apple II you will set an 
overflow error for N = 34 since 34! has more than 38 
digits— the limit for real numbers in Applesoft. 

Now let's take a look at the same problem solved in two 
different ways using Logo. The first program follows the 
same logic used in the Basic program. The second version is 
recursive. Two procedures need to be defined. 




"If this one doesn t come up with computer learning aids soon. 
I m switching schools. " 



The two procedures in Listing 1 are written in Apple 
Logo. The LOOP procedure is equivalent to lines 30 to 60 in 
the Basic program. Type in both procedures and then type 
BEGIN. Everything about the Logo program including the 
nine-place precision and the termination between 33! and 34! 
is identical to the Applesoft Basic program. 

There is a better way to solve this problem in Logo by tak- 
ing advantage of its natural recursive structure. A recursive 
procedure is one that calls itself. Factorials are easy to define 
recursively. For example if we set FACTORIAL (N) = N! 
then 

FACTORIAL (N) = N . FACTORIAL (N-l) 

and 

FACTORIAL (1) - 1 

completely define FACTORIAL (N). This procedure can be 
implemented in Logo as follows: 

TO FACTORIAL «N 

IF :N - 1 [OUTPUT 1 etop: 

OUTPUT :N » FACTORIAL :N - 1 

END 

Replace LOOP 1 in the BEGIN procedure with the line 
PRINT FACTORIAL :N. Now type BEGIN to use the 
recursive version. 

Large Factorials 

The built-in precision of Basic and Logo is not good 
enough to display all the digits in N! for large N. How can 
we correct this problem and generate large factorials with all 
their digits intact? 

Let's begin by writing a Basic program that will print out 
N! for any whole number N up to 500. See Listing 2. 

Listing 2. 



10 


PRINT "LARGE FACTORIALS" 


20 


INPUT "ENTER A WHOLE NUMBER ";N 


30 


DIM A%(3»N) 


40 


DIGIT - 1 : CARRY « 


50 


A-/.(l)-l 


60 


FOR 1=2 TO N 


70 


FOR J=l TO DIGIT 


80 


AV.( J)=A7.( J)»I + CARRY 


90 


CARRY ■ INT(A-/.<J)/10) 


100 


AV.<J)^AV.(J) - 10 » CARRY 


110 


NEXT J 


120 


IF CARRY > THEN C - INI ( CARRY/ 10) : 




DIGIT-DIGIT » 11 




A7.(DIGIT)=CARRY - 10»C 




CARRY - CI GOTO 120 


130 


CARRY = 


140 


NEXT 1 



145 PRINT n; ••'-••; 

150 FOR I » DIGIT TO 1 STEP -1 

160 PRINT A7.( I >; 

170 NEXT I 

180 END 

The 68 digits (shown earlier) that constitute 52!, took 
about 45 seconds to generate with this program. The al- 
gorithm is exactly what one would use if one had to do it by 
hand with paper and pencil— simply multiply I * (1-1)! for I 
= 1 to N. The loop between lines 70 and 1 10 takes care of 
the digit by digit multiplication, keeping track of the quo- 



181 



March 1983 e Creative Computing 



How to Solve It, continued... 

Merits, the carries, and the remainders. The array A%( ) 
holds the digits of the current value of the factorial The 
least significant digit is held in A%(1) and the most signifi- 
cant digit is in A%(DIGIT). The procedure in line 120 
makes sure that the value of the carry does not get out of 
hand. Finally, lines 145 to 170 print out the digits of the an- 
swer in proper order. 

Loro Version 

Instead of defining arrays, Logo uses words. Table 1 
shows exactly what response you get to the corresponding 
commands in Logo in the immediate mode. 



Table 1. 



Command 

PRINT WORD 1 2 
PRINT FIRST WORD 1 2 
PRINT LAST WORD 1 2 
MAt E "A WORD 1 2 
PRINT I A 

MAI E "A (WORD 12 3) 
PRINT :A 
PRINT LAST :A 
PRINT BUTLAST :A 
PRINT LAST BUTLAST :A 

PRINT 13 • 3 

PRINT QUOTIENT 39 10 

PRINT REMAINDER 



Response 



12 

i 

2 

12 

123 

3 

12 

2 

3 

•3 



The digits of a large factorial can be stored together in 
proper order as a word. Each digit can be isolated with 
LAST BUTLAST; products can be formed with * and in- 
dividual digits separated with QUOTIENT and REMAIN- 
DER. To solve the problem in Logo, break it up into the 
following five procedures; BEGIN, FACTORIAL MUL- 
TIPLY, LONGHAND, and SOLUTION. 

TO BEGIN 

PRINT [LARGE FACTORIALS] 

TYPE CENTER A WHOLE NUMBER -] 

MAKE "N FIRST READLIST 

(TYPE :N C!-] FACTORIAL :N> 

PRINT " 

END 

This procedure is the same one used in the limited 
version. 



TO FACTORIAL IN 

IF IN ■ 1 [OUTPUT 1 ST0PI 

OUTPUT MULTIPLY IN FACTORIAL IN - 1 

END 



This procedure is recursive and similar to the one used be- 
fore. Now, however, the multiplication must be 
constructed— hence ihe procedure MULTIPLY 



TO MULTIPLY IN IB 

MAKE "CARRY O MAKE "ANSWER " 

OUTPUT LONGHAND IN IB 

END 

Each time we make a multiplication, we must start over 
with an empty answer and a zero for the carry. Now we are 
ready to perform the multiplication by LONGHAND. 

TO LONGHAND IN IB 

IF IB * " [OUTPUT SOI I IT J > 

MAKE "TEMP I CARRY * IN « 

MAM. -CARRY QUOTIENT ITEM 

MAKE "DIGIT REMAINDER I TEMP 10 

MAt E -ANSWER UORD I DIOI1 I ANSWER 

OUTPUT LuNGHANfi IN HI I II A", r : h 

I NP 



The last step in each multiplication is to add on any carry 
that occurs in the multiplication of the most significant digit 
(the one to the extreme left). This leads us to the 
SOLUTION. 



TO SOLUTION 

IF I CARRY = O [OUTPUT I ANSWER STOP] 

MAKE "ANSWER WORD I CARRY I ANSWER 

OUTPUT i ANSWER 

END 

If we type in these procedures, then type BEGIN, and fi- 
nally enter the whole number 52, it takes 2 minutes and 45 
seconds to compute 52!. Try it! 

Factorial Oddities 

One of the reasons that I picked the multiple precision 
factorial problem for investigation was the intriguing de- 
signs that can be made with them. In Martin Gardners 
book, Mathematical Magic Show [2], a chapter is devoted to 
factorial designs printed out in the shape of triangles, hexa- 
gons, and octagons. For example, 105! has 16') digits in the 
answer which can be displayed in triangular form. 

105'- i 

081 
39/ 
8240290 
900504 1 1 
30580032964 
9720646107774 
90257914417/. 
57322653 1 909905 1 ' • 
3326984'. .4u 
339776398934872029657 
72907813436: 
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOi 

Obviously, only certain factorials can be displayed this 
way. Which ones are they? If the number of digits in the fac- 
torial is a perfect square then it can be printed as a triangle. 
The factorial for 105 has 169 digits which is a perfect square 
(169 = 13*13). Other factorials whose digital count is a per- 
fect square are listed in Table 2. 



Table 2. 



Factorials 7 12 IS 32 59 si 105 




What changes are necessary to the Basic program to print 
out factorials in triangular form? Here is one way to figure 

First, compute the place where a line feed is needed. It is 
necessary after printing a single digit and then after printing 
three more, five more, seven more and so on. This can be 
handled with a simple loop that counts up to 2*ROW - 1 for 
each row. 

Second, use the ROW number in tabbing over the correct 
number of places, HTAB 20 - ROW. The following changes 
to the printout routine of the Basic program will do the 
trick. 



146 


1=0 


1 50 


FOR ROW = 1 TO N 


160 


HTAB 20 - ROW 


170 


FOR J- J TO 2«R0W - 1 


180 


1 = 1 + 1 


190 


PRINT A-/.(D-I + 1 >: 


200 


IF I=D THEN END 


210 


NEXT .J 


220 


PRINT 


230 


NEXT ROW 



182 



March 1983 c Creative Computing 




THE PERSONAL 
COMPUTER AD 
OUR COMPETITION 
DOESN'T WANT 
TOU TO READ. 



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How to Solve It, continued... 

Of course the 20 in HTAB 20 - ROW is designed to han- 
dle factorials up to 40 rows long. By the way, it took 3 min- 
utes and 45 seconds to compute 105! in Basic. 

Logo's Turn 

There are no built-in formatting procedures in Logo. You 
must create your own. I broke the problem down into three 
procedures: PRINTOUT, HTAB, AND PR1NTROW. 

TO PRINTOUT : SOLUTION :R0U 

IF : SOLUTION » " CPRINT " STOPJ 

HTAB 20 -:ROW 

PRINTROU (2 • l ROW) - 1 

PRINTOUT : SOLUTION iROW + 1 

Again, printing out the triangles requires tabbing over 20 
- :ROW for each row and then printing (2 * :ROW) - 1 dig- 
its from the solution. To do this we must know how to 
HTAB. 

TO HTAB IX 

IF IX - O CTYPE " STOP] 

TYPE "\ 

HTAB IX - 1 

END 

This procedure is equivalent to the Applesoft HTAB com- 
mand. The third line (TYPE "\) must be typed in as 

TYPE "<contro1 Q>< >. 

This means that after the quote sign, type the Q with the 
control key down and then make one space with the space 
bar. The last procedure is PRINTROW. 

TO PRINTROW IX 

IF IX - CPRINT " STOP] 

IF I SOLUTION - " CPRINT " STOP] 

TYPE FIRST ISOLUTION 

MAKE "SOLUTION BUTFIRST I SOLUTION 

PRINTROW IX - 1 

END 

This procedure is needed to printout out the digits in each 
row. 

We are now ready to incorporate the PRINTOUT proce- 
dure into the previous procedures used for generating the 
factorials. To do this we need to change two lines in the BE- 
GIN procedure. 



TO BEGIN 



(TYPE IN C! 
PRINT " 



becomes 



■ ] FACTORIAL IN) 



TO BEGIN 



(PRINT IN C' = ]> 
PRINTOUT FACTORIAL IN 



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Type in these procedures and then BEGIN again. If you 
want to see the printout of 105!, it will take 21 minutes. 

Conclusion 

One can expect, as a matter of course, that learning a new 
computer language will take some time. This was certainly 
true in my case, because I spent the better part of two days 
working through the Logo procedures to be able to compute 
and display large factorials. This was a little surprising to 
me since my experience with the Turtle graphics portion of 
Logo had been so easy. Even young children find the Logo 
Turtle graphics easy to use. Beyond Turtle graphics is a dif- 
ferent story. 

In the introduction to Abelson's book, he writes, "Logo's 
designers are guided by the vision of an educational tool 
with no threshold and no ceiling. We try to make it possible 
for even young children to control the computer in self-di- 
rected ways, even at their very first exposure to Logo. At the 
same time, we believe that Logo should be a general purpose 

184 March 1983 e Creative Computing 



programming system of considerable power and wealth of 
expression. In fact, we regard these two goals as com- 
plementary rather than conflicting, since it is the very lack 
of expressive power of primitive languages such as Basic 
that makes it difficult for beginners to write simple pro- 
grams that do interesting things." 

I am just a beginner with the Logo language and clearly 
have much to learn yet, but, beyond Turtle graphics, I cer- 
tainly cannot agree with Abelson's statement. This is the 
problem. People may assume, as I did, that since kids learn 
so quickly to work with Logo's Turtle that this ease will also 
hold for non-graphics problems. I have not found this to be 
true. Try it yourself with this or other non-graphics prob- 
lems. Give it to your students to try. 

The factorial problem is an example of only one out of 
five types that we typically place on the International Com- 
puter Solving Contest at the junior high level and above. 
The problems we create touch a wide range of computer 
problem solving skills which involve words, numbers, 
simulations, graphics, and puzzles. Teams of up to three stu- 
dents each have two hours to solve all five problems, using a 
computer language of their choice. On the basis of my 
experience with Logo thus far, I believe it would be very 
difficult to compete using Logo. 

I want to conclude on a very positive note. I enjoyed 
working on this little problem solving exercise with Logo, 
and I intend to continue to solve other problems with Logo. 
I completely agree with the problem solving philosophy for 
which this language was developed and so eloquently ex- 
pressed in Seymour Papert's book Mindstorms [3]. Finally, 
my mind is not made up. I only hope the experts will begin 
to show us how to use Logo beyond Turtle graphics. 

References 

1. Abelson, Harold . Apple Logo, Byte/McGraw-Hill, 
Peterborough, NH, 1982. 

2. Gardner, Martin. Mathematical Magic Show, Alfred A. 
Knopf, New York, 1977. 

3. Papert, Seymour. Mindstorms, Basic Books, Inc., 
Publishers, New York, 1980. 

4. Watt, Molly- "What is Logo?" Creative Computing, Vol. 
8, No. 10, October 1982, pp. 112-129. 

5. Weinreb, William ."Problem Solving with Logo," Byte, 
Vol. 7, No. 11, November 1982, pp. 118-134. D 




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Logo Ideas 



Robert Lawler 



Different Kinds of Variables 

If a variable is defined outside of a Logo procedure, its value 
can be changed by keyed commands or by executing any proce- 
dure which refers to it. Such a variable is called a Global vari- 
able. Now, if you store something in a box, generally you would 
like it to remain there until you change the contents of the box. 
You can't count on the contents of a global variable unless you 
take special care to guard against unexpected references. One 
way is to give your variables unusual names, e.g. [MAKE 
"GRANDMOTHERS.SHIN.BONE 3]. The reason not to use 
unique variables is the difficulty of remembering what name 
you assigned. A second technique is to "initialize" every vari- 
able in every procedure before you refer to it. Doing this be- 
comes a little tedious when you write lots of procedures. A 
third method is to use local variables. 

Local variables are defined only within the context of the 
procedure which references them, so no procedure or keyboard 
entry can alter the value of another procedure's local variables. 
Further, local variables exist only within a specific execution 
(or "instantiation") of a defined procedure. This convention of 
the Logo language (and others as well) is central to the use of 
input variables (and others) in recursion. Consider the proce- 
dure below: 

TO SQUARE : SIDES. LEFT 

I F : S I DES . LEFT EQUAL STOP 

FORWARD 2 5 RIGHT 90 

SQUARE : SIDES. LEFT - 1 

end 

When you key SQUARE 4, the Logo interpreter creates an 
instantiation or copy of the SQUARE procedure for execution. 
Let's refer to it as 1-SQUARE. The value of the corresponding 
variable l-:SIDES-TO-GO is 4. When the third line of 1- 
SQUARE executes, the Logo interpreter creates a second copy 
of SQUARE; call it 2-SQUARE. What is the value of the 
corresponding variable 2-SIDES-TO-GO? The answer is three. 
Executing 1-SQUARE, the Logo interpreter evaluates 
1-S1DES-TO-GO as 4 and subtracts one from it, then assigns 
3 as the value for the variables 2-:SIDES-TO-GO. In successive, 
recursions of SQUARE 4, this is what happens: 



COPY 


:SIDES.LEFT 


ACTION 


1-SQUARE 


4 


draw and turn 


2-SQUARE 


3 


draw and turn 


3-SQUARE 


2 


draw and turn 


4-SQUARE 


1 


draw and turn 


5-SQUARE 





stop 



The theoretician Dijkstra, inventor of the language Algol 
and one of the pioneers in the development of programming, 



Robert Lawler. Centre Mondial Informatique Et Resources Humaincs. Paris, France. 

March 1983 e Creative Computing 187 



said that once you understood how variables are used in 
programming, you understand the essence of programming. 
We believe he was referring to local variables as used in recur- 
sion when he said that. Understanding local variables has 
become more important in the world of systems and commer- 
cial programming as well with the use of "re-entrant" code in 
operating systems. Many such systems have extensive sub- 
routine libraries. When these subroutines use local variables 
and observe other coding restrictions, they are re-entrant, 
which means they can be used simultaneously by several 
programs. 

Variables and Abstraction 

The Logo turtle can't deal with abstractions. It must go for- 
ward some specific amount or turn through some specific num- 
ber of degrees. When you key FD :some-distance, the Logo 
interpreter evaluates the symbolic name "some-distance" 
(looks in the box or storage cell to determine its contents and 
substitutes that contents for the expression some-distance). 

People apparently can deal with abstractions, but find prob- 
lem solving easier when they don't have to do so. Most often 
when a new procedure is being written, people use specific op- 
erand values, e.g. FD 100, which they later change to variable 
form, such as FD :some-distance. The nature of the abstraction 
involved is common to some other examples of mathematics as 

well. 

The famous mathematician Bourbaki describes the creation 
of an axiomatic system as proceeding from the mathematician's 
working out a series of theorems with very concrete examples 
in mind and subsequently examining the inferences of his theo- 
rems to define precisely which characteristics of his examples 
were used by the theorems. In a third step, he redefines the set 
of objects to which his axioms apply as that most general class 
of objects having all those characteristics used in the theorems. 
That is, he bases his generalization on the operations he per- 
formed and not on a list of the characteristics of the example he 
began with. 

We stress that the process through which a child generalizes 
a procedure after creating a concrete product with a concrete 
precursor, this child's play, is a particular kind of abstraction of 
value in the most intellectual endeavors as well. 

This mathematical form of abstraction is called reflexive 
abstraction by Piaget, who sees the child creating his own mind 
through processes of thought that are like those of Bourbaki's 
mathematician. This points to the most significant potential 
impact of computer experience on children developing their 
minds. Reflexive abstraction may become more "natural" to 
them than what Piaget calls "Aristotelian abstraction" 
(abstraction by feature selection and classification) with which 
Piaget contrasts it. That is, children of the future may more of- 
ten think like mathematicians than do children of today. □ 



A Program to Cast the I Ching 




Predicting the Future 



Michael Crichton is a graduate of 
Harvard University and Harvard 
Medical School. He worked briefly in 
medical research while he pursued a 
hobby that was later to become his 
profession, writing. 

The hallmark of his writing is 
meticulous attention to detail — he is 
sure of his facts, thus his stories are 
eminently believable. Who could 
doubt that The Great Train Robbery 
and journey to Zinj (in Congo; really 
occurred, that a real Terminal Man 
was (or is) running around somewhere 
or that The Andromeda Strain is 
about to infest the earth? 

Crichton has turned his remarkable 
mind and energy in many directions — 
medicine, research, writing, filmmak- 
ing and. most recently toward per- 
sonal computers. His approach to 
computerizing the prophecies of the I 
Ching presented here follow in his tra- 
dition of looking at a fascinating sub- 
ject in meticulous detail with a liberal 
dose of technology and imagination 
thrown in. But this time the technol- 
ogy is real (a computer). As for 
imagination; well, see for 
yourself— DHA 



Michael Crichton. Constani C Productions. 1750 
14th St.. Suite C. Santa Monica. CA 90404. 



Michael Crichton 



Although it is at least 3000 years old, 
the I Ching, a Chinese method of divina- 
tion, employs what we would now call a 
binary technique. In its simplest form, 
three coins are tossed six times to create 
a six-line figure of broken and unbroken 



Those who consider 

the methods of the I 

Ching sacred may find 

a computer a chilling 

perversion of ancient 

beliefs. 



lines. This so-called hexagram is then 
interpreted by consulting the I Ching, or 
Book of Changes. 

This Book is older than the Bible; tra- 
dition dates its origin to 1 120 B.C., five 
hundred years before Confucius added 
his commentaries. Over the centuries the 
I Ching has been studied as a religious 
text and a philosophical masterpiece. 
But the I Ching is also unquestionably a 

188 



method for predicting the future, and 
this aspect has received much attention 
during the twentieth century. 

It is fundamental to the I Ching that 
the future can be understood in perpetu- 
ally changing patterns of off/on, yes/no, 
heads/tails, broken/unbroken. This bi- 
nary aspect suggests the ancient tech- 
nique is highly appropriate for 
adaptation to a computer. One might 
say that the I Ching treats reality the 
same way a computer does. 

This idea may horrify purists. Those 
who consider the methods of the I Ching 
sacred — properly conducted only with 
ritual, incense, meditation and the com- 
plex tossing of yarrow sticks — may find 
a computer a chilling perversion of an- 
cient beliefs. 

But in fact there is no agreement on 
what makes the system work. One mod- 
ern expert, John Blofeld, while testifying 
to the power of I Ching, denies any com- 
prehension of how it works. Thus it is 
perfectly possible that a computer could 
cast the I Ching effectively. 

For instance, one idea of the way the I 
Ching works is that your unconscious 
knows, through psi phenomena, how the 
coins will turn up even before you throw 
them, although your conscious mind re- 
mains convinced the coin toss is "ran- 
dom." From this perspective, the I 

March 1983 c Creative Computing 



o^tuia/te 



The Complete 
Graphics System II 

( omplete CrapMia System is written for the non- 
programmer interested in doing a wide variety oj graphics 
and design on the Apple computer. Included are options 
for two-dimensional drawing, with lines, circles, ellipses. 

and an automatic 108-COlor Jilting routine. Also, vou can 
mix text with graphics, with various colors, sizes, ami 
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by Mori .mil David I ubur ' — 

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times for detail editing, perform mirror images, exchange 

colors, and move parts of pictures to other areas oj the 
Hso included is a packing routine that lets vou 
store more pictures on each disk. 



Mthouvh both (omplete Graphics System II and Special effects are written for non-programmers, they are proviaea on 
ISf^eddisSlandb^cl^ ore included for using the graphics and machine language routines in your own programs. 



^Graphics magician 



b) David Lubar, \4ark Pelnanki, 
ami Chn-. Jochu 



I his one is written 
software I asl mai 



e programmer in mind; for anyone who wants to put professional 
umguage animation and picture drawing routines are included for use „, yn. 
they're extremely easy to use. Using the editors provided, vou simply draw your own multicolored si. 
and combine up to 32 independent shapes with paths and starting locations. The result is a m 
that vou lust add and control with your own program-it does all the graphics work lor vo 
editor works the same way: fust draw, save, and add the redraw routine to your program. It mere, 
from 12 pictures to hundreds. A tutorial manual is included with examples of controlling animi 
detecting collisions, and a multitude of Other useful hints and examples. I or samples oj whale, 
packages, including I'll MAN, Transylvania, and Spy's Demise, as well as those Iron, several, 

Magician for the graphics in their software. 

All oj our graphics products are on unprotected disks for your convenience. 

Vfl fee is reauired for using our graphics routines in other programs. All our license requires is that u is stated that our 

Z^rounneswvreused. H e are also most interested in publish,,,, good, new products, and beyond our graphics so,, ware 
we can otter further help to authors publishing through Penguin Software. 

Instead of offering our own superlatives, we recommend that vou read what others have said about our graphics products. 
I isted here are some of the reviews we've found, along with a few quotable quotes. 

Graphics Magician 

"recommended to anyone wanting to work with Apple's high resolution graphics for whatever purpose... definitely a program 

Apple users should have in their software library". Byte, Vov. 82. 

"miraculous and marvelous. " Creative ( omputing, Jan. 83. 

"makes a graphics magician out oj each and every Apple user". Softline. May 82. 

Other reviews Peelings II. Scpl-Oct 82. So/talk. Ma) 

Complete Graphics System II „ 

-The program earns its name...,, brings together at a modes, price so many different graphics tools. . Softalk. Jul) 81. 
"The three-dimensional utilities verge on the phenomenal". Creative ( omputing, June 81. t 

-provides capabilities that go beyond the wishful thinking stage and painless!) use much oj the Apple II graphics potential . 

/../,,,. ,,W,/ March I IW2. ....... 



Infoworld, March I. 1982. 

Other reviews. Softside. #33. Peelings II. Vol Dei 81 ( ider Press. 



C all- A. P. P. I I .. Vi 



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0?he° rewws.VopuL- Science, Voi 82 Softalk and Peelings II. March 82 (ider Press. Sep,(h,H2. 



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I Ching, continued... 

Ching can be seen as a method of mak- 
ing you aware of what your unconscious 
is doing. 

If this is true, your unconscious is also 
aware of multiple states of electronic 
interaction within the Apple computer 
as it cycles rapidly from one memory 
location to the next. You touch the key- 
board according to some understanding 
your subconscious has of the state of the 
machine at that moment. 

A more radical statement argues that 
your unconscious actually controls the 
outcome of the coin toss, or the state of 
the electrons within the computer. 
According to this idea, you touch the 
keyboard once you have made the state 
of the computer fit your subconscious 
wishes and desires. 

These speculations are fun and in- 
triguing. It was in the spirit of experi- 
mentation that the following program 
was written — and also in the spirit of 
laziness. For however one casts the I 
Ching, a good deal of bookwork is re- 
quired. Line numbers for individual 
casts must be noted down; trigrams and 
hexagrams looked up in tables; deriv- 
ative hexagrams generated. I find all this 
tedious, and I am prone to error in 
carrying it out. 

How To Use The Program 

The program allows the user to cast 
the I Ching with coins or with the ran- 
dom number generator of the computer 
itself. 

If done with coins, three similar coins 
are selected. Heads are given a value of 
2, and tails, 3. The coins are thrown and 
each throw is summed. If the throw is all 
heads, the sum is 2 + 2 + 2 = 6. If the 
throw is two heads, one tails, it is 7; if 
two tails, one head, it is 8. If it is all tails, 
the sum is 3 + 3 + 3 = 9. After each 
throw, the sum is entered into the com- 
puter, which checks to make sure the 
value is betweeen 6 and 9. After six 
entries, input stops. 

The keyboard is used to cast by com- 
puter. Any key or keys can be pressed, at 
any time or in any order. After six key 
presses, input stops. 

From this point the program proceeds 
quietly, without beeps or blinks, to gen- 
erate the hexagrams and their titles. The 
primary hexagon is drawn, based on the 
numerical values of the six lines, reading 
from bottom to top. Pressing any key 
will add the hexagram number and 
name, as well as the line values from bot- 
tom to top. 

An additional keypress creates all pos- 
sible derivative hexagrams, and prints 
their hexagram numbers. One should 
note here that while all authorities agree 
on the validity of the secondary hexa- 
gram, and some agree on the validity of 
the first nuclear hexagram, the value of 
the second nuclear hexagram is 

March 1983 e Creative Computing 



controversial. Nevertheless, since some 
users of the I Ching employ it, I have in- 
cluded it. 

A final keypress summarizes the 
information for the casting, provides a 
printout option, and ends the program. 
There is no loop back to run the pro- 
gram again — most users believe that the 
I Ching should not be thrown too often! 

The program does not provide inter- 
pretation. To interpret the figures one 
must consult the Book of Changes itself. 
The most widely accepted reference is 
the Richard Wilhelm translation, pub- 
lished in the Bollingen Series by the 
Princeton University Press. (This pro- 
gram uses the hexagram names of the 
Wilhelm translation.) 

A more modern, and excellent, text is 
/ Ching, translated and edited by John 
Blofeld, available in Dutton paperback. 
Blofeld's text concentrates on divination, 
and is lively and interesting. 

The oldest translation of the I Ching 
is by James Legge, a nineteenth century 
scholar. Re-issued in Bantam paperback, 
it is considered less satisfactory by many 
scholars, and is certainly more difficult 
to use. 

Each text devotes several pages of dis- 
cussion to each hexagram. The text also 
provides a detailed interpretation of each 
line of the hexagram. (Users should note 
that derived hexagrams are interpreted 
without reference to specific line num- 
bers. One reads the line number nota- 
tions for the primary hexagram only.) 

How The Program Works 

Initially, the program loads an array 
of 64 hexagrams and a lookup array to 
determine the hexagram number from 
the individual trigram pairs. 

Lines 100-560 accept input from ei- 
ther coins or machine. Individual values 
are POKEd into specific memory 
locations. 

Evaluation begins on line 600. A 
background is drawn in low-res graph- 
ics, and the lines are created by the sub- 
routine at 2000. 

To this point, the program is straight- 
forward. But to look up the hexagram 
numbers, some intricacies must occur. 
By convention, each hexagram is divided 
into lower and upper three-line trigrams. 
Before defining the hexagram, these 
trigrams must be standardized with 
string subroutines. (For example, a 
trigram of three solid bars might repre- 
sent numerical values of 999, 997, 977, 
777, 779, 797, or 979. These seven 
possibilities must be set to a single stan- 
dard value before looking the hexagram 
up in the table.) This standardization oc- 
curs in subroutines 2200 and 3000, 
which convert any three-line trigram to 
a single number from 1 to 8. 

The standardized numerical values 
are then related to a look-up data table 

191 



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I Ching, continued. 

Listing 1. 



57 


DIM I$(128) : FOR V « 1 to 128 : READ 


I$(V) : NEXT V 


1370 


REM START INTERPRETATION HERE 




1380 


GET AS 




1390 


HOME : VTAB 5 : PRINT "INTERPRETATION 
HEXAGRAM" 


OF PRIMARY 


1400 


PRINT 




1410 


HA - HI * 2 - 1 : HB - HI * 2 




1420 


PRINT 1$ (HA) : PRINT 1$ (HB) 




1430 


GET AS 




1440 


HOME : VTAB 5 : PRINT "INTERPRETATION 
HEXAGRAM" 


OF SECONDARY 


1450 


HA»H2*2-1:HB«H2*2 




1460 


PRINT 1$ (HA) : PRINT 1$ (HB) 




1470 


END 





starting on line 3500 and the hexagram 
number obtained. Next, the correspond- 
ing response string is obtained from the 
data listing in lines 4000-4660, and the 
result sent to the screen. For the primary 
hexagram, this occurs on line 790. 

Secondary and nuclear hexagrams are 
then generated according to accepted 
rules of transposition. These Figures in 
turn are broken into their component 
trigrams, submitted to the standardizing 
string subroutines, and then read from 
the lookup and response tables. 

Modifications To The Program 

This program is long, and deletions 
are certainly possible. The instructions, 
which begin at line 6000, comprise 
roughly one fifth of the code. I wrote 
them elaborately to assist friends 
unfamiliar with the I Ching, but 
sophisticated users can shorten this sec- 
tion or eliminate it entirely. 

If you want immediate identification 
of the original hexagram, delete line 690. 
If you agree with those scholars who 
consider the second nuclear hexagram a 
worthless artifact, make the following 
Listing 2. 



changes: 

Delete 920-950 

Delete 1170-1200 

Change 1230 to HTAB 10: PRINT 
Nl 

Delete 1340-1350 

And if you agree with the strict 
authorities who reject the notion of nu- 
clear hexagrams altogether, make the 
following additional changes: 

Delete 870-910 

Delete 1110-1150 

Delete 1230 

Delete 1320-1330 

The most obvious limitation of the 
program is that is does not provide inter- 
pretation beyond hexagram name and 
number. The program can, of course, be 
modified to provide interpretation, 
though this strikes me as unwise. In the 
Wilhelm / Ching, each hexagram is 
given roughly 2700 words of interpreta- 
tion, nearly 173,000 words for all 64 
hexagrams. Even if one compressed this 
material — a step I would hesitate to 
undertake — one would still face a mas- 
sive typing job. It makes more sense to 
refer to a book than to enter even a sum- 
mary of the text. 



56 


DIM R$ (64,2) : FOR V = 
R$ (V,H) : NEXT H,V 


1 TO 64 


: FOR 


H = 1 TO 2 : READ 


790 


VTAB 22 : PRINT " # " 


; HI ; " 


« . 


R$ (Hl,l) 


1290 


HTAB 6 : PRINT HI ; " 


" i R$ 


<H1,1) 


: PRINT 


1310 


HTAB 6 : PRINT H2 ; " 


" ; R$ 


(H2,l) 


: PRINT 


1330 


HTAB 6 : PRINT Nl ; " 


" ; R$ 


(Nl.l) 


: PRINT 


1350 


HTAB 6 : PRINT N2 ; " 


" ; R$ 


(N2,l) 


: PRINT 


1351 


PRINT : PRINT "TIMING 


(IF RELEVANT) : 


"; R$ (HI, 2) 



192 



CIRCLE 223 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



March 1983 e Creative Computing 



However, for those who want the pro- 
gram to go further, the additions in List- 
ing 1 will allow up to 510 characters of 
interpretation for each hexagram. 

In addition, between lines 4700 and 
6000, 128 DATA statements must be en- 
tered, summarizing the text for each 
hexagram in order, allowing two state- 
ments per hexagram, as the user sees fit. 

It is, of course, possible to take the 
interpretation further, to provide a read- 
ing of individual lines; I leave consid- 
eration of such changes to whoever is 
motivated to do them. 

An easier modification enables the 
program to give a sense of time, for 
questions having to the form "When will 
such-and-such happen?" The I Ching is 
often not satisfying in dealing with time 
questions, but the hexagrams do have 
seasonal associations, and a table of tim- 
ing is found on page 225 of the Blofeld 
translation. It can be easily entered into 
the program with the following changes 
shown in Listing 2. 

These changes simply increase the 
number of rows in the response table. 
Now, referring to the Blofeld table, the 
response data from 4020 to 4650 must be 
modified by adding the appropriate 
month to each hexagram, thus: 

4 20 DATA THE CREAT I VE , MAY 

down to: 

4650 DATA BEFORE COMPLETION. 

NOVEMBER 

Finally, one can tighten the code. I 
have not bothered to do so. When, dur- 
ing debugging, I got the hexagram #63 
AFTER COMPLETION, I cheerfully 
quit. 

In summary, I have found the I Ching 
a powerful tool for understanding any 
question it is posed. I hope this program 
will stimulate other users to explore the 
deeper connections between ancient 
thought, apparently "chance" events, 
and microchip technology. 

Acknowledgements: As a frequent 
journal reader, I'm sure that bits of pre- 
viously published techniques have crept 
into this program; I am grateful to those 
contributors who have helped me. I 
would also like to thank Brugh Joy, 
M.D. for first introducing me to the I 
Ching. 

References 

1. The I Ching or Book of Changes. 
The Richard Wilhelm Translation ren- 
dered into English by Cary F. Baynes, 
Bollingen Series XIX, 1977, Princeton 
University Press. 

2. / Ching (The Book of Change). 
Translated and Edited by John Blofeld, 
1968, E.P. Dutton. 

3. / Ching or Book of Changes. Trans- 
lated by James Legge, 1969, Bantam 
Books. E 

March 1983 e Creative Computing 



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1 Ching, continued... 






Program Variables 












CH 


random number seed 












DL 


delay loop variable 












HI 


primary hexagram number 












H2 


secondary hexagram number 












L 


line numbers 












LIS - L6$ 


line number strings for concatenation 






1 


REM 


I CHINC 


LN, LN$ 


lower nuclear trigram 






1 2 
1 3 
14 
1 6 
18 
1 9 


REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 




LT, LT$ 

Nl 

N2 

PS 

PX 

R$() 


lower hexagram trigram 
first nuclear hexagram number 
second nuclear hexagram number 
VTAB line number position 
Printout flag 




THIS PROCRAM THROWS 4 
LOOKS UP HEXACRAMS 
AND ALSO CENERATES 
SECONDARY AND NUCLEAR 






20 


REM 


HEXACRAMS 


response table 






22 


REM 




TO 


lookup table 

primary hexagram transformation string 






23 


REM 




Tl$ 






24 


REM 


COMPLETED 9/23/82 


T2$ 


secondary hexagram transformation string 






2 4 
28 
30 
32 
34 


REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 


BY MICHAEL CRICHTON 

HEXAGRAM TITLES FROM 

THE I CHINC OR BOOK OF CHANCES 

THE RICHARD WILHELM TRANSLATION 


TM 

UN, UN$ 
UT, UTS 


temporary value for return to program 
upper nuclear trigram 
upper hexagram trigram 












36 


REM 


RENDERED INTO ENGLISH BY CARY F BAYNES 






38 


REM 


BOLLINCEN SERIES XIX COPYRIGHT 








40 


REM 


RENEWED 1977 BY PRINCETON UNIV PRESS 








42 


REM 


HEXAGRAM TITLES, PP V-VII, 








44 


REM 


REPRINTED BY PERMISSION OF 








46 


REM 


PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS 








48 


REM 










50 


REM 


*«*• INITIALIZATION »•» 








31 


REM 










32 


REM 


T-. LOOKUP TABLE. R » ^RESPONSES 








33 


DIM T<8.8> FOR V , 1 TO 8 FOR H . 1 TO 8 READ T<V.H> 


NEXT H , V 




36 


DIM R»<64> FOR V . 1 TO 64: READ RS(V) NEXT V 






99 


REM 










1 00 


REM 


»»•» FIRST OPTIONS **» 








1 10 


REM 










1 20 


HOME 


TEXT 








1 30 


VTAB 


8 HTAB 10 INVERSE PRINT » I CHINC 


PROGRAM 


NORMAL VTAB 11 H 




TAB 


18 PHI 




140 


VTAB 


22 PRINT "( I > INSTRUCTIONS, (OOINS. OR (M)ACHINE 


INPUT' CET A! 




isa 


IF A« ■ "I" COTO 6000 REM I NSTR 








1 60 


IT A« -- "C" COTO 200: REM COINS 








1 70 


IF At . "M" COTO 300: REM MACHINE INPUT 








1 80 


REM 










200 


REM 


»•** COIN INPUT «»»» 








201 


REM 










2 10 


HOME 


PS - 18 








220 


VTAB 


8: PRINT "TOSS COINS SIX TIMES..." 








230 


FOR 


! ■ 1 TO 6 








240 


VTAB 


<PS> INPUT L 








230 


IF L 


< 6 OR L > 9 THEN VTAB (PS) PRINT » 


VALUE UNACCEPTABLE": GOTO 240 




260 


POKE 


780 ♦ I , L 








270 


PS > 


°S - 1 NEXT I 








280 


COTO 


600 








290 


REM 










300 


REM 


*«»» MACHINE INPUT «»»« 








301 


REM 










3 10 


HOME 


PS - 18 








320 


VTAB 


8 PRINT "PRESS KEYBOARD SIX TIMES 








330 


FOR 


» 1 TO 6 








340 


CH . 


INT ( RND ( 1 > • 100 ) 








330 


X - INT ( RND <1> • CH) 








360 


IF X 


/ 2 . INT <X / 2) THEN X = 2 COTO 380 








370 


X > 3 










380 


POKE 


768.X 








390 


X ■ INT < RND ( 1 > * CH > 








400 


IF X 


/ 2 - INT <X / 2) THEN X - 2 COTO 42 








410 


X • 3 










420 


POKE 


769 ,X 








430 


X x INT ( RND <1> * CH) 








440 


IF X 


/ 2 w INT <X / 2) THEN X - 2: COTO 46 








450 


X . 3 










460 


POKE 


770.X 

194 




March 1983 e Creative Computing 



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In M. .ill 

(617) 891-6602 

Outside M 
1-800-343-1813 

Dead 

CIRCLF 162 ON Ml AIM R SI HVH I CARD 



I Ching, continued. 



470 REM 

480 REM KEYBOARD PRESSED' 

48S REM 

490 KB = PEEK < - 14384) IF KB > 127 THEN POKE - 1*348,0 COTO 520 

500 COTO 350 REM BECIN ANOTHER PASS 

5 10 REM 

520 REM KEYBOARD WAS PRESSED 

525 REM 

530 L = PEEK (748) ♦ PEEK (749) ♦ PEEK (770) VTAB (PS) PRINT L 

540 POKE 780 ♦ I . L 

550 PS ^ PS - 1 NEXT I 

555 PRINT CHRS (7) REM WARNINC BEEP 

540 REM 

400 REM •»»» BECIN PROCESSING ••« 

410 REM 

420 VTAB 12 PRINT "HEXAGRAM COMPLETED" FOR DL - 1 TO 500 NEXT 

430 CR 

440 COLOR-. 15 FOR Y » 1 TO 3 9 HLIN 1.39 AT Y NEXT 

450 COLOR-. Y - 33 XI » 10 X2 = 17 X3 =. 23 X4 - 30 

4 40 FOR I = 1 TO 4 

470 Y = Y - 4 L ■ PEEK (780 ♦ I) COSUB 2000 

480 NEXT I 

490 VTAB 24 GET A* 

499 REM 

700 REM *•« READ ANSWER *** 

705 REM 

710 Ll» -■ STRS < PEEK (781)) L2« = STR* ( PEEK (782)) L3S - STR » ( PEEK (783) 

) L4* - STR» < PEEK (784)) L5S * STR S ( PEEK (785)) L 4 '- «= STR* ( PEEK (784)) 

730 LT« ■ Ll» ♦ L2S ♦ L3S UT» -■ L4* ♦ L5* * L4S REM LOWER/UPPER TRIGRAMS 

740 TIS * LTS GOSUB 2200 COSUB 3000 

750 LT ■ TM 

740 TIS ■ UTI GOSUB 2200 GOSUB 3000 

7 7 UT ■ TM 

780 HI - T(LT.UT) REM PRIMARY HEXAGRAM VAL 

7 90 VTAB 2 2 PRINT " » " , H 1 . " ",R«(HI> 

800 FOR DL -■ 1 TO 500 NEXT DL 

810 VTAB 24 PRINT " LINES ARE ", L I *."-'. L 2 »."-", L 3 «."-", L 4 *,"-". L 5 »."-". L 4 « 

CET A« 
820 REM *•» OTHER TRIGRAMS «»* 
830 REM SECONDARY TR I CRAM 

640 T2S ■= LTi COSUB 2300 GOSUB 3000 LT = TM 
850 T2S => UTS COSUB 2300 COSUB 3000 UT - TM 
840 H2 - T(LT.UT) REM H2^2NDARY HEXACRAM VAL 
870 REM FIRST NUCLEAR 

880 LN» = L2» ♦ L3S ♦ L4SUNS - L3S * L4S 4 L5S 
890 TIS - LN» GOSUB 2200 GOSUB 3000 LN - TM 
900 TIS ■ UNS GOSUB 2200 GOSUB 3000 UN ■ TM 
910 Nl *■ T(LN.UN) REM NUCLEAR 1 HEX VAL 
920 REM SECOND NUCLEAR 

930 T2S •* LNS GOSUB 2300 COSUB 3000 LN » TM 
940 T2» - UNS COSUB 2300 GOSUB 3000 UN - TM 
950 N2 = T(LN.UN) REM NUCLEAR 2 HEX VAL 
940 REM 

970 REM »•• MORE HEXS «** 
980 REM 
990 GR HOME 

1000 COLOR- 15 FOR Y - TO 19 HLIN 0.19 AT Y NEXT REM BACKGROUND 

1010 REM DRAW ORIGINAL HEXAGRAM 

1020 COLOR. 

1030 Y - 17 XI - 3 X2 - 7 X3 - 12 X4 * 14 

1040 FOR I - 1 TO 4 L • PEEK (780 ♦ I> GOSUB 2000 Y = Y - 3 NEXT I 

1050 REM 

1040 REM DRAW SECONDARY HEXAGRAM 

1070 COLOR" 15 

1080 Y - 17 XI - 22 X2 = 2 7 X 3 =. 31 X4 - 34 

1090 FOR I - 1 TO 4 L - PEEK (780 ♦ I) GOSUB 2100 GOSUB 2000 Y - Y - 3 NEXT I 

1100 REM 

1110 REM DRAW NUCLEAR tl 

1120 COLOR- 1 

1130 Y ■= 37 XI - 3 X2 - 7 X3 - 12 X4 -- 16 

1140 FOR I • I TO J:L ■ PEEK (781 ♦ I> COSUB 2000 Y ■ Y - 3 NEXT I 

1150 FOR 1 » 1 TO 3 L . PEEK (782 ♦ I) GOSUB 2000 Y =■ Y - 3 NEXT I 

1140 REM 

1170 REM DRAW NUCLEAR »2 

1175 REM 

1180 Y - 37 XI - 22 X2 * 27 X3 - 3 1 X 4 » 34 

March 1983 c Creative Computing 197 







1 Ching, continued... 






1 1 90 


FOR I - 1 TO 3 L - PEEK <781 ♦ I) COSUB 2100 COSUB 2000 Y - 


Y - 3 NEXT I 




1 200 


FOR I =- 1 TO 3 L * PEEK (782 ♦ I) COSUB 2100 COSUB 2000 Y - 


Y - 3 NEXT I 




1210 


REM 






1220 


VTAB 22 HTAB 10 PRINT HI, HTAB 30 PRINT H2 PRINT 






1 2 30 


HTAB 10 PRINT Nl, HTAB 30 PRINT N2 






1240 


GET AS 






1244 


REM 






1245 


REM **• SUMMARY PACE ••• 






1244 


REM 






1210 


TEXT HOME 






1260 


PRINT "ORIGINAL LINES WERE ", LI !,"-", U S ,"-", LSI ,"-", L45 , "-' 


•.L5S,"-",L4 S 




12 70 








1280 


PRINT "PRIMARY HEXAGRAM-" PRINT 






1290 


HTAB 6 PRINT HI," " , R 5 ( H 1 ) PRINT 






1 300 


PRINT "SECONDARY HEXACRAM-" PRINT 






1310 


HTAB 6 PRINT H2," ",R»(H2> PRINT 






1320 


PRINT "FIRST NUCLEAR-" PRINT 






1330 


HTAB 6 PRINT Nl," ",R»(N1> PRINT 






1340 


PRINT "SECOND NUCLEAR-" PRINT 






1350 


HTAB 4 PRINT N2," ",RS(N2> 






1352 








1 35S 


IF PX - 1 THEN PRINT PRINT CHR* <4>,"PR»0" GOTO 1370 






1360 


PRINT PRINT PRINT "DO YOU WANT A PRINTOUT (Y/N)'". GET AS 






136 2 


FOR B - 1 TO 29 PRINT CHRS (8), PRINT " PRINT CHR» <8> 


NEXT B 




1 363 


IF AS - "N" GOTO 1370 






1364 


PX - 1 INPUT "TODAY'S DATE ( MM / DD / Y Y > » " , DS 






1365 


FOR B .- 1 TO 40 PRINT CHRS <8>, PRINT " " . PRINT CHRS (8). 


NEXT B 




1367 


PRINT "WHAT WAS YOUR QUESTION'" INPUT OS PRINT CHRS <4)."PR»1": PRINT : 




PRINT DS . " " ,Q» PR INT 






1368 


GOTO 1260 






1369 








1370 


END 






1 380 








1 998 


REM »««« START SUBROUTINES **• 






1 999 


REM 






2000 


REM •»» DRAW GRAPHIC »»•» 






2005 


REM 






2010 


IF L = 6 THEN HLIN XI. X2 AT Y HLIN X3.X4 AT Y RETURN 






2020 


IF L >■ 7 THEN HLIN XI. X4 AT Y RETURN 






2030 


IF L = 8 THEN HLIN XI, X2 AT Y HLIN X3.X4 AT Y RETURN 






2040 


IF L . 9 THEN HLIN XI, X4 AT Y RETURN 






2050 


REM 






2 100 


REM »•• 2NDARY HEX CONVERSION 






2 105 


REM 






2110 


IF L » 6 THEN L - 7 RETURN 






2 120 


IF L - 9 THEN L - 8 RETURN 






2130 


REM 






2200 


REM •«• CONVERT TRIGRAM »'S FOR LOOKUP »*• 






220S 


REM 






2210 


SS * •■•• XS « ••■■ ■ REM NULL 






2220 


FOR N = 1 TO LEN <T1»> 






2230 


X» - MID» <T1» ,N, 1 ) 






2240 


IF XS * "4" THEN X» « "8" 






2250 


IF X» ■ "9" THEN XS r, "7" 






2260 


SS - SS ♦ XS NEXTN 






2270 


T1S -: SS RETURN 






2280 


REM 






2300 


REM •»• CONVERT OTHER TRIGRAMS »•» 






2305 


REM 






2310 


SS *■ ■■•■ XS - ■■•• REM NULL 






2320 


FOR N - 1 TO LEN <T2S ) 






2 3 30 


XS -* MIDS (T2 S ,N, 1 ) 






2340 


IF XS . "4" THEN XS = "?" 






2350 


IF XS ■ "9" THEN XS ■ "8" 






2360 


SS . SS ♦ XS NEXT N 






2 370 


Tl» *■ SS RETURN 






2380 


REM 






3000 


REM *»« CONVERT 1-8 ««•» 






3005 


REM 






3010 


TM » VAL (T1S) 






3020 


IF TM = 777 THEN TM - 1 COTO 3 100 






3030 


IF TM * 788 THEN TM * 2: GOTO 3 100 






3040 


IF TM - 8 78 THEN TM ■ 3: COTO 3 100 






3050 


IF TM - 88 7 THEN TM ^ 4 : GOTO 3 100 








198 


March 1983 c Creative Computing 



GREAT PLAINS ACCOUNTING □ MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE 



Our books 
simplify yours! 



Vjreat Plains Software shows you how to appraise 
your business from every angle. Our books handle 
your accounting in expert fashion. They analyze your 
management policies and evaluate the profitability of 
your decisions. And our books give you the reports 
you need - so you can see where your business is 
making profits - and losing them, whether it's by 
salesman, product, territory or profit center. 

Our new version of the Hardisk Accounting Series 
includes General Ledger, Accounts Receivable, 
Accounts Payable and two new modules - Payroll 
and Inventory with Point of Sale. Our programs are 
fast, powerful and efficient. Our books make it easy 
to operate and understand. 

You can find Great Plains Software at your local 
computer store - or call us for more details. We'll be 
glad to show you how the Hardisk Accounting Series 
can simplify your books. 



SPECIFICATIONS 



OVERALL 

Password Privacy System 
Written in UCSD Patca!** 
Hard Disk Oriented 
Operates on Apple III, 

IBM P( : 
GENERAL LEDGER 

All entries on line entire fiscal 

year 
Flexibly formatted financial 

statements 
Comparative income 

statements and balance sheets 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

Up to 32,767 customers* 
Profit by customer, customer 
type, salesman and state 
Open item or balance forward 
Automatically posts to G/L 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 

Up to 32,767 vendors* 
Accommodates manual of 

generated checks 
Automatically posts to G/L 



PAYROLL 

Up to 32,767 employees* 
Up to 20 deductions per 
employee 

Withholding computed 
Prints W2,°4 1 and checks 

INVENTORY 

FIFO, LIFO. standard cost, 

weighted moving average and 

serial number valuation 
5 price levels per part 
Concise report including profit by 

part and line 
Point of Sale for cash and credit 

sales 
Part numbers up to I 5 characters 
Automatically posts to A/P 

and A/R 

'depending upon disk storage space 
•*TM UC Regents 



(i$ GREAT PI AINS SOFTWARE 

*'^^***^ 123 lith Street North. Fargo, ND 58102-4292 • (701) 293-8483 



CIRCLE 179 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




e 



jheQume 



Co 



The Qume SPRINT 11 PLUS . is the new stan- 
dard of quality for professional, letter-perfect 
daisywheel printing. And for just $1776, 
you can have it for your personal or desk- 
top computer. It comes complete with a 
Qume Connection interface module to fit 
popular computers from IBM, Radio Shack, 

Commodore, Xerox, Hewlett Packard, North 
Star and many others. Its 96-character daisywheel 
delivers letter-quality text at a steady 40 cps. And 



ction* 

with an average of 5,500 trouble-free hours 
(3 years typical use) between maintenance, 
the SPRINT 11 PLUS is unmatched in 
reliability. Qume quality is the choice of 
sophisticated, professional users. At $1776, 
there's no reason for you to settle for any- 
thing less. Make the Qume Connection by 
calling one of our authorized distributors. 
Or write Qume, 2350 Qume Drive, 
San Jose, California 95131. 



Our new 

SPRINT 11 PLUS 
fits every computer. 

$1776. 




Qume 

{ v A Subsidiary of ITT 



A Subsidiary of ITT 



w,o. 

I 



T9S?0 










(21 
(61 



's easy to make the 
Qume Connection. 

Call the distributor nearest you to get the 
best quality printer tor your microcomputer. 

Abacus Data Sarvlcai 
(416)677-8555 Ontario 

Canada 
Anecomp/ESCOM 

Division 

(213) 516-7480 CA 
(206) 641 -4990 WA 
(509) 624-1308 WA 
Anthem Systems 
Corporation 
(415) 342-0182 CA 
Audiovisual Service! 
(713)659-1111 TX 
(800) 392-7777 TX Only 
Bohllg and Associate* 
(612)922-7011 MN 
Butler Associates 
(617) 984-6270 MA 
Byte Industries 
(800) 972-5948 CA Only 
(BOO) 227-2070 Outside CA 
C*G Distributors, Inc. 

(513) 435-4340 OH 

800) 245-1084 Outside OH 

412) 388-5056 PA 

(800) 245-1084 Outside PA 

David Jamison 
CarlyleCorp. 

213) 277-4562 CA 
415 284-9660 CA 
714) 640-0355 CA 
808)531-5136 HI 
312) 975-1500 IL 
201 948-9869 NJ 

214) 458-0888 TX 

713) 530-4980 TX 
The Computer Factory 
;212) 687-5000 NY 
914 793-1300 NY 

212 8980700 NY 
(516) 246-8700 NY 
CompullngResourcesInc 
(702) 8254800 NV 
Computer Mart 
ol New Jersey 
(201) 283-0800 NJ 
Dstamei Ltd. 

(514) 481-1116 Montreal, 
Canada 

(813) 224-1391 Ottowa 

416) 787-1208 Toronto 
(604) 684-8625 Vancouver 
Data Systems Marketing 

602) 833-0081 AZ 

714) 540-2312 CA 

213 64 1-2050 CA 
416)941-0240 CA 
916) 891-8358 CA 
213) 796-2562 CA 
213) 796-2631 CA 
714 560*222 CA 

213) 344-7097 CA 
209) 237-8577 CA 
303) 573-5133 CO 
303) 694-1 710 CO 
313) 254-2830 Ml 
406) 587-1200 MT 
505) 294-1531 NM 
503) 297-8444 OR 
412)488-2676 PA 

214) 960-1604 TX 
713) 789-0603 TX 
801) 292-6666 UT 
206) 5754123 WA 
Data Technology 
Industrie*) 

(415) 638-1208 CA 
Data Terminal Mart 
(403) 270-3737 Alberta 
403) 420-1755 Alberta 
(514) 288-1555 Montreal 
(902) 469-3782 Nova Scotia 

(416) 6770184 Ontario 
(416) 495-2001 Ontario 
(416) 245-4780 Ontario 
(613) 729-5196 Ontario 
(604) 872-8482 Vancouver 
Equipment Resources 
(404) 955-0313 GA 
General Electric 
(205) 4794547 AL 
(602) 278-8515 AZ 
(415) 436-9285 CA 

714) 2310309 CA 
(203) 628-9638 CT 
(904)751O615FL 
(305)92101 69 FL 
(404) 452-4919 GA 
(319) 285-7501 IA 
(219) 933-4500 IN 
(317) 241-9330 IN 
(812)4734161 IN 
(502)452-3311 KY 

617) 938-1920 MA 
(301) 332-4710 MD 
(612) 522-4398 MN 



(816) 2314362 MO 
(314) 965-7115 MO 

704) 525-3011 NC 
(201) 227-7900 NJ 
(518) 385-4888 NY 

716 876-1200 NY 
(513) 8744512 OH 
(503) 221-5095 OR 

901) 527-3709 TN 

214 243-1106 TX 

713) 672-3575 TX 
(801) 973-2253 UT 

Gentry and Associates 
(305) 859-7450 FL 
Inter ACT Computer 

Systems 
(305) 331-7117 FL 
(404) 953-8213 GA 
(704) 552-7502 NC 
(704) 254-1949 NC 

Micro America 
(213) 3274030 CA 
(800) 262-4212 CA Only 
(800) 421-1485 Outaide CA 
(617)449-5807 MA 

(800) 343-4411 Outside MA 
617) 431-7880 MA 

214) 235-3616 TX 
800) 442-5847 TX Only 
(600) 527-3261 Outside TX 
National Computer 
Syndicate 
(312) 4594400 IL 
Ottlce Systems. Inc. 
(704) 374-0822 NC 
(919) 2744423 NC 
(919) 549-0545 NC 
PAR Associate* 
(303) 371-4140 CO 

(801) 2924145 UT 
Pioneer Electronics 
(205) 837-9300 AL 

305 869-3600 FL 

308) 771-7520 FL 

404)448-1711 GA 
(301)9480710 MD 
(919)273-4441 NC 
(215)674-4000 PA 
Pioneer Standard 
Electronics 



(312 
317 
313 
(812 
(216 
(513 
412 



) 437-9680 I L 
'849-7300 IN 
525-1800 Ml 
935-5444 MN 
587-3800 OH 
236-9900 OH 
._' 782-2300 PA 
512 835-4000 TX 
(214 386-7300 TX 
(713) 988-5555 TX 



(205) 882-2200 AL 
(408) 496-0200 CA 

(213) 537-4321 CA 
(916) 929-9732 CA 

213) 999-4702 CA 
(203) 792-3500 CT 
(306)9270611 FL 

305) 331-7555 FL 

404) 449-9170 GA 
(319)373-1417 IA 
(312) 364-3750 IL 
(617) 275-5100 MA 
(301) 840-5900 MD 

313 5254100 Ml 

612 941-5280 MN 
(201) 227-7880 NJ 
(516) 334-7474 NY 

716) 424-2222 NY 
(216) 464-2970 OH 
(513) 439-1800 OH 

918 8224000 OK 
(215) 4410600 PA 
(412) 782-1600 PA 

(713) 784-3600 TX 

(214) 661-5010 TX 
(512) 4584253 TX 
(414) 784-9020 Wl 

Tek Aids Industries I 
(312)870-7400 IL 
(512) 835-9518 TX 



(602) 258-4466 AZ 

(714) 832-2414 CA 

(408) 292-9915 CA 

(213)637-3413CA 

(714) 235-9268 CA 

(415) 956-4821 CA 

Terminals Unlimited 

(800)336-0423 

Unico 

(512)4510251TX 

Victor Electronic* 

(617)481-4010 MA 

Western New York 

Computer 

(716) 381-4120 NY 



I Ching, continued... 



Qume. 

▼ A Subsidiary ol ITT 



3040 


IT TM 


3070 


IP TM 


3080 


IF TM 


30*0 


IF TM 


3100 


RETURN 


3110 


REM 


3900 


REM * 


3310 


REM 


3310 


DATA 


3330 


DATA 


3340 


DATA 


3330 


DATA 


3540 


DATA 


3370 


DATA 


3330 


DATA 


33*0 


DATA 


3373 


REM 


4000 


REM « 


4010 


REM 


4020 


DATA 


4030 


DATA 


4040 


DATA 


4030 


DATA 


4040 


DATA 


4070 


DATA 


40(0 


DATA 


4090 


DATA 


4100 


DATA 


4110 


DATA 


4120 


DATA 


4130 


DATA 


4140 


DATA 


4130 


DATA 


4140 


DATA 


4170 


DATA 


4130 


DATA 


417 


DATA 


4200 


DATA 


4210 


DATA 


4220 


DATA 


4230 


DATA 


4240 


DATA 


4230 


DATA 


4240 


DATA 


4270 


DATA 


42S0 


DATA 


4270 


DATA 


4300 


DATA 


4310 


DATA 


4320 


DATA 


4330 


DATA 


4340 


DATA 


4330 


DATA 


4340 


DATA 


4370 


DATA 


4330 


DATA 


4370 


DATA 


4400 


DATA 


4410 


DATA 


4420 


DATA 


4430 


DATA 


4440 


DATA 


4430 


DATA 


4440 


DATA 


4470 


DATA 


4430 


DATA 


4470 


DATA 


4300 


DATA 


4310 


DATA 


4320 


DATA 


4330 


DATA 


4340 


DATA 


4330 


DATA 


4540 


DATA 


4370 


DATA 



•33 THEN TM - 3 : GOTO 3 100 

87 7 THEN TM - 4 : COTO 3100 

737 THEN TM - 7 COTO 3 100 

778 THEN TM • 8 



•* LOOKUP TAiLE DATA *•• 

1,34,3,24,11,7,14,43 
23 ,91 ,3, 27,24,42 ,21 , 17 
4,40,27,4,7,37,44,47 
33,42 , 37, 32, 13,93,34,31 

12 , 14 ,8, 23, 2,20, 33,43 
44,32,48,18,44,37,30,28 
13,99,43,22,34,37,30.47 
10,34.40,41,17,41,38.38 

• • RESPONSE DATA ••* 

THE CREATIVE 

THE RECEPTIVE 

DIFFICULTY AT THE BEGINNING 

YOUTHFUL FOLLY 

WAITING (NOURISHMENT) 

CONFLICT 

THE ARMY 

HOLDING TOGETHER (UNION) 

THE TAMING POWER OF THE SMALL 

TREADING (CONDUCT) 

PEACE 

STANDSTILL (STAGNATION) 

FELLOWSHIP WITH MEN 

POSSESSION IN GREAT MEASURE 

MODESTY 

ENTHUSIASM 

FOLLOWING 

WORK ON WHAT HAS BEEN SPOILED (DECAY) 

APPROACH 

CONTEMPLATION (VIEW) 

BITING THROUGH 

GRACE 

SPLITTING APART 

RETURN (THE TURNING POINT) 

INNOCENCE (THE UNEXPECTED) 

THE TAMING POWER OF THE GREAT 

THE CORNERS OF THE MOUTH (PROVIDINC NOURISHMENT) 

PREPONDERANCE OF THE GREAT 

THE ABYSMAL (WATER) 

THE CLINGING/ FIRE 

INFLUENCE (WOOING) 

DURATION 

RETREAT 

THE POWER OF THE GREAT 

PROGRESS 

DARKENING OF THE LIGHT 

THE FAMILY (THE CLAN) 

OPPOSITION 

OBSTRUCTION 

DELIVERANCE 
DECREASE 

INCREASE 

BREAK-THROUGH (RESOLUTENESS) 

COMING TO MEET 

GATHERING TOGETHER (MASSING) 

PUSHING UPWARD 

OPPRESSION (EXHAUSTION) 

THE WELL 

REVOLUTION (MOULTING) 

THE CALDRON 

THE AROU8INC ( SHOCK /THUNDER ) 

KEEPING STILL/ MOUNTAIN 

DEVELOPMENT (GRADUAL PROGRESS) 

THE MARRYING MAIDEN 

ABUNDANCE (FULLNESS) 

THE WANDERER 



l Subsidiary c 

CIRCLE 286 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



201 



March 1983 c Creative Computing 



Chlng, continued. 



4580 
43*0 
4*00 
46 10 
46 20 
4630 
4640 
4650 
4440 
4470 
4000 
4010 
4020 



DATA THE GENTLE (THE PENETRATING/ WIND) 

DATA THE JOYOUS /LAKE 

DATA DISPERSION (DISSOLUTION) 

DATA LIMITATION 

DATA INNER TRUTH 

DATA PREPONDERANCE OF THE SMALL 

DATA AFTER COMPLETION 

DATA BEFORE COMPLETION 



REM •••INSTRUCTIONS*** 

HOME 

PRINT 



THE I CHINC IS AN ANCIENT 
THROWING STICKS OR COINS, 



CHINESE 

A SIX-LINE 



METHOD 
FIGURE 



OF DIVINATION 
OR HEXAGRAM. 



BY R 
IS CREATED 



THIS HEXACRAM IS INTERPRETED BY 



FURTHER INFORMATION CAN BE OBTAINED 
SO-CALLED NUCLEAR HEXAGRAMS' 



CONSULTING A METAPHORICAL TEXT 



BY DERIVING A SECONDARY HEXAGR 



EPEATEOLY 
60 30 PRINT 
4 04 PRINT 
6 050 PRINT 
6 060 PRINT 
AM. AND TWO 
4070 PRINT 

4080 PRINT "THIS PROGRAM PROVIDES THE HEXAGRAM NAMESONLY FOR FURTHER INTERPRE 
TATION, USERSSHOULD OBTAIN A GOOr I CHING TEXT. SUCHAS THE CLASSIC TRANSLATION 
BY RICHARD WILHELM (PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS) " 
8000 
PRINT "CASTING THE I CHING" 
INVERSE PRINT "WITH COINS": NORMAL 



COSUB 
HOME 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
VALUE OF 3 
THE COINS 
PRINT 
PRINT 
THIS 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
COSUB 
HOME : 
PRINT 



4070 

6 100 

4110 

4120 

4130 

E 

T 

4140 

6150 

ENTER 

6 140 

41 70 

4 180 

4170 

4200 

4210 

R TO 

4220 

4230 

FROM 
4240 
4240 
THEIR 
6270 
6280 
4270 

AND 
4300 
4310 
7000 
7010 
7020 
7030 
7040 
7030 
7060 
7070 
7080 
7070 
7100 
7110 



USE THREE SIMILAR COINS. SUCH AS 
AND THE OTHER FACE THE VALUE OF I. 
SIX TIMES. " 



PENNIES 
THINKON YOUR 



ASSIGN ONE 
QUESTION AS 



FACE TH 
YOU CAS 



AFTER EACH THROW, SUM THE THREE FACES, 
VALUE INTO THE COMPUTER . " 
PRINT INVERSE PRINT " BY COMPUTER 



TO GET A VALUE FROM 4 TO 7 



NORMAL 



PRINT 



"THE COMPUTER WILL SIMULATE COIN TOSSES IF YOU PRESS ANY KEY SIX TIMES 
8000 

PRINT "INTERPRETING THE I CHING" 
"THE COMPUTER FIRST GENERATES THE 



MEDITATEON THIS FICURE DIRECTLY, WITHOUT 
PRINT : 
PRINT • 
BOTTOM 
PRINT 
PRINT ' 



PRINT : PRINT 
PRIMARVHEXACRAM SOME USERS PREFE 
ADDITIONAL DATA. " 



PRINT 
1 . (RETURN) WILL 
TO TOP . " : PRINT 



ADD THE HEXAGRAM NAME, 



AND THE LINE VALUES READING 



WILL GENERATE THE SECONDARY AND NUCLEAR HEXAGRAMS, AND 



GET Al GOSUB 7010 



•••GRAPHIC INSTR*»« 



2 (RETURN) 

NUMBERS . 

VTAB 20: PRINT "PRESS ANY KEY TO SEE THIS PATTERN 
GOSUB 8000: HOME VTAB 3 
PRINT "A FINAL (RETURN) WILL SUMMARIZE THE 

PROVIDE A PRINTOUT OPTION . " 
COTO 1 4 
REM 
REM 
HOME 
FOR X - 
FOR X - 
VTAB 3 : 
FOR X - 
FOR X • 
SPEED- 
VTAB 3 : 
FOR X • 
FOR X ■ 
VTAB 1 3 



DATA ON ALL FOUR HEXAGRAMS, 



1 TO 
1 TO 
HTAB 
1 TO 



20 : 
37 : 
3 : 

300 



14 TO 2 3 
233 

HTAB 23: 

I TO 3 

7 TO 14: 

HTAB 3 



VTAB 
VTAB 

PRINT 
NEXT 

: VTAB 



(X) : HTAB 17: PRINT "I 

10 : HTAB (X) : PRINT "- 

"ORIGINAL": HTAB 5: PRINT 

: SPEED- 100 

4 : HTAB (X) : PRINT " >" ; 



NEXT 
NEXT 

HEXAGRAM' 



NEXT 



SPEED. 233 



"DERIVED": HTAB 3: PRINT 
7 120 FOR X • 1 TO 5 00 
7 130 FOR X - 7 TO 1 4 : 
7 140 VTAB 13: HTAB 2 5 
NT "DERIVED": HTAB 23: 



7130 
7140 
7777 
7778 
7777 
8000 



PRINT "SECONDARY 

NEXT : SPEED- 100 
VTAB (X) HTAB 8 PRINT " 
PRINT "NUCLEAR" HTAB 3: 
"FROM ORIGINAL" 

NEXT : SPEED- 100 
VTAB (X): HTAB 2 8 PRINT 

PRINT "NUCLEAR" HTAB 23 
PRINT "FROM SECONDARY" 



HTAB 23: PRINT "HEXACRAM" 



I": NEXT : SPEED- 253 

PRINT "HEXAGRAM": HTAB 3 PRINT 



I": NEXT : SPEED- 
PRINT "HEXAGRAM": 



233 

HTAB 



23 



PR I 



SPEED- 235 

RETURN 

REM 

REM •••PAUSE*** 

REM 

VTAB 24 PRINT "PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE" 



GET Al RETURN 



202 



March 1983 e Creative Computing 



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Part Two 



TRS-80 Graphics Made 
Almost Painless 



This is the second article in a three 
part series. The first segment appeared 
in the January 1982 issue. Here we dis- 
cuss some quirks of Level II Basic and 
describe Vector Plotter, a program that 
draws lines on the screen between any 
two points. Vector Plotter can produce 
random vectors, or you can supply the x, 
y coordinates of the initial and terminal 
points of a vector. 

Many people don't know what vector 
means because it is often misused. The 
correct definition — used by math- 
ematicians, engineers, and scientists 
other than biologists — is a line which 
has two properties, length and direction. 
Some programmers use vector to mean 
array. Airplane pilots and science fiction 
writers often use it in place of direction. 
Biologists use vector to mean "a disease 
carrying organism." 

Peculiarities of Level II 

There are two problems with the val 
function, which are not mentioned in the 
reference manual. The first problem is 
that val doesn't recognize numeric 
character strings preceded by a minus 
sign if there are blanks before the minus 
sign. That problem was described in Ra- 
dio Shack's "Microcomputer News" 
(Oct. and Nov. 1980 issues). The second 
problem is that if a percent symbol is the 

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first nonblank character after a string of 
numeric characters, an sn (syntax) error 
message will be printed when val is 
used on that string. 

Apparently the programmers at 
Microsoft were uncertain about what 
should be done in this case. They could 
divide the value by 100 to get a decimal 
equivalent, they could leave the number 
as a percentage, or they could have an 
error result and leave it to you to write 
an error handling subroutine to perform 
whichever calculation you want. 

They chose the latter option, but for 
some reason they call it an sn error in- 
stead of an fc (illegal function argu- 
ment) error. Listing 1 demonstrates both 
problems with the val function. Listing 
2 shows the extra lines needed to make 
the program in Listing 1 work as 
desired. 

If you want the decimal equivalent of 
a percentage instead of the percentage 
returned by val, then use an error han- 
dling subroutine like the one in Listing 2 
but insert /100 after 

LV=VAL (LEFT$(B,K-1 ) ) 
in line 100. 

Because I often want compact pro- 
grams, I sometimes use if-then state- 



ments with an implied THEN. The Level 
II reference manual doesn't say when 
then is unnecessary, so by experiment I 
discovered when it can be omitted. 

Figure 1 shows different legal if- 
then-else statements, most of which 
use an implied then, that don't work 
properly. 

The first two examples in Figure 2 
have the same error. In a compact if- 
then-else statement with an implied 
then, if the logical expression ends with 
a string constant, the then branch 
works properly, but the else branch 
will be ignored. That problem can be 
solved by reversing the last comparison 
(so it is "YES" = INS) or by inserting a 
comma, blank space, or then between 
the logical expression and the then 
branch. 

Another solution would be to put 
parentheses around the logical ex- 
pression. That problem is one of the few 
cases I know of which can be solved by 
inserting a space; Level II usually ig- 
nores spaces. 

An odd if-then-else statement I 
found doesn't have a then branch. It is 

IFA=BELSEPRINT"NOT EQUAL" 

If the logical expression is true, noth- 
ing is done, otherwise the else branch is 
taken. 

I suggest you avoid using unusual 
forms of if-then or if-then-else state- 



204 



March 1983 e Creative Computing 



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TRS-80 Graphics, continued... 

Figure 1. 



Example 



Examples of Legal if-then-else statements 

Indicator of 
Separation of 
Logical Ex- 
pression and 
then Branch Notes 



IFA=BTHENC=0ELSEC=1 THEN 

IFA=B,C=0ELSEC=1 Comma 



I FA%=B%C%=0ELSEC%= 1 Type declaration 

character 
($,%,!.#) 

IFA=1/(B+1)C=0ELSEC=1 Parenthesis 

I FA=BPR I NT ' ' SAME ' ' ELSE Basic keyword 
PRINT' 'DIFFERENT' ' 



A comma works like then. This is 
allowed because some other 
versions of Basic allow it. 



IFA=B:C=0ELSEC=1 



Colon 



The colon takes the place of then 
here, but as Figure 2 shows, this 
doesn't work if you want the then 
branch to be an implied goto 
branch. 



IFA=1B=-1ELSEB=10 



IFA=0, 1000ELSE2000 



IF10=A%90ELSE100 



Transition from 
numeric charac- 
ter string to a 
variable name 
which doesn't 
start with E or 
D. 

Comma 



Type declaration 
character 



IFA=8/ (B+1 ) 100ELSE90 Right parenthesis 



IFA=0GOTO1000ELSEGOTO2000 
is equivalent. 

Equivalent to 
IF10=A%GOTO90ELSE100 

Equivalent to 

IFA=8/(B+1 )GOTO100ELSE90 



Figure 2. 



Examples of if-then-else Statements Which Don't Work as Desired 



Example 



I F I N$= ' ' YES • ' AFF I RM=AFF I RM+ 1 
ELSENEG=NEG+1 



Separation 
Indicator 

Quotation 
mark 



Notes 



I F I N$= ' ' YES ' ' PR I NT ' ' AGREE ' ' ELSE Quotation 
PR I NT ' ' D I SAGREE ' ' mark 

I FA I =3E=1: PR I NT' 'TRUE' 'ELSE None 

PRINT' 'FALSE* ' 

IFA#=8D=-1 : PR I NT' 'TRUE' 'ELSE None 

PRINT' 'FALSE' ' 



206 



March 1983 c Creative Computing 






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TRS-80 Graphics, continued... 

IFA=BC=-1ELSEST0P 

IFA=BC=-1ELSEST0P 

I F0=TANDS=0STOPELSE100 



None 
None 
None 



IFO=TANDS=0) THEN80ELSE90 



THEN 



IFI=9: 10ELSE20 



Colon 



There is a syntax error 
in the logical ex- 
pression. The tan is 
interpreted as a func- 
tion name which isn't 
what I want. 

The logical expression 
is interpreted the same 

as: (0=TAN(DS) )=0 
which is equivalent to 
NOT(0=TAN(DS) ) or 
OOTAN(DS) . 

If true, a sn error re- 
sults. If false, nothing 
happens. 



* If true, the then branch is used; but if false, the else branch is never taken. 
See article for a list of solutions to this problem. 

** The else branch is used if false. Because E or D if used before an exponent 
the assignment statement is considered part of the preceeding logi- 
cal expression. 

*** This is interpreted the same as ((A = BC) = -1) which has a logical expression 
within a logical expression. It is equivalent to A = BC. 

Figure 3. 



Variables Used in Vector Plotter 



Typo 



Namefs) 



Use(s) 



Integer 



XI 

Yl 

X2 

Y2 

N 

L 

I 

MV 

X 

Y 



Single 
Precision 



Character 
String 



B 

C(0-(MV-l)) 



QA 
B 



X coordinate of initial point. 

Y coordinate of initial point. 

X coordinate of terminal point. 

Y coordinate of terminal point. 

The number of x,y coordinates stored so far. 

The number of x,y coordinates which will be 

stored. 

Count of characters entered in coordinate entry 

subroutine. 

The maximum number of vectors which can be 

stored. 

Loop counter for drawing lines; it is the current 

x coordinate of the cursor. Temporary storage. 

Loop counter for drawing lines; it is the current 

y coordinate of the cursor. Temporary storage. 



Used in line drawing calculations. It is either the 
slope or the reciprocal of the slope. Temporary 
storage. 

Used in line drawing calculations, for x or y co- 
ordinate. Temporary storage. 
Coordinate storage array. 



Last character entered. 

String of characters entered in coordinate entry 

subroutine. 



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TRS-80 Graphics, continued... 

ments because line renumbering pro- 
grams, Basic compilers, and other 
versions of Basic almost certainly won't 
allow such things. Besides those prob- 
lems, using odd formats of Basic state- 
ments makes your programs hard to 
read or debug. Only use unusual forms 
of Basic statements if you desperately 
need to save memory or you want your 
program to be incomprehensible. 

Multiple if-then-else statements 

I often use complex, multiple n - 
then-else statements to consolidate a 
long process into one program line. This 
eliminates many goto statements so the 
program is easier to read and runs faster. 
The Level II manual isn't very helpful in 
explaining how to write complex, mul- 
tiple if-then-ELSE statements and it 
even gives an incorrect example on page 
4/17. Contrary to the claim in the man- 
ual, you can't nest if-then-else state- 
ments within an if-then-else 
statement. (The writers of the manual 
were thinking of Fortran or perhaps 
PL/1.) else is matched with the most 
recent then (or implied then) in that 
program line. See the following listings 
for examples. 

How To Use Vector Plotter 

In the instructions you will see the 
maximum number of pairs of endpoints 
which can be stored (which is the same 
as the number of vectors which can be 
stored). The maximum number of vec- 
tors is calculated in line 100 based on the 
amount of free memory. The formula 
was arrived at by experimentation. Some 
free space is left for use by Basic. The 
more free memory you have, the smaller 
the percentage used for the coordinate 
array. 

After the instructions, you are asked if 
you want random vectors. Usually, my 
programs look for Y and anything else is 
treated as no, but in line 1 50 of Vector 
Plotter you must reply Y or N. 

If you don't want random vectors, 
you are next asked how many vectors 
you want to enter. You should ask for as 
many or more than you expect to enter. 
The computer then asks for the co- 
ordinates of the initial and terminal 
points. After you enter each pair of end- 
point coordinates, the number of end- 
point pairs entered so far is printed. You 
may leave this loop early by pressing the 
S key instead of entering coordinates. To 
see instructions, press the H key instead 
of entering coordinates. H and S are rec- 
ognized only when they are pressed be- 
fore you have typed anything in response 
to an input request. 

Entering Coordinates 

If you want a nonzero x coordinate, 
type it first. Then if you want a nonzero 



First sample run of Vector Plotter. 



DO VOU WANT RANDOM VECTORS? V 
HOW MANY RANDOM VECTORS? 4 




y coordinate, type a decimal point fol- 
lowed by the y coordinate. If the y co- 
ordinate is only one digit, put a zero 
between the decimal point and the digit. 
If you press enter without typing any- 
thing, the x and y values are set to zero 
by default. To backspace and erase the 
last character, press the key as usual. 

The x coordinate must be between 
and 127. The y coordinate must be be- 
tween (bottom of the screen) and 47 
(top of the screen) — the y coordinate is 
inverted from the standard Level II use 
by subtracting the requested y co- 
ordinate from 47. 

The computer constantly checks to 
see if the value you typed has an x or y 
coordinate which is too high or too low. 
If either the x or y coordinate is 
too high or too low, the last digit entered 

Listing 1. Demonstration of the Two Problems with the VAL Function. 

10 CLEAR lOOl DEFSTR A-Bl DEFINT I-Z 

20 DATA12,-87,I '/..-100 % 

30 CLSl PRINT TAB (6) "EXAMPLE OF TWO PECULIARI TIES OF THE VAL FUNCTION"! I 

TAB<19)"BY JOHN CREW 11/27/81"! PRINT 

40 PRINT"STRING", "LENGTH", "VAL (STRING) " 

50 FOR 1-1 TO 4i READ A 

60 FOR J-O TO ll B-STRINQ*(J,32)*A| PRINT B, LEN<B), 

70 V'VAL(B) 

SO PRINT V 

90 NEXT J 

95 NEXT I 



Listing 2. Extra Lines Needed to Make the Program in Listing 1 Work as Desired. 

15 ON ERROR GOTO 100 

64 REM LINES 65-66 REMOVE LEADING BLANKS FROM THE STRING NAMED "B". THIS WILL F I 
X THE PROBLEM OF A NEGATIVE NUMERIC STRING BEING IGNORED IF THERE ARE BLANKS IN 
FRONT OF IT. 

65 IF LEN(B>-0 THEN 70 ELSE P-Oi FOR K-l TO LEN(B>| IF MID* (B.K, 1 > <>'■ ■ TH 
EN P-K-li K-2S6 

66 NEXT Kl B-RIGHT*(B,LEN<B)-P> 

96 ENDl REM LINES lOO-HO ARE AN ERROR HANDLING SUBROUTINE. ANV ERROR EXCEPT A 
SN ERROR IN LINE 70 IS HANDLED IN THE USUAL WAY. LINE 110 AND THE "ELSE" BRANCH 
IN LINE 100 ARE ONLY USED FOR A SN ERROR IN LINE 70. 

97 REM IF A SN ERROR IN LINE 70 OCCURS. THE STRING NAMED B IS SEARCHED, FROM LEF 
T TO RIGHT, FOR A •"/." SYMBOL. THEN THE VAL FUNCTION IS USED ON THE PORTION OF TH 
E STRING BEFORE THE "*" SYMBOL. 

98 REM A REAL SN ERROR IN LINE 70 WON'T BE TREATED AS SUCH. MAKE SURE LINE 70 IS 
TYPED CORRECTLY BEFORE RUNNING THE PROGRAM. 

100 IF ERR/2*1<>2 OR ERLO70 THEN ON ERROR GOTO O ELSE FOR K-l TO LEN<B)I IF MI 
D*<B.K,1)-"V THEN V-VAL (LEFT* (B. K-l >) I K-2S6 
110 NEXT Ki RESUME NEXT 



Listing 3. Vector Plotter. 

100 CLEAR12lDEFINTA-Z l RANDOMiMV-FIX( (MEM-+77) /9> *2> iDIMC ' <MV-1 ) IMV-FI X ( (MV*1 ) /2' 

) 

lOS REM LINES 1 10 «t 120 PRINT INSTRUCTIONS 

110 OA*-" COORDINATES " I CLSl PRINTTAB (23) "VECTOR PLOTTER 

"TAB(20)"BY JOHN CREW 11/27/81 

THIS CAN WORK IN TWO WAVSl THE COMPUTER CAN PLOT RANDOM LINES, OR YOU CAN ENTER 

THE X,Y"OA«"OF THE INITIAL AND TERMINALPOINTS. 
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF LINES-"STR* (MV) " . 
<0,0> "| 

120 PRINT"IS THE LOWER LEFT-HAND POINT. (127,47) IS THE UPPER RIGHT-HAND POINT. 
PRESS 'H' FOR HELP INSTEAD OF ENTERING THE"OA*"OF A 
POINT. 

PRESS IS' TO STOP RFFORF ENTFRING THE NUMBEJL OF LINES YOU 
SPECIFY. 

"TAB(13> "PRESS ANY KEY BUT 'BREAK' TO BEGIN"! GOSUB446 
140 REM LINES 150-220 EITHER GENERATE RANDOM VECTORS OR CALL THE X.Y COORDINATES 

ENTRY SUBROUTINE 
150 N-OiCLSlPRINT"DO YOU WANT RANDOM VECTORS? "I 

160 G0SUB420I IFQA*-"Y"THENX-liGOTO170ELSElFQA*-"N"THENX-2iGOT01BOELSEIF" 'V-QA4P 
RINTCHR*(S> | 
165 GOTO 160 



210 



March 1983 e Creative Computing 



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TRS-80 Graphics, continued... 

Second sample run of Vector Plotter. 

DO YOU WANT RANDOM VECTORS'' N 

MOW MANV VECTORS DO YOU WANT TO ENTER- 2 

ENTER INITIAL POINT-S COORDINATES- 
ENTER TERMINAL POINTS COORDINATES- 127. 
PAIR • 1 

ENTER INITIAL POINT'S COORDINATES- .47 
ENTER TERMINAL POINT'S COORDINATES" 127 

PAIR I 2 




is rejected; you aren't allowed to type an 
illegal coordinate. If you press a key 
which isn't used for coordinate entry, it 
is ignored. I have tried to make this pro- 
gram foolproof. 

After all the coordinates have been 
stored, the vectors are drawn. There is a 
delay of a few seconds before the first 
vector is drawn. 

To quit using Vector Plotter, press the 
break key. 



170 INPUT" 

HOW MANY RANDOM VECTORS" ; Li IFL < 1 THENISOELSEIFMV- LTHEN1 70ELSE200 

180 CLSi INPUT "HOW MANY VECTORS DO YOU WONT TO ENTER" I Ll IFL-r 10RMV- LTHEN180 

20O IFX-20A»-"INITI"iG0SUB370iB'-A' : OA»-"TERMIN" iOOSUE)370ELSEB ' ■= <RND(48) -1 ) / 10O* 

RND( 128) -llA!-(RND<48> -I )/10>H-RND< 128) -1 

220 C (N)-B'lC' <N+l>=A'iN-N*2iPRINT" 

PAIR »"N/2» IFN/2- LTHEN200 

2SO CLS' CLEAR SCREEN BEFORE DRAWING VECTORS 

233 REM LINES 235-350 DRAW VECTORS 

235 FORJ-0JON-lSTEP2iXl»FI!( (C (I) ) I Y1-47-FI X ( K>0» (C ■ (D-XH-.O02) ) |X2-FIX(C' < I ♦ 1 ) 

) l Y2-47-FIX(lO0»(C <I*1)-X2*.002> )l IFX 1-X2IFY1-Y2I SET ( X 1 , Yl ) : BOTO'SOELSEFORY-YIT 

OYl'STEPSBN(Y2-Yl) iSET(Xl.Y) I NEXT! GOT0350 

250 IFY1-Y2F0RX-X1T0X2STEPSGN(X2-X1 ) iSET ( X, Yl > I NEXTELSEA' -ABS ( (X2-X1)/ (Y2-Y1) ) : I 

FA ' ■ . - I A ' =SGN ( X2-X 1 ) «A ' : B " -X 1 : FORY-Y 1 T0Y2STEPSGN < Y2-Y 1 ) I SET (B ' ♦. 5, Y ) ■ B ■ =B ■ ♦« ' I NEX 

TELSEA l >SGN(Y2-Yl)/A'lB!-YliF0RX-XIT0X2STEPSBN(X2-Xl>lSET(X.B < *.S) I B ! -B ' ♦«' I NEXT 

J50 NEX1 

36ii GOTU360 - AFTER DRAWING, LOOP HERE 

KEM SUBROUTINE SECTION FOLLOWS 
S6B REM LINES 370-410 ARE A SUBROUTINE WHICH i II 1 B AND CHECr S X,Y COORDINATES FRO 
M THE USER 
-.?<• PRINT- 
ENTER "OA»"Al POINTS "| 
375 PRINT"C0ORDINATES- "| lM»*"l 1 

380 808lJB420lV>A8C(QM> : I FY- 1 JA ' -INT ( VAL ( B«> 1100) IRNJ I SE IFY-8IFI-OTHEN38 

OELSEI'I -l!B«-LEFT»(B», 1 ) IPRINTCHRK8) I I GOTO 

i Y-72THEN450ELSI IFY-83IFN-OTHENI 
400 IFI^AORV 460R37 ml., 4 ' THENPR INTCHR* (8) jELSEA'-VAI IR*»Q«»>! IFA' 128ANDA'-FIX 
<A' ) . 4 .'1 I HI NB«>B«+QA«I 1 = 1 ♦ I t-LSEPRl N II UK* (81 ; 
410 B0T0380 

•jr. mm I INI.S 420-44S am: A SUBROUTINE whiih i,i ii A CHARACTER KROM THF KEYBOARD 
RINTCHR* 
► INKEV* 
"»■»•• DA* INKEY*lIFOA« " "ANDOA* CHR4 <S) ANDOA* I HRH 1 ".) 1 Hf N440EI BEPM I NICHR* (8) s « 
IF" " i IA*PRINTQA«| 

4 4'. Ut IIIKN 

IA« INKI <*' I IN6 44.S Ii 447 AM B4 ' nil HIT I NE 

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212 



CIRCLE 276 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




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CIRCLE 203 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Part 2 



Computer Art For 
The Tektronix 4052 




440 REN SECOND SUBROUTINE <N«2) 

450 WINDOW -600,600,-600,600 

460 R«B*<1*0.25*A8S<C0S(L*A>-ABS<SIN<L*A)>>> 

470 RETURN 

480 REN THIRD SUBROUTINE (N-3> 

490 WINDOW -501,501,-901,301 

589 R»B*<l*e.25*ABS<SIN<L*A>>> 

510 RETURN 

520 X«R*C0S<A> 

Y»R*SIN<A> 

IF A>0 THEN 570 
550 HOUE X,Y 
560 GO TO 580 
570 DRAW X,Y 



530 
540 



This month I will discuss another po- 
lar coordinate program, Sinusoidal Loop 
Program No. 2. This routine is some- 
what similar in structure to Sinusoidal 
Loop Program No. 1 (Creative Comput- 
ing, January, 1983) and is used the same 
way. However, the resulting pictures are 
quite different. 

The present program uses three polar 
coordinate functions that differ from 
those in the earlier program. Each of 

Joe Jacubsnn, 675 E. Street Ro»d, Apt. 1009. 
Warminster. PA 18974. 



Joe Jacobson 



these functions is the sum of a constant 
and a sinusoidal function of the angle. 
This results in completely new patterns, 
some of which are visually quite striking. 
A Basic source listing and some sam- 
ple output pictures accompany this arti- 
cle. To use this program you will need a 
Tektronix 4050 series terminal/ 
computer. However, the algorithm can 
be adapted for other computer systems if 



214 



the screen resolution is sufficiently high. 
Most home computers do not have 
enough CRT screen resolution; in this 
case you will need a good mechanical X- 
Y plotter. Note that the graphics com- 
mands (move, draw, window, 
viewport) used here are specific to the 
Tektronix 4050 series computers. 

The program is easy to use. It 
prompts the user, asking for values of 
the input parameters N, L, D, and G. N 
selects a polar coordinate function. L is 
an angular frequency coefficient. D is 

March 1983 c Creative Computing 



X 
''mm,,,, .'""••„ 






0^^/t^^^ 




580 NEXT A 

598 NEXT B 

686 FOR C-8 TO L-l STEP 1 

616 R-188 

628 T«Ct(188/L> 

638 X«R*COS<T> 

648 Y«R*SIH<T> 

658 HOUE X,Y 

668 X»R*C0S<T*188> 

678 Y«RtSIH<T*188> 

688 DRAM X,Y 

698 NEXT C 

788 IF Tl«l THEN 728 

718 END 

728 HINDOH 8,138,8*188 

738 VIEWPORT 8,138,8,188 

748 HOUE 8,18 

758 PRINT " SINUSOIDAL LOOP PROGRAM NO. 2 PARAMETERS' 

768 MOVE 8,5 

778 PRINT "(NfLiDfG) ■ <"|H| ", "|L| ", "|Df ", "|G| M >" 

788 INPUT J* 

188 REN SINUSOIDAL LOOP PROGRAM NO. 2 

118 PAGE 

128 SET DEGREES 

138 PRINT -ENTER N TO SELECT A SUBROUTINE." 

148 PRINT ■ N MUST BE 1,2, OR 3." 

150 INPUT N 

168 PRINT "ENTER L TO SELECT A PARTICULAR PICTURE." 

178 INPUT L 

188 PRINT "ENTER D TO ADJUST SPACING" 

198 PRINT "BETWEEN ANGULAR SWEEPS." 

288 INPUT D 

218 PRINT "ENTER G TO ADJUST ANGULAR INCREMENT." 

228 INPUT G 

238 PRINT "ENTER Tl" 

248 INPUT Tl 

258 IF Tl«2 THEN 288 

268 UIEHPORT 22,188,14,188 

278 GO TO 298 

288 UIEHPORT 15,115,0,188 

298 PAGE 

388 FOR B-188 TO 488 STEP D 

318 FOR A«8 TO 368 STEP G 

328 IF N-l THEH 368 

338 IF N-2 THEH 388 

348 GOSUB 488 

358 GO TO 528 

368 GOSUB 488 

378 GO TO 528 

388 GOSUB 448 

398 GO TO 528 

488 REN FIRST SUBROUTIHE <N-1) 

418 HIHDOH -581,581,-581,581 

428 R«Bt<l*8.25tSIH(LtA>> 

438 RETURH 

798 Tl«2 

888 GO TO 258 





the increment in radius that is added be- 
tween angular sweeps. G is the in- 
crement within an angular sweep. 

When the program asks for a value of 
the parameter Tl, enter a 1 from the 
keyboard. The picture will be plotted 
and a list of input parameter values will 
be printed at the bottom of the screen for 
future reference. Then clear the screen 
and hit return, and the same picture 
will be plotted again, this time without a 
parameter list. 

If you enter a 2 for Tl, instead of a 1, 

March 1983 c Creative Computing 



you get a "clean" plot (no parameter 
list) the first time. The program must be 
run again for each new design you make. 
Table 1 lists the ranges of input 
parameters that I have found to give 
good designs. However, values outside 
these intervals may also work well. The 
patterns seem to repeat for L values 
larger than about 60 (with G = 5). Note 
that L, D, and G can be decimal frac- 
tions, such as L = 16.5. This program is 
one of several I have recently written. 
The others will appear in future issues. □ 

215 



Table 1 


Suggested 


Parameter Values. 


Parameter 


Range of Values 






From To 


N» 




1 3 


L 




6 60 


D 




30 50 


G 




5 15 


Tl" 




1 2 


•N must be 1, 2, 


or 3. 


**T1 must be 1 or 2. 



Library Catalog 




A Program For Creating A Personal Computer 
Based Library Catalog 



Home, school, and office libraries 
eventually fall victim to the one char- 
acteristic that makes libraries unique; 
they are the only business whose 
inventory is constantly growing. 

My house is a good example of the 
problems that this constant expansion 
can cause. Our living room, master 
bedroom, children's bedrooms, my 
office, my wife's study room, the 
kitchen, and even the dining room are 
lined with bookshelves. Every year I 
trudge to the lumber yard for more 
wood to make more bookshelves. 

Through much searching over the 
years I have gotten a general idea of 
where different books are kept, and 
once I even tried to put them on 
shelves in a systematic fashion. Now, 
however, most of the systematization 
has been lost, and it is more a matter 
of where there is room on the shelf 
than where the book came from or 
should be that governs where it will 
be returned. 

Further complicating matters is the 
fact that many of my bookshelves have 
been built with shelf spacing that will 
accommodate only small paperback 
books. Additional problems arise in 
looking for a book which has been 
lent to someone. 

Large libraries have traditionally 



Jeremy M. Hcllmun. 
Monroeville. PA IS 146. 



.VW> Coleman Drive. 



Jeremy M. Hell man 



kept track of their books with a card 
catalog and a system of check out slips 
to track the books out on loan. The 
card catalog indexes books in three 
ways: by title, by author, and by 
subject. Each nonfiction book is given 
a catalog number according to either 
the Dewey Decimal System or the 
Library of Congress system, and fic- 
tion books are catalogued alphabet- 
ically by author. Some large libraries 
have recently implemented comput- 
erized check in check out procedures, 
but the card catalog is still a universal 
fixture in most libraries. 

Small libraries, those with fewer 
than 6000 books, have had to either 
make do with a librarian (usually self- 
appointed) with a good memory, or 
implement the full scale card catalog 
and sign in sign out systems used by 
a larger library. 

Home libraries, with fewer than 
2000 books, usually go without any 
sort of organization at all. The main 
price that must be paid for running a 
small library without any type of 
catalog and sign out system is not 
being able to find a particular book 
when it is wanted. Another is that no 
record of books owned is available 

216 



for insurance purposes. 

A small computer with a disk drive 
provides an ideal tool for keeping 
track of books in a small library. The 
computer has the ability to store data 
on large numbers of books and sort the 
data by title, author, subject, borrower 
name, or even size, if desired. The 
availability of small computers in 
homes, offices, and schools leads to 
the use of the machine as a book 
cataloguer. 

What The Program Does 

The Library Catalog Program de- 
scribed here allows you to create and 
use a computer based card catalog. It 
is written for an Apple 11+ computer 
with one disk drive and 48K of 
memory. 

With the Library Catalog Program 
books can be entered or searched for, 
records modified, books checked in or 
out, information on borrowers or 
borrowed books obtained, and all 
books in the catalog listed. Data for 
approximately 1000 books can be 
placed on a mini-floppy disk. If your 
library is larger than 1000 volumes, 
use additional disks for data storage. 
This program is written to lead you 
through a file for which data is con- 
tained on more than one disk. 

The program is versatile. For exam- 
ple, a search by author will turn up all 
books by the desired author or 

March 1983 - Creative Computing 



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CIRCLE 1 10 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Library Catalog, continued... 

authors. Thus if you are looking for 
books by Masters, Library Catalog 
will turn up all books by Masters as 
well as those by Masters and Johnson. 
A search on Masters and Johnson will 
sort out all those by Masters and 
Johnson, but not by each author indi- 
vidually. In searches on subject, any 
of three levels of specialization can be 
selected. Entries are easily modified, 
and all output data is presented in 
readable form. 

What sets this program apart from 
other data base routines is a sequence 
in which the catalog number of the 
book is determined. Menus which lead 
to greater and greater specialization of 
the book subject matter are provided. 
The Dewey Decimal System has been 
used and provides for three levels of 
detail; the division, the category, and 
the subcategory. For example, the 
book Thermodynamics, by Sears 
would be catalogued into the division 
Pure Science, the category Physics, 
and the subcategory Heat. 



Should a book on the 

history of science be 

catalogued under 

science or history? 



A library school graduate would 
probably have very definite ideas as 
to exactly how books should be cata- 
logued. For example, should a book 
on the history of science be catalogued 
under science or history? Established 
libraries have a set policy on this type 
of decision. For an uncatalogued or 
home library you are the judge and 
common sense and consistency in 
assigning numbers will enable a search 
to turn up all pertinent books. 

The program is completely menu 
driven and all inputs are made as 
"bomb-proof as possible. The length 
of the program is in a large part due to 
the checking of the validity of each 
input and an attempt to make the 
instructions very friendly and clear. 

The program is written so that no 
knowledge of computer programming 
is necessary to do any of the cata- 
loguing operations. The detailed 
description of the program given in 
this article is presented to enable the 
more advanced programmer to 
modify the routines, and the beginning 
programmer to understand the pro- 
gram logic. If your only interest is in 
cataloguing your library, simply type 
in the program exactly as listed, and 
use it as described in the next section. 



How To Use The Program 

Once you have successfully entered 
the program and created the data files 
using the routines supplied, entering 
books into the catalog can begin. 

Listing 1. 

RgH WIS PROGRAM IS COPYRIGHT 1-582 RV J.M. HELLMAN 
: M0NR0EU1LLE PA 1514b : PHONE 412-372-6664 
10 REM LIBRARY CATALOG MOOTER PROGRAM 
20 HI MEM: 384MH 
30 0* » CHR* ' 4 • 
40 IP PEEK (??0> « 56 THEN 270 
HOME : UTAB <5> 

PRINT Toe<. 8>»: INUERSE : PRINr "LIBRARY CATALOG PR06RAM": 
PRINT : PRINT 

PRINT TAB< 13 'j: INVERSE : PRINT "BY J.M. HELLHAN": NORMAL 
PRINT : PRINT : PRINT 

T "TYPE HNV KEY TO BEGIN ";: GET T* 



50 
7n 
90 

100 
110 

126 

130 
140 
1 36 
166 
170 
180 
190 
200 
210 
220 
230 



The first step is to go through the 
house or library and establish an iden- 
tification number (ID) consisting of 
two letters and one digit for each shelf. 
I use room initial, bookshelf location, 



338 COLEMAN ORIUE 



NORMAL 



HOME : UTAF: I S 
PRINT "THIS PROGRAM HILL CATALOG NEW BOOKS- 
PRINT "AND SEARCH FOR BOOKS BV TITLE. AUTHOR." 
' "SUBJECT. OR A COMBINATION OF THESE KEYS. 



PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 



THE CATALOG IS KEPT IN A FILE" 
PRINT "WHICH CAN BE ON ONE OR MORF DISKS. " 
PRINT : PRINT 

PRINT "HOH MANV DISKS CONTAIN CATALOG DATA?" 
PRINT "ENTER '0' IF JUST STARTING THE CATALOG." 
INPUT "PRESS 'RETURN' AFTER ENTRY: " jDN* 
FOR I = 1 TO LEN CON* J 

} F e0T n C ,L MI °* <0H *» I,1>> < 4 8 OR ASC ( MID* <DN*.I.1>> > 5,' THEN PRINT 
240 NEXT I 
250 DN = UAL ( ON* > 
POKE 771 .UN 
HOME : "TAB <5> 

"DO YOU HANT TO:" 

SPC' 2>i"'l> ENTER BOOKS IN CATALOG" 

SPC< 2>;"f2> SEARCH FOR BOOKS BY" 

SPCC 8>j"TITLE. AUTHOR. SUBJt 

SPCf 8>J"FICTI0N TYPE OR CATALOG NO." 

SPC< 2>j"<3> MODIFY AN ENTRY, E.G." 

SPC< 8 n" CHECK IN/OUT A BOOK." 

SPC< 8>i"CHANGE SHELF LOCATION" 

SPC< 8>i"0ELETE AN ENTRY" 

SPC< 8); "OR OTHERWISE MODIFY THE RECORO" 

SPC( 2>i"<4> LIST DATA ON BORROWEO BOOKS" 

SPC< 8>#"E.6. . BOOKS LOANED OUT" 

SPC< 8>i"0R BOOKS TO A BORROWER" 



270 
230 
290 
300 
310 
320 
330 
340 
350 
36* 
370 
380 

!* 

400 
410 
420 
430 
440 
450 
460 
470 
480 
490 
500 
510 
520 
530 
540 
550 
560 
570 
580 
590 
600 
610 
6.20 
630 
840 
650 
660 
670 
680 



PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 



IF T* = 

IF T* = 

IF T* = 

IF T* = 

IF T* < 



SPC< 2>J"<5) LIST ALL BOOKS IN CATALOG" 
SPC< 2>*"<6) ADO/REMOUE-'LIST BOOKSHELUES" 
SPC 2 •>;»<?) QUIT THE PROGRAM" 
! PRINT "ENTER THE NUMBER OF VpDUR SELECTION" 
I PRINT " ";; GET T* 
PRINT T* 

IF T* = "1" THEN 560 
IF T* = "2" THEN 550 
THEN 580 
THEN 610 
THEN 630 
THEN 650 
"7" THEN 270 
GOTO 670 

PRINT 0*i"RUN CATALOG SEARCH- 
PRINT 

PRINT 0*»"RUN CATALOG ENTER- 
PRINT 

POKE 773.92 
GOTO 550 
PRINT 

PRINT 0*."RUN CATALOG BORROW" 
PRINT 

PRINT 0*»"RUN CATALOG LIST" 
PRINT 

PRINT 0*J"RUN CATALOG BOOKSHELF- 
PRINT 0*j"CLOSE" 
END 



Listing 2. 



1 KfcM I His PROGRAM IS COPYRIGHT 1982 BV I.H. HcLLMAN 

: MONROEUILLE PA 15146 : TELEPHONE 412-3?2-9mm4 
10 REM ***** CATALOG ENTER PROGRAM 
28 HIMEM: 36466 
30 8L* ■ " 



336 COLEMAN URIUE 



218 



March 1983 e Creative Computing 



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CIRCLE 239 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Library Catalog, continued... 



40 H ■ 

sa •:-,* = chr* 

60 BN* = LEFT* (BLtalS) 

70 BS = 0: REM BS=«. BOOK ON SHELF;=1 LOANED OUT 

00 DC ■ 5 

90 0* » CHR* (4> 

100 CUM rL*<DC).HU*<OC>»CN*<OC>.LC*<DC>.TP*<DC>.S2*<OC>.F*<10> 

lie for I » 1 TO 6 

\i» READ F«< I > 

130 NEXT I 

140 OATA "NOUEL'VACTION/MYSTERV". "WESTERN". "SCIENCE FICTION". "SHORT ST 

0RV/-C0LLECTI0N", "CHILDREN'S LITERATURE" 
150 ONERR SOTO 2030 
160 HOME : UTAB <3> 
170 PRINT "NON-FICTION BOOKS IN THE OEWEV DECIMAL": PRINT "SVSTEM PRE COT 

aloged in ieee a 

ISO PRINT "CATEGORIES: 10 OIUISIONSi": PRINT SPC< 12>j"10 CATEGORIES^OIU 

ISION.": PRINT SPC< 12>»"10 SUBCArFGORIES'tATEGORV 
190 PRINT : PRINT : PRINT "FICTION BOOKS IN THE PROGRAM ARE": PRINT "CATA 

L06E0 IN THE FOLLOWING OIUISIONSi" 
200 PRINT SPC< 12>i"NOUEL"i PRINT 8PC< 12^"ACTI0N^MVSTERV"i PRINT SPC 

<12);*HESTERN"i PRINT SPC( 12>»"SCIENCE FICTION": PRINT SPC< 12)j"SH 

ORT STORV/COLLECTION": PRINT SPC< 12 ';"CHILOREN'S LITERATURE" 
210 PRINT i PRINT "CATAL06 CLASSIFICATIONS ARE NOW": PRINT "BEING REAO IN 

TO THE COMPUTER": PRINT 
220 PRINT OSj-OPEN SHELF" 
230 PRINT 0*i"REA0 SHELF" 
240 INPUT NS 
250 PRINT D* 
260 IF NS - THEN PRINT : PRINT "NO SHELF I.O.'S ARE ON FILE": FOR I ■ 

1 TO 2000: NEXT I: 60SUB 2020 
270 OIM LL*N:,l 
280 PRINT 0*»"READ SHELF" 

290 FOR I = 1 TO NS: INPUT LL*(I,0): INPUT LL*<I,1>: NEXT I 
300 PRINT D»» "Ct.OSE SHELF" 
31W DIM SC*9.100> 
320 DIN NfKOC) 
330 FOR I = TO 9 
340 SC*< 1 ,0 > » STR* < I > 
350 PRINT 0*j"0PEN SC SEO LIST "»I 
360 PRINT D*i"REA0 SC SEQ LIST " i\ 
370 FOR J « 1 TO 1001 INPUT SC*<I.J>| NEXT J 
380 PRINT D*»"CL0SE" 
390 NEXT I 
400 HIMEM: 20000 
410 UN « PEEK <77I> 
♦20 PRINT "INSERT DISK FOR CATALOG DATA STORAGE." 

WHEN VOU ARE READV. " ;\ GET T* 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 0*»"0PEN LIBREC-120.L120" 

PRINT 0*;"REA0 LIBREC-120.R0" 

INPUT RN 

PRINT 0* 



PRINT "PRESS ANY KEV 



430 
440 
4Sfl 

460 
470 
480 

490 



500 
510 



see 



PRINT i PRINT "THIS DISK CONTAINS ";RN;" BOOK RECORDS. 
1 TO 1000: NEXT I 

**♦ RN=NUMBER OF BOOKS ON FILE 
*♦* 0N=NUHBER OF DISKS CONTAINING RECORDS 
REM **■*■* D0=OISK COUNTER 

REM BC= COUNTER IN GROUPS OF DC 



PRINT : FOR 



I 

REM 

REM 
520 DO = 1 1 
530 BC = 0: 
S4Q ftp — or 4. 1 

550 HOME : UTAB <5>: INUERSE 

560 PRINT "TITLE:"*: NORMAL : INPUT " ";T|_* 

570 PRINT : PRINT 

INUERSE : PRINT "AUTH0R(S> LAST <VLASTV... ) NAME<S)"l PRINT "NO COMMAS 
OR SPACES. PLEASE"'": NORMAL I PRINT 
PRINT "5 NAMES MAXIMUM PER BOOK"! PRINT : INUERSE 
"EXAMPLES: ";: NORMAL 
" SHAKESPEARE" 

MASTERS/JOHNSON" 

WEST ERN-HR I TERS-OF -AMERICA" 



598 
680 
610 
620 
630 

040 

650 



PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
INPUT 



40 THEN WU* » LEFT* <AU*.40>: 
= LEFT* <AU*,39> 



MIO* <AU*.I.1>> 
• LEFT* <AU*.I - 



• 47 THEN NA 
1 >: 1 - 45 



»AU*| IF LEN <AU*> 

< RI6HT* fAUJ.ro = 4? THEN AU* ■■ 
688 NA ■ 1 
670 FOR I ■ 1 TO LEN <AU*>: IF ASC < 

1: IF NA » 6 THEN NA « NA - 1:AU* 
680 NEXT I 
630 PRINT 
700 INUERSE : PRINT : PRINT "ENTER BOOK HEIGHT- s NORMAL : PRINT TAB< 

: INUERSE I PRINT -<S)MALL - (NXJRHAL - <T»ALL"i! NORMAL 1 PRINT 

»: GET SZ«: PRINT SZ* 

710 SZ = ASC <SZt> 

720 IF SZ = 83 THEN 760 

84 THEN 760 

78 THEN 760 

GOTO 700 

PRINT 

: PRINT "LOCATION - ROOM. CASE. SHELF: ";: NORMAL : INPUT " 



IF ASC 



NA 



3>j 



730 


IF SZ = 


740 


IF SZ » 


750 


PRINT : 


760 


PRINT : 


770 


INUERSE 


^80 


PRINT 



• iLC* 



220 



March 1983 c Creative Computing 



C ALSO FT 

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CIRCLE 122 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Library Catalog, continued... 

and shelf number. For example, the 
ID of a bookshelf with the description 
"Melissa's room, desk bookshelf, top 
shelf would be MDI. 

Run Catalog Master, and the com- 
puter will ask for the number of disks 
containing catalog data (zero in this 
initial case), and the menu shown in 
Figure 1 will appear on the screen. 
Select the bookshelf option (6), and a 
new menu will appear (Figure 2). 
Choose (I) to add shelves to the 
library, and follow the instructions to 
supply ID, size (S-short; N-normal; 
T-tall), and location description. 
When all shelves are entered, return 
to the menu and select (4), END 
SHELF OPERATIONS. 



Figure 1. The primary menu. 

DO YOU WANT TO: 

(1) ENTER BOOKS IN CATALOG 

SEARCH FOR BOOKS BY 
TITLE, AUTHOR, SUBJECT, 
FICTION TYPE OR CATALOG NO. 

MODIFY AN ENTRY, E.G. 
CHECK IN/OUT A BOOK 
CHANGE SHELF LOCATION 
DELETE AN ENTRY 
OR OTHERWISE MODIFY THE RECORD 

LIST DATA ON BORROWED BOOKS 
E.G. BOOKS LOANED OUT 
OR BOOKS TO A BORROWER 

LIST ALL BOOKS IN CATALOG 

ADD/REMOVE/LIST BOOKSHELVES 

QUIT THE PROGRAM 



798 IF LEN <LC*> < > 3 THEN 770 
BUS IF OSC < LEFT* <LC*.1>> < 65 OR 
810 IF OSC ( MID* <LC*.2.1>> < 65 OR 
920 IF OSC < RIGHT* <LC*.l >> < 48 OR 
*"40 HI = 0: FOR ZV = 1 TO NS: IF LC* « 



(2) 



(3) 



(4) 



(5) 
(6) 
(7) 



ENTER THE NUMBER OF YOUR SELECTION 

Figure! The bookshelf menu. 

BOOKSHELF IDENTIFICATION PROGRAM 
DO YOU WISH TO 

(1) ADD SHELVES TO THE LIBRARY 

(2) REMOVE SHELVES FROM LIBRARY 

(3) GET A SHELF DIRECTORY 

(4) END SHELF OPERATIONS 
ENTER THE NUMBER OF YOUR SELECTION 



The primary menu will appear once 
more, and selection (1) will permit 
book entry. A message asking you to 
replace the Catalog Master disk with a 
disk for book data storage will appear. 
When this is done the program will tell 
you how many books are currently in 
storage on the disk. Once again, it is 
zero in this initial case. 

The computer then requests title, 
author, location ID, and whether the 
book is fiction or nonfiction. If the 
book is nonfiction, the cataloguing 
process proceeds. For example, the 
book / Hear America Talking would 



OSC < LEFT* <LC*»1)) > 90 GOTO 770 
RSC < MIO* <LC*.2.1)> > 90 GOTO 770 
OSC «. RIGHT* <LC*.1>> > 57 GOTO 770 

LL*ZV,0) THEN HI ■ t:Z2 = OSC CLL 



*<ZY»1 )>:ZV - NS ♦ 1 
940 NEXT ZV 

ebw IF HI - THEN PRINT "SHELF 6IUEN IS NOT ON FILE": 
SHELF DIRECTORY <VN>? '■»: GET 1*: PRINT : IF T* 
2 308 

PRINT : GOTO 770 
84 AND ZZ » 83 THEN WF » 1 
ZZ = 78 THEN HF » 1 
IF SZ - 78 ONO ZZ « 83 THEN HF ■ 1 

IF HF = 1 THEN PRINT "BOOK TOO TOLL FOR SHELF": PRIHT 
SHELF DIRECTORY <Y'N>? ";: 6ET T*: PRINT : IF T* = "V 
2300 

910 IF HF ■ 1 THEN PRINT : GOTO 770 

920 INUERSE : PRINT "FICTION OR NON-FICTION <F/N)?"»j NORMAL 
: bET TP* 
PRINT TP* 
IF TP* « "F" GOTO 1300 

> "N" THEN PRINT : GOTO 920 



860 IF HI ■ THEN 
870 HF = 0: IF SZ « 
380 IF SZ = 84 AND 
830 
900 



PRINT "00 VOU HONT 
> "V" THEN 60SUB 



DO VOU HONT 
THEN G0SU6 



PRINT 



930 
940 
950 
960 
970 
980 
990 
I 0M 

1010 

1020 

107ij 



SPC< 15>j"0IUISI0NS": PRINT : PRINT 



>: GET T*: PRINT T* 
> 57 THEN PRINT : GOTO 966 



'X' FOR OIUISION LISTING 



+ 1") 



IF TP* 

tlTOB (3): PRINT 

FOR I « TO 9 

PRINT Ii" "iSC*<I.l> 

NEXT I 

PRINT 

PRINT "ENTER OIUISION NUMBER " 

IF OSC •'TO < 48 OR OSC <T«) 
!O40 OU = UOL <T*> 
1058 HOME : UTOB (3) 

PRINT "OIUISION: "jSC*<0U.l) 

PRINT 

FOR I = TO 9 

PRINT Ii" "»SC*(DU.<I * 10) ♦ 1> 

NEXT I 

PRINT : PRINT 

PRINT "ENTER COTE60RV NUMBER"* SPCX 25)J"0R 

GET C«: PRINT C* 

IF C* « "X" GOTO 960 

ILJ^.i^ < 48 W flSC < C *> > 57 THEH ^INT : GOTO 1120 
HOME: UTOB <3): PRINT "CATEGORY: "jSC*<DU.< UOL <C*> * 10) 
PRINT 

FOR I - 1 TO 10: PRINT I - 1, SPC< 2>»SC*OU.10 * UAL <C«) ♦ I) 

rRiN I 

,^ : - T "!£x E £ sue C HTte ° RV NUMBER", SPC< 25),"0R 'X' FOR C0TE60RV LIST 
Ifw «: GET S*: PRINT S* 

PRINT 

IF S* = "X" GOTO 1050 

IF ASC <S*> < 48 OR OSC <S*> > 57 THEN 1190 
1230 S* » STR* < UOL <S*> ♦ 1) 

1240 CN » OU ♦ 100 ♦ UAL <C*> • 10 ♦ UAL <S«> - 1 
*2» IF CN < 18 THEN CN* - "09' ♦ STR* <CN): GOTO 1289 
IPS CN. ? STrI^N? «•-■#■♦ STR* <CN>: GOTO .280 
1280 60SUB 1520 

GOTO 1430 

HOME : UTOB (5) 

PRINT "FICTION" 

PRINT : PRINT 

FOR I » 1 TO 6 

PRINT It SPC< 2>iF*U) 

NEXT I 

PRINT : PRINT 

PRINT "ENTER C0TE60RV NUMBER: ",: 6ET T*: PRINT T* 

C <T*> < 49 OR OSC <T«) > 54 THEN PRINT : GOTO 1300 



1668 

1070 

1080 

[CM 

1100 
1110 

1120 

1130 
1140 
1150 
1160 
1170 
.180 
1190 

1200 
1210 
1220 



NEXT I 



1290 
1300 
1310 
1320 
1330 
1340 
1350 
1360 
1370 

1386 

1390 FC ■ UOL <T*> 
1400 CN « FC * 108 
1410 GOSUB 1520 
1420 CN* = STR* <CN> 

1436 DSc&VaJ** 8 " " 0U * ,CN * <BC) ■ ™*:LC«<BC> - LC*:TP*<BO - TP* 
1440 NO(8C) = NO 
1458 IF BC = OC THEN 
PRINT 

PRINT 
PRINT 
IF T* 
IF T* 



1460 
1470 
1480 
1490 

1500 

1510 
1520 
1530 
1540 
1558 
1560 
1570 
1580 
1590 
I BOB 



GOSUB 1770:BC - 
PRINT "ENTER 'C FOR NEXT BOOK" 
ENTER 'Q' TO END BOOK ENTRY" 
SPC< 10): GET T*: PRINT 

• "Q" ONO BC » THEN GOSUB 1970 

• "Q" THEN GOSUB 1770 
GOTO 540 

REM <HHHM> SUBROUTINE TO PRINT ENTRY FOR CHECK 

nunc. : UThB ( 3 ) 

PRINT "TITLE: "jTL*: PRINT 

PRINT "OUTHOR: "j«U«: PRINT 

PRINT "NUMBER OF AUTHORS: ",NO: PRINT 

PRINT "LOCATION: "»LC«: PRINT 

\l III * '£'. V£- H PRINT " B00K ™<*T: NORMAL' 
IF SZ* = "S" THEN PRINT "BOOK HEIGHT: SMALL": 
PRINT "BOOK HEIGHT: TOLL": PRINT 



PRINT : 60T0 1610 
PRINT : GOTO 1610 



222 



March 1983 c Creative Computing 




AARDVARK - THE ADVENTURE PLACE 

ADVENTURES FOR OSI, TRS-80, TRS-80 COLOR, SINCLAIR, PET, VIC-20 



ADVENTURES - Adventures are a unique 
form of computer game. They let you spend 
30 to 70 hours exploring and conquering a 
world you have never seen before. There is 
little or no luck in Adventuring. The rewards 
are for creative thinking, courage, and wise 
gambling — not fast reflexes. 

In Adventuring, the computer speaks and 
listens to plain English. No prior knowledge 
of computers, special controls, or games is re- 
quired so everyone enjoys them— even people 
who do not like computers. 

Except for Quest, itself unique among Ad- 
venture games. Adventures are non-graphic. 
Adventures are more like a novel than a comic 
book or arcade game. It is like reading a par- 
ticular exciting book where you are the main 
character. 

All of the Adventures in this ad are in Basic. 
They are full featured, fully plotted adventures 
that will take a minimum of thirty hours (in 
several sittings) to play. 

Adventuring requires 16k on Sinclair, TRS- 
80. and TRS-80 Color. They require 8k on OSI 
and 13k on VIC-20. Sinclair requires extended 
BASIC. 

TREK ADVENTURE by Bob Retelle - This 
one takes place aboard a familiar starship and 
is a must for trekkies. The problem is a famil- 
iar one — The ship is in a "decaying orbit" 
(the Captain never could learn to park!) and 
the engines are out (You would think that in 
all those years, they would have learned to 
build some that didn't die once a week). Your 
options are to start the engine, save the ship, 
get off the ship, or die. Good Luck. 

Authors note to players — I wrote this one 
with a concordance in hand. It is very accurate 
— and a lot of fun. It was nice to wander 
around the ship instead of watching it on T.V. 

CIRCLE WORLD by Bob Anderson - The 
Alien culture has built a huge world in the 
shape of a ring circling their sun. They left 
behind some strange creatures and a lot of ad- 
vanced technology. Unfortunately, the world 
is headed for destruction and it is your job to 
save it before it plunges into the sun ! 

Editors note to players - In keeping with 
the large scale of Circle World, the author 
wrote a very large adventure. It has a lot of 
rooms and a lot of objects in them. It is a very 
convoluted, very complex adventure. One of 
our largest. Not available on OSI. 

HAUNTED HOUSE by Bob Anderson - This 
one is for the kids. The house has ghosts, gob- 
lins, vampires and treasures — and problems 
designed for the 8 to 13 year old. This is a 
real adventure and does require some thinking 
and problem solving - but only for kids. 

Authors note to players -This one was fun 
to write. The vocabulary and characters were 
designed for younger players and lots of things 
happen when they give the computer com- 
mands. This one teaches logical thought, map- 
ping skills, and creativity while keeping their 
interest. 



DERELICT by Rodger Olsen and Bob Ander 
ton — For Wealth and Glory, you have to ran- 
sack a thousand year old space ship. You'll 
have to learn to speak their language and 
operate the machinery they left behind. The 
hardest problem of all is to live through it. 

Authors note to players - This adventure 
is the new winner in the "Toughest Adventure 
at Aardvark Sweepstakes". Our most difficult 
problem in writing the adventure was to keep 
it logical and realistic. There are no irrational 
traps and sudden senseless deaths in Derelict. 
This ship was designed to be perfectly safe for 
its' builders. It just happens to be deadly to 
alien invaders like you. 



Aest 




PYRAMID by Rodger Olsen - This is one of 
our toughest Adventures. Average time 
through the Pyramid is 50 to 70 hours. The 
old boys who built this Pyramid did not mean 
for it to be ransacked by people like you. 

Authors note to players - This is a very 
entertaining and very tough adventure. I left 
clues everywhere but came up with some in- 
genous problems. This one has captivated 
people so much that I get calls daily from as 
far away as New Zealand and France from 
bleary eyed people who are stuck in the 
Pyramid and desperate for more clues. 

QUEST by Bob Retelle and Rodger Olsen - 

THIS IS DIFFERENT FROM ALL THE 
OTHER GAMES OF ADVENTURE!!!! It is 
played on a computer generated map of 
Alesia. You lead a small band of adventurers 
on a mission to conquer the Citadel of Moor- 
lock. You have to build an army and then arm 
and feed them by combat, bargaining, explora- 
tion of ruins and temples, and outright ban- 
ditry. The game takes 2 to 5 hours to play 
and is different each time. The TRS-80 Color 
version has nice visual effects and sound. Not 
available on OSI. This is the most popular 
game we have ever published. 

MARS by Rodger Olsen - Your ship crashed 
on the Red Planet and you have to get home. 
You will have to explore a Martian city, repair 
your ship and deal with possibly hostile aliens 
to get home again. 

Authors note to players - This is highly 
recommended as a first adventure. It is in no 
way simple— playing time normally runs from 
30 to 50 hours - but it is constructed in a 
more "open" manner to let you try out ad- 
venturing and get used to the game before 
you hit the really tough problems. 



NUCLEAR SUB by Bob Retelle You start 
at the bottom of the ocean in a wrecked Nu- 
clear Sub. There is literally no way to go but 
up. Save the ship, raise her, or get out of her 
before she blows or start WWIII. 

Editors note to players- This was actually 
plotted bv Rodger Olsen, Bob Retelle, and 
someone you don't know — Three of the nas- 
tiest minds in adventure writing. It is devious, 
wicked, and kills you often. The TRS-80 Color 
version has nice sound and special effects. 

EARTHQUAKE by Bob Anderson and Rodger 
Olsen A second kids adventure. You are 
trapped in a shopping center during an earth- 
quake. There is a way out, but you need help. 
To save yourself, you have to be a hero and 
save others first. 

Authors note to players - This one feels 
good. Not only is it designed for the younger 
set (see note on Haunted House), but it also 
plays nicely. Instead of killing, you have to 
save lives to win this one. The player must 
help others first if he/she is to survive — I like 
that. 




ADVENTURE WRITING/DEATHSHIP by 
Rodger Olsen This is a data sheet showing 
how we do it. It is about 14 pages of detailed 
instructions how to write your own adven- 
tures. It contains the entire text of Deathship. 
Data sheet - $3.95. NOTE: Owners of OSI, 
TRS-80. TRS-80 Color, and Vic 20 computers 
can also get Deathship on tape for an addi- 
tional $5.00. 

PRICE AND AVAILABILITY: 

All adventures are $14.95 on tape except 
Earthquake and Haunted House which are 
$9.95. Disk versions are available on OSI and 
TRS-80 Color for $2.00 additional. 



Please specify system on all orders 

ALSO FROM AARDVARK - This is only a partial list of what we carry. We have a lot of other games (particularly for the 

TRS-80 Color and OSI ), business programs, blank tapes and disks and hardware. Send $1 .00 for our complete catalog. 



^S 



AARDVARK - 80 

2352 S. Commerce, Walled Lake, Ml 48088 

(313)669-3110 

Phone Orders Accepted 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. EST. Mon.-Fri. 



TRS-80 COLOR 



SINCLAIR 



OSI 



VIC-20 



CIRCLE 101 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



BMC. The logical 
Best for your system. Better for y< 




If you choose your display monitor with the same care you've given to the other components 
of your business or personal computer system, you'll choose BMC 

The BMKI2AU features a P31 picture tube that gives you a large, bright 12inch diagonal green 
display with a bold 80X24 character format that is remarkably easy on your eyes. And each 
unit is given a careful underscan adjustment at the factory so even the corners are clear and 

sharp. The BM-12AU ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

connects quickly and ^ ^ BM-12AU 

simply to most popular 

computers with no 

interface or modifications 

needed. But best of all the 

BM-12AU is designed to 

fit your budget. Compare 

specifications, quality and 

price. BMC is the logical 

choice. 




• input Signals Composite Video Signal. 
Negative SYNC 

10 -0 3V PP 75 ° nm 

• CRT Size 31 cm diag (12 inch diag ) 

• Phosphor P31 (Green) 

• Semiconductors 
IC t. Transistors 14, Diodes 14 

• Video Amp Bandwidth 15 MHz 

• Display Format 
1920 Characters max (80 char x 24 linesi 

• Power Input AC 120V 6OHz/230V. 50Hz 
' Power Consumption 26W 

• Dimensions 400(W| X 28 5(H) X 32 0(D)cm 
| Weight 6 3 kgs (13 9 lbs I 



|)BMC USA IMC 

LOS ANGELES NEW YORK 

20610 Manhattan Place Suite 112. Torrance. CA 90501 450 Bareli Avenue, Carlstadt N J 07072 

Telex 698641 BMC USA TRNC Phone 213-320-9880. 9881 Telex 133221 BMC NY CARL Phone 201-939-7079, 7061 
CIRCLE 1 16 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Library Catalog, continued... 

produce the set of classification data 
shown in Figures 3a, 3b, and 3c as 
selections 4, 2, and 1 were chosen to 
catalog the book as Written and 
Spoken English, catalog number 421. 
If the book had been fiction, the menu 
shown in Figure 3d would have been 
displayed. 



Figure 3a. The division menu. 

DIVISIONS 

GENERALITIES 

1 PHILOSOPHY & REL DISCIPLINES 

2 RELIGION 

3 SOCIAL SCIENCES 

4 LANGUAGE 

5 PURE SCIENCES 

6 TECHNOLOGY (APPLIED SCIENCE) 

7 THE ARTS 

8 LITERATURE (BELLES - LETTRES) 

9 GENERAL GEOG & HIST 

ENTER DIVISION NUMBER 



Figure 3b. The category menu. 

DIVISION: LANGUAGE 

LANGUAGE 

1 LINGUISTICS 

2 ENGLISH & ANGLO-SAXON LANGS 

3 GERMANIC LANGS 

4 ROMANCE LANGS- FRENCH 

5 ITAL- ROMANIAN- RHAETO-ROMANIC 

6 SPANISH & PORT LANGS 

7 ITALIC LANGS - LATIN 

8 HELLENIC LANGS-CLASSICAL GREEK 

9 OTHER LANGS 

ENTER CATEGORY NUMBER 

OR 'X' FOR DIVISION LISTING 



Figure 3c. The subcategory menu. 
CATEGORY: ENGLISH & ANGLO-SAXON LANGS 



ENGLISH & ANGLO-SAXON LANGS 
WRITTEN & SPOKEN ENG 
ENG ETYMOLOGY 
ENG DICTIONARIES 

* 

ENG STRUCTURAL SYSTEM 

* 

NONSTANDARD ENG 
STANDARD ENG USAGE 
ANGLO-SAXON (OLD ENG) 



ENTER SUBCATEGORY NUMBER 

OR 'X' FOR CATEGORY LISTING 



Figure 3d. 

Catalog menu for fiction books. 

FICTION 

1 NOVEL 

2 ACTION/MYSTERY 

3 WESTERN 

4 SCIENCE FICTION 

5 SHORT STORY/COLLECTION 

6 CHILDREN'S LITERATURE 

ENTER CATEGORY NUMBER: 



1610 
1628 

lb 70 

1640 

1650 

1660 
1670 
1680 

1KHM 
1700 

1710 
1720 
1730 
1740 
1750 
1760 
1770 
1780 
1790 
I8M 



» TL*(J> + LEFT$ <BL*>40 - LEN 



LEN 



IF TP* = "F" THEN PRINT "BOOK TYPE: FICTION": PRINT : GOTO 1700 
PRINT "BOOK TVPE: NON-FICTION": PRINT 
PRINT "OIUISION: "»SC*<DU.1>: PRINT 
PRINT "CATEGORY: "jSC»<DU.< UAL < .C*> * 10) ♦ 1 > 
PRINT 

PRINT "SUBCHTE60RV: ";SC*<DU.10 * "OL <Ct> + UAL <S*>> 
PRINT : PRINT "CATALOG NUMBER: ";LN* 
PRINT 
GOTO 1710 

PRINT "CATEGORV: "F*<FC>: PRINT 
PRINT "ENTER X' TO RE-ENTER THIS BOOK » " 
PRINT "ENTER ANY OTHER KEV TO CONTINUE. "i 
6ET T* 

PRINT : PRINT 

IF T* = "X" THEN POP : GOTO 550 
RETURN 

REM ****♦ SUBROUTINE TO WRITE DATA TO DISK 
IF BC » THEN RETURN 
PRINT 0* 
FOR J - 1 TO BC 
1810 RN = RN ♦ 1 
1820 IF LEN <TLtO>) < 40 THEN TLKJ) 

< TL*< .1 ■ ■ ' 
1830TL*<J)= LEFT* <TL*<J>»40> 
1840 IF LEN <AU*<J>> < 40 THEN AU*< J> = QU*< J > + LEFT* <BL*.40 - 

(flU* 
1350 «U»< J) = LEFTS <BU*U>.40> 
1860 PRINT D*»"HRITE LIBREC-120»R";RH 

PRINT TL*<J>: PRINT AU*<J): PRINT TP* J >: PRINT CN«J>: PRINT LC«J) 

PRINT S?*' 1 ■ 
PRINT NfHJ.) 
PRINT BS: PRINT BN* 
PRINT D* 
NEXT J 

PRINT D»J"HRITE LIBREC-120.R0" 
PRINT RN 
PRINT 0* 

IF T* = "0" THEN 1970 
RETURN 

PRINT D*>"CLOSE" 

HOME : UTAB < 8 >: PRINT "RETURN 'CATALOG MASTER' DISK TO ORIUE." 
PRINT : PRINT "PRESS ANY KEV HHEN VOU OPE READY. "»: GET 7$ 
PRINT 

HIMEM: 38400 

POP : HOME : POKE 770.56: PRINT 0*;"RUN C0TAL06 MOSTER" 
REM *♦**♦ ERROR ROUTINE TO PREPORE NEW DISK 
2040 ER = PEEK <222) 
2050 IF ER = 5 THEN 2120 

IF ER = 8 OR ER = 9 OR ER = 4 THEN .2080 
GOTO 2110 

PRINT : PRINT G*i6*i6*;"******* DISK CANNOT OCCEPT OOTO *******" 
PRINT SPC< 5>i"CHECK DRIUE DOOR AND'OR INSERT": PRINT " INITIALIZED 
OISK WITH SPACE FOR STORAGE" 
2100 PRINT SPC( 4>I*DISK MUST NOT BE WRITE PROTECTED •": MT » 1: ROTO 2200 
2110 PRINT "ERROR FOUND CODE " ;ER: PRINT "ON LINE "J PEEK i218> + PEEK 

(219> * 256: END 
2120 PRINT D*;"OPEN LIBREC-120.L12O" 
2130 PRINT D*i"WRITE LIBREC-120.R0" 
2140 NN = 
2150 PRINT NN 
2160 PRINT Dfl'CLOSE" 
2170 ON = ON + 1: POKE 771 .ON 
2180 IF MT = 1 THEN 2210 
: '190 GOTO 450 
2200 PRINT : PRINT "PRESS ANY KEV WHEN VOU ORE REAOV " :: GET M«: PRINT : PRINT 



1870 

1880 
1890 
1900 
1910 
1920 
1930 
1940 
1950 
I960 
1970 
1980 
1990 
2000 
2010 
2020 
2038 



2M8 

2070 
2868 



2210 
2Z2SS 
2230 
2240 
2250 

22b0 
H79 
2288 

2290 
2300 
2310 

2330 
2340 
2350 
2360 
2370 
2330 
2388 

2400 

2410 
2420 
2430 

2440 



PRINT D*;"OPEN LIBREC-120.L120" 

PRINT D»J"REA0 L1BREC-120.R0" 

INPUT RN 

PRINT 0* 

PRINT : PRINT "THIS OISK CONTAINS "iPN;" BOOK RECOROS. ": FOR LV - 1 TO 
1000: NEXT l.il: PI 
MT = 

IF BC =• DC THEN 1450 

IF T* « "0" THEN 1500 

GOTO 450 

REM SUBROUTINE FOR SHELF OIRECTORV 

HOME : UTOB (5) 

PRINT SPC< 12);"SHELF OIRECTORV" 

PRINT : PRINT 

FOR ZW - 1 TO NS 

PRINT SPC< 7>j"I0 = ■>UKZH,8>» SPCt 5 ■; "SHELF SIZE- "»LL*<ZH,1 > 

FOR ZU » 1 TO 500: NE'f 

NEXT ZW 

PRINT : PRINT "RERUN OIRECTORV (WtW ";: GET T«: PRINT 

IF Tt = "V" THEN . 

HOME : UTAB <5> 

IMMERSE : PRINT "TITLE:"*: NORMAL : PRINT " ";TLS: PRINT 

INUERSE : PRINT "AUTHOR:";: NORMOL : PRINT " ";AU#: PRINT 



INUERSE 
RETURN 



PRINT 

PRINT "BOOK HEIGHT: 



225 



NORMAL : PRINT 



'iSZ$: PRINT 



March 1983 c Creative Computing 



Library Catalog, continued... 

At this time a listing of all the data 
typed in for the book is presented 
(Figure 4), and you are given the 
opportunity to make changes. When 
the entry is correct, the next book is 

Figure 4. Listing for checking entry. 

TITLE: I HEAR AMERICA TALKING 

AUTHOR: FLEXNER 

NUMBER OF AUTHORS: 1 

LOCATION: JE3 

BOOK HEIGHT: TALL 

BOOK TYPE: NON-FICTION 

DIVISION: LANGUAGE 

CATEGORY: ENGLISH & ANGLO SAXON LANGS 

SUBCATEGORY: WRITTEN & SPOKEN ENG 

CATALOG NUMBER: 421 

ENTER 'X' TO RE-ENTER THIS BOOK 
ENTER ANY OTHER KEY TO CONTINUE 

Figure 5. Menu for book search. 

DO YOU WISH TO: 

1 SEARCH ON TITLE 

2 SEARCH ON AUTHOR 

3 SEARCH ON SUBJECT/FICTION TYPE 

4 SEARCH ON CATALOG NUMBER 

5 END SEARCH 

ENTER THE NUMBER OF YOUR CHOICE 

Figure 6. 

Menu for borrowing information. 



DO YOU WISH TO LIST 

(1) ALL BOOKS LOANED OUT 

(2) BOOKS LOANED TO A GIVEN PERSON 

OR (3) END THE SEARCH 
ENTER THE NUMBER OF YOUR SELECTION 



entered. When all books have been 
entered, the primary menu is once 
more displayed. 

When all books are entered, the 
Library Catalog Program can be used 
for searches, recording borrowed and 
returned books, and listing all books 
on file. The menu for searches is shown 
in Figure 5. 

If the SUBJECT/ FICTION TYPE 
selection is made, the classifications 
are once again presented to aid in 
subject selection. For information on 
borrowing, the menu shown in Figure 
6 enables several selections. Option 3 
from the main menu, permits any 
record to be modified, from check in/ 
check out to correction of spelling to 
complete deletion of the book from 
the file. 



Listing 3. 

THIS progRm- RI6HT 1982 Bv j.M. HELLMAN : 336 COLEMAN DRI<€ 
: MONROEUILLE PA 15146 : PHONE 412-772-* 
10 REM *** CATALOG SEARCH PROGRAM 
20 8LJ- = " - 

I = CMR* < a ■ 
48 MO( 

50 PRINT 0* 

60 IF PEEK < 773 > = 92 THEN MOO = ' 
78 POKE 773.0 

30 BHt = " _--__-_• 

90 HOMF : i'ThP • 

108 POKE 770.56 

110 ON = PEEK >771 i 

120 ONERR GOTO 3770 

130 OIM SC*(9.100).F*<6> 

140 OIM AM*C5>.NM*<4> 

150 IF MOO = 1 THEN HIMEM: 20000:0* = CHR» (4): GOTO 400 

160 PRINT SPCC 9)j: INUERSE : PRINT "CATALOG SEARCH PROGRAM": NORMAL 

170 PRINT • PRINT : PRINT "CATALOG CLASSIFICATION DATA": PRINT "IS NOW BE 

ING ENTERED INTO THE COMPUTER. " 
180 FOR I - TO 9 
190 SC*( 1.0) * STR$ (I ) 
200 PRINT 0*i"0PEN SC SEO LIST ■»! 

219 PRINT 0*i"REAO SC SEO LIST "jl 

220 FOR J = 1 TO 100: INPUT SC*CI»J>: NEXT J 
230 PRINT D*i "CLOSE" 

240 NEXT I 

250 HIMEM: 2000* 

260 F*U> ■ "NOUEL":F*C2) = "ACTH»/MVSTERV":F*<3) = "H€STERN":F*C4 > = "SC 

IENCE FICTI0N":F*C5> = "SHORT ST0RV'C0LLECTI0N":F*C6> = "CHILDREN'S 

LITERATURE" 
278 NORMAL : HOME : UTAB I 9 • 
280 HOME : UTAB C5> 
290 PRINT D$ 

>O0 PRINT "DO VOU WISH TO:" 
310 PRINT SPC< 6)>"1 SEARCH ON TITLE" 
720 PRINT SPC< 6>;"2 SEARCH ON AUTHOR" 
330 PRINT SPCC 6)1 "3 SEARCH ON SUBJ6CT/FICTI0N TVPE" 
J40 PRINT SPCC 6>i"4 SEARCH ON CAT ALOfi NUMBER" 
350 PRINT SPCC 8>*"5 END SEARCH" 
360 PRINT : PRINT "ENTER THE NUMBER OF VOUR CHOICE ">: GET CH*: PRINT CHt 

370 IF ASC <XH*> < 49 OR ASC C CH$ I "54 THEN 368 

380 CH * UAL < CH* > 

398 ON CH GOTO 400.810.1470.2190.2260 

400 HOME : UTAB C5>:00 = 1:HI = 

410 PRINT "ENTER BOOK TITLE:" 

420 INPUT " ";TT* 

*30 LT = LEN CTT*>: IF LT > 40 THEN TT« » i.EFT* > IT*,48> 

440 REH «#«*** STHRT SEARCH 

450 PRINT • PRINT "INSERT CATALOG DATA DISK t "jOOi" IN ORIUE" 

460 PRINT : PRINT "PRESS ANV KEV WHEN VOH ARE REAOV" 

470 GET T*: PRINT 

480 HOME : UTAB (10) 

490 PRINT SPCX 15);: 1NUERSE : PRINT "^EAPCHING": NORMAL 

500 PRINT D* : "OPEN LIBREC-120.L12f" 

510 PRINT 0*;"REAO LIBREC-120.R0" 

520 INPUT RN 

530 PRINT 0* 

540 IF RN = THEN PRINT "NO BOOKS ON FILE ON THIS DISK.": GOTO 730 

550 PRINT : PRINT "THIS DISK CONTAINS ";PNi" BOOK RECORDS.": PRINT 

560 FOR I = 1 TO RN 

570 TE ■ 8 

580 PRINT 0*;"REAO LIBREC-120.R"jI 

590 INPUT TL* 

600 PRINT 0* 

810 IF LEFT* CTL*.LT> = TT* THEN HI = 1: NORMAL :TE = 1: GOSUB 2330: IF 

HOO < > 1 THEN PRINT "CONTINUE SEARCH < V/"N V ";: GET X*: PRINT X*: IF 

X* » "N" THEN 270 

IF TE «= THEN 710 

IF HOO < > 1 THEN 710 
S40 PRINT 0«: PRINT : PRINT : PRINT : PRINT 
650 PRINT : PRINT "00 VOU HANT TO 1 MOOIFV": PRINT SPCC 16>»"2 DELETE 

": PRINT SPCC 16>j"3 LEAUE UNCHANGED": PRINT "THIS BOOK RECORD.": PRINT 
ENTER SELECTION NUMBER: "i 
668 GET 0*: PRINT Q*:0 = UAL cQ* > 

IF Q = 1 THEN GOTO 2830 



620 
630 



670 
680 
S90 



IF = 2 THEN 3570 

IF Q = 3 THEN 3520 
788 PRINT "INUALIO SELECTION. TRV AGAIN.": OTTO 650 
710 NEXT I 
720 PRINT D* 
730 DO = DO ♦ 1 

740 IF OD > ON THEN NORMAL : GOTO 77Q 
750 PRINT D* 
760 GOTO 458 



226 



March 1983 ■ Creative Computing 



irr» 



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Word Processing, 
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$3649 



Business 



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Monitor & Keyboard 595 

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Library Catalog, continued. 



7f?e 
Bee 

1M 



IF HI = 1 HMO MOO = 1 THEN GOTO "3540 

IF HI = 1 THEN PRINT 0*: PRINT : PRINT "THIS I* THE END OF Tl 



: PRINT "PRESS ONV KEY TO CONTINUE. 
S0SU8 3/20 
GOTO 280 



GET KK*: PRINT : PRINT : 6CT> 



HOME 
^RINT 



UTOB (5 ':00 = 1:HI = 0: HOP I = TO 4:NM*< I I 



NRHE' S >" 



NEXT I 



ENTER AUTHOR* S > LOST ( IPS 

840 PRINT "NO COMMOS OR SPOCES. PLE&- 

850 PRINT "EXPMPLES: SHOKESPEORE" 

860 PRINT " MQSTERS/JOHNSON" 

370 PRINT : INPUT ■ " ;00* 

S80 IF LEN (00*' > 40 THEN 00* = LEFT* '00*. 40 i 

890 IP LEN (00*) < 40 THEN 00* = 00* + LEFT* <BL*.40 



LEN ' 00* • ) 



= NN + 1 : mm*. NN 
42: 601 



2> = N*:N* = 



GOTO 960 



NORMOL 



1010 

1020 

1070 
1040 
1050 
I860 
1070 
1080 
1090 
1100 
1110 
1120 



NORMOL : GOTO 770 



300 II* = "":NN ■ ] 

H 1 ti FOR I = 1 TO 4ll 

920 0* = MID* (00*, 1. 1 i 

930 IF OSC '0*) = 47 THEN h# 

940 IF OSC (0*> = 32 THEN I 

rl* = N* + 0* 

960 NEXT I 

970 NM*< NN - 1 ) = N* 

MB ^RI»l T : PRINT "IHC.EPT COTOLOG DOTO DISK « ••jOOj" IN ORIUE" 

990 PRINT : PRINT "PRESS ONV KEY WHEN VOU ORE REODV " n GET T*: PRIN1 

100O HOME : "TOO (10>: PRINT SPC( 151;: INUERSE : PRINT "SE0RCHIN6" 

PRINT D*;"OPEN L1BREC-120.L1. 

PRINT D*»"REOO LIBREC-120.R0" 

INPUT RN 

PRINT D* 

IF RN = O THEN PRINT "NO BOOKS ON FILE ON THIS DISK.": GOTO 1230 

PRINT : PRINT "THIS DISK CONTOINS ";RNi" BOOK RECOROS.": PRINT 

FOR I = 1 TO RN 

IF NN > 1 GOTO 130O 

PRINT D*;"REOD LIBREC-120.R" jl i",B94" 

GET NO 

PRINT 0*. 

IF NO > 1 GOTO 130P 
1130 OU* = "" 

1140 PRINT D*i"REOO LIBREC-120.R" »I;".B41 " 
1150 INPUT OH*: PRINT D* 
1160 FOR K = 1 TO 40 
1170 T* = MID* (OH*.K.l I 

1180 IF OSC (T*> = 32 THEN K = 40: GOTO 1200 
1190 OU* = OU* + 1* 
12O0 NEXT K 

IF OU* = NM*<NN - 1 ) THEN HI = 1: NORMOL : GOSUB 2330: IF MOD ' > 1 

THEN PRINT "CONTINUE SEORCH tVxN>? "*: 6ET X*: PRINT X*: IF X* = "N k 

THEN 270 

NEXT I 
1230 DD « 00 ♦ 1 
1240 IF 00 > DN THEN 

PRINT D* 

GOTO 980 

IF HI = 1 THEN 280 

GOSUB 3720 

60T0 280 

1300 ON = 1:0U* = "": FOR P ■ O TO 4:0M*(P) * "": NEXT P 
1310 PRINT D*i"REO0 LIBREC-120.R" Jl i".B41": INPUT OH*: PRINT D* 
1320 FOR K = 1 TO 40 
1330 ft* = MID* <OH*.K.l > 

1340 IF OSC (0*> ■ 47 THEN ON = ON ♦ 1:0M*<0N - 2) » 0U*:OU* = "": GOTO 137fi 
1350 IF 0S>: CM) = 32 THEN K = 40: GOTO t370 
1360 OU* ■ OU* ♦ 0* 
1370 NEXT K 
1380 OM*<ON - 1> m OU* 
13:30 HO = 
140O FOR L = O Tu NN - 1 

FOR M = TO ON - 1 

IF NM*( L ' = RHKH) THEN H0 = HO + 1 

NEXT m 

IF ho = NN THEN HI = tl NORMOL : GOSUB 2330: IF MOO < H PRINT 
"CONTINUE SEORCH (V-N>? ";• 6ET X*: PRINT X*: IF X* = "N" THEN 270 

GOTO 1220 

REM ihhhhi SEORCH ON SUBJECT 

IF PEEK (772) - 25 THEN 1610 

HOME : UTflB 

PRINT : PRINT "THE SEORCH ON SUBJECT is CONDUCTED "IP*: PRINT "THE 
OEHEV OECIMPL SYSTEM FOR NON-FICTIONBOOKS. OND BOOK TVPE FOR FICTION 
■-." 

PRIN1 

PRINT "NON-FICTION BOOKS IN THE DEMEV OECIMOL": PRINT "SYSTEM ORE CO 
TAL06FTJ In 1001 

PRINT "COTEGORIES: 10 OIUISIONSi": PRINT SPC< 12 ;"10 COTEGORIES^DI 
UIS10N;": PRINT SPO' 12>;"10 SUBCOTEGORIES/COTEG' " 

FOR I ■ 1 TO 40G0: NEXT I 

PRINT • PRINT "THE SEORCH CON BE PERFORMED ON THE": PRINT "DH'ISION. 

COTEGORV, OR SUBCATEGORY" : PRINT "LEUfeL." 

PRINT : PRINT "THE PROGROM HILL PROMPT YOU MITH THE": PRINT "OEHEV 
OECIMOL SYSTEM BREOKOOHN OF": PRINT "SUBJEt 



1210 



1220 



1250 
1260 
1270 
1280 
1290 



1410 

1420 
1470 

1440 
1450 

1460 
1478 
1480 

: 488 

1500 



1510 
1520 



;s30 



:540 



1560 



228 



CIRCLE 141 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



March 1983 c Creative Computing 



1570 
1588 



lSSS 

1660 

1610 
1620 

1630 
1640 
1650 

i Bee 

1670 
1680 

i Bse 

1700 

1710 

i?ae 

1730 
1740 



PRINT : PRINT : PRINT "FICTION BOOK* IN THIS PROGRPM ORE": PRINT "CO 
TOIOGEO IN THE FOLLOWING DIUISION 

PRINT SPC< 12);"N0UEL": PRINT SPC< 12);"0CT10N/-MVSTERV": PRINT SPC< 
12); "WESTERN": PRINT SPC< 12);"SCIENCE FICTION": PRINT SPC< 12);"SH 
ORT STORY/COLLECTION": PRINT SPC< 12 >;"CHILOREN'S LITERATURE" 

FOR I = 1 TO 6000: NEXT 1 

POKE 772.25 

HOME : UTOB <5): INUERSE : PRINT "IS VOUR SELECTION": NORMOL 

INUERSE : PRINT "FICTION OR NON-FICTION (F'N)?";: NORMOL : PRINT " " 
;: GET TP* 

PRINT TP* 

IF TP* = "F" GOTO 2060 

IF TP* < > "N" THEN PRINT : GOTO 1620 

HOME 

UTOB '3): PRINT 

FOR I ■ 

PRINT I;" 

NEXT I 

PRINT 

PRINT "ENTER DIUISION NUMBER ";: GFT T* 

PRINT T* 

IF OSC <T*> 
1750 OM * UOL ' I t ■ 
1760 PRINT : PRINT "DO VOU WISH TO NORROW THE SUBJECT <,V'H>?": PRINT SPC< 

15);: GET T*: PRINT T* 
1770 IF T* = "V" THEN 1800 
1780 IF T* < > "N" 60T0 1760 

1790 SP = 100:CC ' OU * 100: 60SUB 2530: GOTO 280 
1800 HOME : UTOB i 
1810 PRINT "DIUISION: »;SC*<OU.l) 
1820 PRINT 
1830 FOR I = TO 9 

1840 PRINT I;" ";SC*<D",(I * 10) + I) 
1850 NEXT I 
1960 PRINT : PRINT 
1870 PRINT "ENTER COTEGORV NUMBER"; SPC< 25);"0R 'X' FOR OIUISION LISTIN6 

";: GET C* 
1880 PRINT C» 
1890 IF CS = "X" GOTO 166(1 

1900 IF OSC <C*> < 48 OR OSC <C*> > 57 THEN PRINT : GOTO 1878 
1910 PRINT : PRINT "DO VOU WISH TO NORROW THE SUBJECT <V/NV>": PRINT SPC( 

15>;: GET T*: PRINT T* 
1920 IF T* = "V" THEN 1950 
1930 IF T* < > "N" GOTO 1910 



SPCC lb);"DIUISIONS": PRINT : PRINT 
■;SC*<I»1) 



48 OR OSC <T») > 57 THEN PRINT : GOTO 1668 



100 + 

PRINT 



UOL <C«) t 
•COTEGORV: 



10: GOSUB 2530: GOTO 280 
•;SC*<DU»< UOL <C») * 10) + 1) 



HOME : UTOB <3>: 
PRINT 

FOR I = 1 TO 10: PRINT I - 1; SPC< 2 >;SC*<OU»10 * UOL <C«) + I >l NEXT I 
PRINT 

PRINT "ENTER S06COTE60RV NUMBER"; SPC< 25); "OR 
ING ";: GET S*: PRINT St 
PRINT 

IF S* = "X" GOTO 1800 
IF OSC <S«) < 48 OR 



-X' FOR COTEGORV LIST 



PRINT : GOTO 2068 



ISM 

I960 
1970 

1990 

28M 

2010 

2020 IF OSC <S*> < 48 OR OSC <S») > 57 THEN 199f 

2030 S* = STR* < UOL < S* ) ♦ 1 ) 

2040 rr = [Hi * tee + UOL <C») * 10 + UOL <S* ' - t 

2050 SP = 1: GUSUB 2530: GOTO 280 

2060 HOME : UTOB (5) 

2070 PRINT "FICTION" 

2080 PRINT : PRINT 

2090 FOR I - 1 TO 6 

2100 PRINT I; SPC< 2);F*<1) 

2110 NEXT I 

2120 PRINT : PRINT 

2130 PRINT "ENTER COTEGORV NUMBER: ";: GET T* 

2140 IF OSC 'T») < 49 OR OSC <T«) > 54 THEN 

2150 FC = UOL <T«) 

2160 CC = FC * 108 

2170 SP = 1 

2180 GOSUB 2530: GOTO 280 

2190 REM *****SEORCH ON COTOLOG NUMBER 

2200 HOME : UTOB < 5 « 

2210 INPUT "ENTER COTOLOG NUMBER 

2220 CC * INT < UOL <CC*>' 

?230 IF re < OR CC > 999 THEN PRIH T "TNuOLlO COTOLOG NUMBER.": PRINT 
PLEOSt TRV OGOIN.": SOTO 22' 

2240 TP» = "N" 

2250 SP = l: GOSUB 2530: GOTO 280 

2260 PRINT 0*;"CLOSE LIBREC-120": REM ENO SEORCH - RETURN TO COTOLOG 
MOSTEt- 

2270 HOME : "TOS 

2:280 PRINT "PLOCE COTOLOG MOSTER DISK IN DRIUE" 

2290 PRINT : PRINT "PRESS ONV KEV WHEN VOU ORE REODV ";: GET T*: PRINT 

2300 HI MEM: 38400 

2310 PRINT D*;"RUN COTOLOG MOSTER" 

2320 REM ******* SUBROUTINE TO WRITE OOTH TO SCREEN ********* 

?330 PRINT D* 

2340 PRINT D*s"REOO LIBREC-120.R";I 

J350 INPUT Tt.*: INPUT OU*: INPUT TP*: INPUT CN«: INPUT LC*: INPUT SZ«: 
INPUT NP 
INPUT 8S: IUPUT BN* 



.§ :ip 



FLIXIBLI DISCS 

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SOFTWARE 

FOR 

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MORE SOFTWARE AVAILABLE 
SOON FOR THE TRS-80 AND 
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CIRCLE 176 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



2360 

March 1983 e Creative Computing 



HOUSEHOLD 

INVENTORY 

PROGRAM 

FOR AN APPLE II 

WILL STORE EVERY HOUSEHOLD ITEMS 

• SERIAL NUMBER 

• MODEL NUMBER 

• PURCHASE PRICE 

• REPLACEMENT COST 

• AND MORE 



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AND STATE PRINTER/MODEL 

TO: 

SFA ENTERPRISES. INC. 

P.O. BOX 3351 1 
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229 



CIRCLE 252 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Library Catalog, continued.. 

2370 PRINT D* 

2380 CN « "AL <CN*> 

2390 PRINT : PRINT BR* 

2400 PRINT "TITLE! "jTL*: PRINT 
"SIZE <'SM0lL-N0RMOL-T0LL^: 
PRINT "FICTION": GOTO 2420 
PRINT "NON-FICTION": PRINT 
PRINT "FICTION TVPE 
IF CN* = "100" THEN 
IF CN* = "200" THEN 
IF CN* = "300" THEN 



2410 
2420 
2430 
2440 
2450 
2468 
2470 
2480 
2490 
2980 
2510 
2520 
2530 
2540 
2550 
2560 
2570 
2980 
2590 
2608 
2610 
2620 
2630 
2640 
2898 
2660 
2670 
2688 
2690 
2700 
2710 
2728 
2730 



"AUTHOR: "jOU*: PRINT "LOCATION: " iLCSs PRINT 
jSZ*: PRINT "CATE60RV: %: IF TP* * "F" THEN 

"CATALOG NUMBER: "»CN«: GOTO 2490 



PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 



NOUEL": 80T0 2490 
OCTION'MVSTERV": GOTO 2490 
. HESTERN": GOTO 2490 
IF CN* = "400" THEN PRINT "SCIENCE FICTION": 60T0 2490 

«,St*.^'J!£ T !^ N PRINT " SH0RT STORV^COLLECTION": GOTO 2490 

PRINT "CHILDREN'S LlTEROTURE" 

IF BS » THEN PRINT "BOOK HPS NOT BEEN LOANEO OUT.": GOTO 2510 

PRINT "BOOK IS LOOMED TO: "iBN* 

PRINT 

RETURN 

REM 

HOME : 

PRINT 

PRINT 

GET T* 

HOC 

HUNT 



♦•♦♦♦♦SUBROUTINE TO SEARCH ON CATOLOG NUMBER 

UTOB <5):D0 « 1:H1 » 
"INSERT CATALOG DATA DISK * "jDDi" IN ORIUE" 
: PRINT "PRESS ANV KEV HHEN VOU ORE REQDV. " 
: PRINT 

UTOB <10> 

T o!^Li 5>i! INyERS E I P«INT "SEARCHIH6": NORMOL 
PRINT D*i"OPEN LIBREC-120.L120" 
PRINT D*»"REAO LIBREC-120.R0" 
INPUT RN 
PRINT D* 

!£,2t = LI. H f N PRINT " m B00KS m FILE ON THIS DISK.": GOTO 2760 
FOR I '= ?\o RN D ' SK C0NT0INS ">* Hi " B™* RECORDS.": PRINT 

PRINT D*;"REAO LIBREC-120.R"iI»",B8?" 

INPUT PP* 

PRINT D* 

IF TP* < > PP* THEN GOTO 2740 

PRINT 0*J"REA0 LIBREC-120.R"iIi".B«4" 

INPUT CN*:CN - UAL <CN*> 

IF INT (CN / SP> ♦ SP = CC THEN HI = 1: GOSUB 2330: IF MOO < > 1 THFN 

^ NT "c^HSlF SE0RCH <*'"» ■" eFT *»' WWT xiT IF X*2 "N" THEN 
2740 NEXT I 
2750 PRINT 0* 
2760 OD « DO + 1 

2770 IF DD > DN THEN GOTO 2800 
2780 PRINT 0* 
2790 GOTO 2550 
2800 IF HI = 1 THEN PRINT 0*: PRINT : PRINT "THIS IS THE END OF THIS <?FO 

2810 "^SUB 3^20 T "^ *" KEV T ° C0NTIMJE - " 8 <* T ™*™™* K 
RETURN 
REM ♦♦♦♦♦♦* SUBROUTINE TO HOOIFV RECORO 

™"i Boo^'rurs-i el? tsv p^ht t t* check in '°° t " 8 print spc ^ ,5 > 

IF T* = "N" THEN 2900 

IF T* < > "V" THEN 2840 

IF BS » THEN BS = 1: PRINT : INPUT "ENTER BORROWER'S ia<;T nomp. « - 

L "*; ^' T : ENTER a™***"'* first nomfT ">FM*:^n leftT<om» ♦ •' 

♦ FM* + BL*>.15>: GOTO 3470 
2880 BS = 0:BN* = LEFT* (BL*.15> 

^ £1?™™™**** IS "* CHECKED IN -" ! PR,NT '**"* HT ^COTIOH " 



2820 
2830 
2840 

2850 
2888 

2878 



2988 

2910 
2920 
2930 
2940 
2950 
2960 
2970 
2988 
2990 

nee 

3010 



HOME : ' ' TAB < 5 » 

PRINT "CURRENT TITLE: "iTL* 

PRINT "CHANGE ENTRV (V^N>? "j: GET H«: PRINT M* 

IF M* < > "V" THEN 2950 

INPUT "tNTER NEH TITLE: "jTL* 

PRINT : PRINT "CURRENT AUTHOR: 

PRINT "CHANGE ENTRV 'V'N>? ";, 

IP Ml < > "V" THEN 305G 

PRINT : PRINT "ENTER NEH AUTHOfKS)" 

PRINT "LAST (•LAST/...) NAHE(S)" 

PRINT "NO COMMAS OR SPACES. PLEASE' I' 

INPUT " »i«u* 



" iOU* 

GET M*: PRINT M* 



TO LEN (0U*>: IF ASC < MID* <AU*,P.1>) - 47 THEN NA « 



M4Q 

3868 

3070 
3868 



3020 NO = 1 
3030 FOR P 
NO* 1 
r p 

PRINT : PRINT "CURRENT TVPE (F-FICTj N»NON-FICT>: ";TP* 

PRINT "CHANGE ENTRV (V/N)? "j: GET M*: PRINT M* 

!F Ml < > "V" THEN 3100 

IF TP* = "F" THEN Tp* ■ »N": GOTO 3100 
3090 TP* = "F" 

3100 PRINT : PRINT "CURRENT CATALOG NUHBER: "»CN* 
3110 PRINT "CHANGE FNTRV <V/Ny? "i: GET M*: PRINT M* 
3120 IF M* < > "V" THEN 3190 
3130 INPUT "ENTER NEH CATAL06 NUMBER: ";CN* 
3140 CN = INT < i»AL (CM* * i 

1 JL2S iJ* 0R CN * 9S THEN PKWJ "IN'WLIO COTOLOG NUMBER.": PRINT 
PLEOSE TRV OGOIN.": GOTO 3 
3160 IF CN < 10 THEN UN* » "00" ♦ STR* ( CN >: GOTO 3190 

230 



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m Minneapolis (West) 


612/544-3600 


Missouri 




Clayton 


314/862-3800 


Kansas City 


816/474-3393 


New Hampshire 




Naahua 


603/880-4047 


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_ Cherry Hill 


609/482-2600 


Edison 


201/494-2800 


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201/267-3222 


■■ Paramus 


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■■ Princeton 


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New York 




New York Crly 




(Grand Central) 


212/557-8611 


(Pann Station) 


212/736-7445 


(Wall Street) 


212/962-8000 


Rochester 


716/263-2670 


Syosset.LI 


516/364-0900 


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914/683-9300 


Onto 




■■ Akron 


216/535-1150 


_ Cincinnati 


513/769-5080 


Cleveland 


216/771-2070 


Columbus 


614/224-0660 


™ Dayton 


513/461-4660 


m Oklahoma 




Tulsa 


918/599-7700 


Oregon 




Portland 


503/223-6160 


Pennsylvania 




King ol Prussia 


215/265-7250 


■ Philadelphia 


215/665-1717 


_ Pittsburgh 

Wirkms Township 


412/261-6540 


412/247-4400 


Tesas 




■ Dallas (Central) 


214/954-1100 


B Dallas (North) 


214/387-1600 


Fort Worth 


817/338-9300 


Houston (Downtown) 


713/751-0100 


Houston (N Loop West) 


713/957-8555 


Houston (S W Freeway) 


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Virginia 




McLean 


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■■ Milwaukee 


414/277-0345 


Canada: 




Ontario 




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Mississauga 


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CIRCLE 25S ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Library Catalog, continued... 

The remainder of this article is 
devoted to the technical details of the 
program and need not be read if you 
have no desire to do anything but use 
your computer to keep track of your 
books. However, before you rush to 
your keyboard, please read the follow- 
ing few notes of importance. 

The program consists of a series of 
routines that are called from a Catalog 
Master routine. Additional routines 
are Catalog Enter, Catalog Search, 
Catalog Borrow, Catalog Bookshelf, 
and Catalog List. All of these routines 
should be stored on a single Catalog 
Master disk which will also contain 
flies with the catalog classification 
data and information on bookshelf 
location and sizes. The length of the 
routines forces this type of structure. 
A benefit of this breakdown is the 
added ease of debugging each routine 
separately. The book data are stored 
on separate disks. 

A series of ten programs with titles 
of the form SC PROGRAM 3 is used 
to create text files with the library 
classification data needed to derive the 
specific catalog number for each book. 
Once these programs have been used 
to create these files, they can be 
DELETEd from your Catalog Master 
disk. These ten programs must be run 
prior to the first use of the Enter 
routine. 

A few words of caution before you 
start typing. Since the Catalog Master 
disk is in active use while cataloguing it 
is possible to write over all or part of 
the routines by accident. LOCK them 
after they are entered and keep a 
backup disk. It is also a good idea to 
run backup disks of your book data 
disks periodically — just in case. 

Program Structure 

The structure of the Library Cata- 
log Program is shown schematically in 






=r 






8 

30 


66 

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mo 






S) 

I 




D 
DO 


QDo] f 




IB 


Mi 


(14 

SB 




DO 


D^M*2T- . '£&? 


» — 


tst 




DO 


/bHjZfJc* i 'i& u v\-» 








*sjgSsfcfczW^ 








■>£Ft\S 


V , *'V// /T*7. 


sn 




J '4 

1 










e 
• 









3170 

3i8a 

5199 

3200 

3216 
3220 
3230 
3240 
3250 
3260 
3270 
3288 
3290 
3300 
3310 
3320 
3330 
3340 
3350 
3360 
33 7« 
3380 
3390 
3400 
3410 
3420 
3430 
3440 
3450 
3460 
3470 
3480 
3490 
i960 
3510 
3520 

3530 
3540 

3550 
3560 
3570 
3580 
3590 
3600 

3610 
3620 
3630 

3640 
3650 
3660 
3670 
3888 
3690 
3700 

3710 
3720 
3738 
3740 

3750 
3760 
3770 
3780 

3790 
3800 
3810 
3820 
3830 
3840 
3850 
3860 



IF M* 
INPUT 
IF M* 
IF M* 
IF M* 
PRINT 
PRINT 



SPC< 10)»"<S-SMALL::N-NORHAL 
PRINT M* 



LEFT* <BL*.40 
LEFT* 'BL*.40 



LEN <TL*>> 
LEN 'AO*>> 



IF CN < 108 THEN CN* = "0" + STR* <CN>: 60T0 3196 
CN* = STR* <CN> 
PRINT : PRINT "CURRENT SIZE IS": PRINT 
::T-TALL>: "»S2* 
PRINT "CHANGE ENTRY (V^N>? ";: 6ET H*: 

< > "V" THEN 3270 

"ENTER SI2E (S-N-T): "iM* 

■ "S" THEN SZ* = "S": GOTO 3270 

= "N" THEN SZ* = "N": GOTO 3270 

= "T" THEN SZ* = "T": GOTO 3270 

"INUALIO SIZE. TRV A6AIN.": GOTO 3220 

: PRINT "CURRENT LOCATION IS: "jLC* 
PRINT "CHANGE ENTRV <V/"N>? "j: GET M«: PRINT H* 
IF H* <. > "V" THEN 3390 
PRINT "ENTER NEH LOCATION-" 
PRINT SPC<. 10 )i"< LETTER LETTER NUMBER)" 
INPUT " "iM* 
IF LEN <M*> < > 3 THEN 3380 

IF ASC < LEFT* (M*.l>> < 65 OR ASC < LEFT* <M*.1)> > 90 GOTO 3380 
IF ASC < MID* <M*.2,1>> < 65 OR ASC ( MIO* <H*.2.1>) > 90 GOTO 3389 
IF ASC < RIGHT* <M*,1>> < 48 OR ASC ( RIGHT* <M*.1)> > 57 GOTO 338* 
LC* ■ M«: GOTO 3399 
PRINT "INUALIO LOCATION. TRV AGAIN. ": GOTO 3300 
PRINT : PRINT "ANY CHANGES (V^N>? "; 
GET M«: PRINT M* 
IF H* < > "V" GOTO 3430 
GOTO 2900 

IF LEN <TL*> < 40 THEN TL* ■ TL* + 
TL* » LEFT* < TL*.4fi 

IF LEN <AU*> < 49 THEN AU* = AU* ♦ 

AU* ■ LEFT* <AU*.4m I 

PRINT 0*i"0PEN LIBREC-129.L120" 

PRINT 0*i"HRITE LIBREC-120.R"i I 

PRINT TL*: PRINT AU*: PRINT TP*: PRINT CN*: PRINT LC«: PRINT SZ*: PRINT NA 
PRINT BS: PRINT BN« 
PRINT D* 

^ T T ; T PRINT "°° V0U WISH T0 HODIFV OTHER ENTRIES": PRINT "HITH THE 

SAME TITLE <Y/N)V ";: GET M*: PRINT M* 

IF M* » "V" THEN 60T0 710 

PRINT : PRINT "THIS IS THE ENO OF THIS SEARCH.": PRINT "00 VOU HISH 
TO": PRINT "MODIFY OTHER ENTRIES <V'N>"? -j: GET M«: PRINT M* 

IF M* < > "Y" THEN 2260 

GOTO 400 

REM ****** SUBROUTINE TO DELETE A RECORO 

IF I = RN THEN 3650 

PRINT 0*i'REA0 LIBREC-120.R";RN 

INPUT TL*: INPUT AU*: INPUT TP*: 
NA: INPUT BS: INPUT BN* 

PRINT 0* 

PRINT 0*»"HRITE LIBREC-120.R" jI 

PRINT TL*: PRINT out: PRINT TP*: 
NA: PRINT BS: PRINT BN* 

PRINT 0* 
RN = RN - 1 

PRINT D* 

PRINT 0*J"HRITE LIBREC-129.R9" 

PRINT RN 

PRINT 0* 

IF RN = THEN INUERSE : PRINT 
"CATALOG DATA": NORMAL : FOR Y = 

GOTO 3529 

PRINT D* 

PRINT : PRINT 

CO^NUt"!^" .T^t""* "*• F0UN °-" ! PRINT -PRESS »» KEV T ° 

IF MOO = 1 THEN POP : GOTO 3540 

RETURN 

REM ERROR ROUTINE 

IF PEEK (222) < > 5 THEN PRINT "ERROR FOUNO CODE 
ON LINE "i PEEK <218) ♦ PEEK (219) ♦ 256: ENO 

PRINT 0*i"OPEN LIBREC-120.L120" 

PRINT D*J"MRITE LIBREC-120.R0" 
ZZ = 

PRINT 22 

PRINT D*j "CLOSE" 

IF CM = 2 GOTO 1010 

IF CM « 1 GOTO 500 

GOTO 2600 



INPUT CN*: INPUT LC*: INPUT SZ*: INPUT 



PRINT CN*: PRINT LC*: PRINT SZ*: PRINT 



"THIS DISK NO LONGER CONTAINS": 
1 TO 2000: NEXT V 



PRINT 



"; PEEK <222)j" 



Listing 4. 



1L< REM CHTRLOe LIST PROGRAM 

29 D* - CHP* <4> 

30 ONERR GOTO 359 

49 00 • 1 

50 DN = PEEK (. 771 ) 
60 POKE 779.56 

79 SP* = " 



232 



March 1983 * Creative Computing 




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Library Catalog, continued... 

Figure 7. The primary menu is con- 
tained in Master, and selection from 
this menu runs the other routines. 
Information that needs to be trans- 
mitted from one program routine to 
another is done via POKEing the data 
into memory locations in one routine 
and PEEKing into these locations to 
recover it in the next routine. 

The catalog classification and book- 
shelf identification are called as 
required by the Enter, Search, and 
Bookshelf routines. When each of the 
functional routines is exited, Master 
is run automatically and the primary 
menu is displayed once again. This 
type of structure, where only the 
specific routine that is needed is in 
memory makes it possible to run on a 
48 K machine programs that would 
otherwise require a much larger 
memory. 

Book data are stored in random 
access files (named 1. IBREC-120) on 
disks separate from the Catalog 
Master disk. Record length for this file 

Figure 7. Structure of Library Catalog Program. 



GOTO 270 
: PRINT 



89 HOME : DTflt 

*0 PRINT "LISTING OF ALL BOOKS IN CATflLOO'l PRINT 

100 PRINT "INSERT CBTQLOG DflTQ DISK # "»0D;" IN ORIUE" 

110 PRINT "PRESS ONV KEY WHEN VOU ORE REOOY "»: GET T*: PRINT 

1?0 PRINT 

130 PRINT 0*i"OPEN LIBREC-120.L120" 

140 PRINT D$;"REPO LIBREC-120.R0" 

150 INPUT RN 

160 PRINT D* 

170 IF RN = THEN PRINT "NO BOOKS ON FILE ON THIS DISK.": 

180 PRINT : PRINT "THIS DISK CONJOINS %RN;" BOOK RECORDS.' 

190 HIMEM: 20000 

200 FOR I = 1 TO RN 

210 PRINT 0»i"REOO LIBREC-120.R"iI;",B0" 

228 INPUT TL*: INPUT HU* 

230 PRINT 0* 

240 PRINT SP*: PRINT "TITLE: ";TL*: PRINT "AUTHOR: "jOU* 

250 FOR K * 1 TO 500: NEX1 

260 NEXT I 

278 DD = OD + 1 

280 IF DO > ON THEN 308 

290 GOTO 100 

300 PRINT : PRINT "ALL BOOKS HftUE BEEN LISTEO" 

3t0 PRINT : PRINT "RETURN CATAL06 MHSTEP DISK TO THE ORIUE" 

320 PRINT "PRESS ANY KEV WHEN VOU PRE READY.";: GET T»: PRINT 

330 HIMEM: 384*0 

340 PRINT D*i"RUN CATALOG MASTER" 

350 REM ERROR ROUTINE 

360 IF PEEK (222) ' > 5 THEN PRINT "ERROR FOUND CODE "; PEEK <222>: END 

370 PRINT 0*;"OPEN LIBREC-12e«L120" 

380 PRINT D*;"NR1TE LIBREC-120.R0" 

390 22 ■ 

♦00 PRINT 22 

410 PRINT Dti"CLOSE" 

420 GOTO 130 























































MASTER 


























1 


1 






1 




1 










ENTER 




SEARCH 




MODIFY 




BORROW 




LIST 




BOOKSHELF 




QUIT 


















































READ 
SHELF 
DATA 




READ 

CLASS. 

DATA 




ENTER 
TITLE 


*1 


SELECT 
OPTION 


*1 


LIST 

ALL 

RECORDS 




READ 
SHELF 
DATA 




CATALOG 

CLASS. 

DATA 

(DEWEY 












































READ 

CLASS. 

DATA 




SELECT 

SEARCH 

PARAM'TRS 


<ei 




CONDUCT 
SEARCH 






SELECT 
OPTION 


*■ 




DECIMAL 
SYSTEM) 




*- 
































>C SEQ LIST 

TEXT FILES 

0-9 




ENTER 
BOOK 
DATA 


Si 


CONDUCT 
SEARCH 






PERFORM 
ACTIVITY 




s 








































SHELF 
TEXT 
FILE 

(ID.LOC. 
JESCRIPT.) 






STORE 
BOOK 
DATA 




DISPLAY 
RESULTS 








DISPLAY 
RESULTS 






























> 


' 


















WRITE 
BOOK 
DATA 




CONTINUE 
SEARCH? 




MODIFY 
RECORD 




DISPLAY 
RESULTS 






ORDER 
DIRECTORY 








































BOOK 
DATA 
FILES 

LIBREC-120 




INC. NO. 

OF REC'DS 

ON FILE 












WRITE 
SHELF 






1 


























1 






RUN 
MASTER 




RUN 
MASTER 




RUN 
MASTER 




RUN 
MASTER 




RUN 
MASTER 




RUN 
MASTER 







































234 



March 1983 e Creative Computing 



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CIRCLE 202 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Library Catalog, continued... 

is 120 bytes. Information on shelf iden- 
tification numbers, sizes, and location 
descriptions is stored on the Catalog 
Master disk in a sequential text file 
named SHELF. 

What The Routines Do 

Catalog Master (Listing 1) is the 
traffic director for the Library Catalog 
Program. When the program is run, 
memory location 770 is examined. If 
the value stored is anything but 56, a 
number which I selected randomly, the 
descriptive information on lines 50 to 
260 is presented on the screen. On later 
occasions, when this routine is called 
from the other routines in the pro- 
gram, the value 56 will have been 
POKEd into this location and the 
introduction will not be printed. This 
random number was selected so that 
there is only a small probability that 
the introduction will be skipped if the 
Catalog program is run after some 
other program which utilizes this 
memory location. 

The remainder of the routine for- 
mulates the menu which is used to call 
the Enter, Search, and other routines 
for the actual work. If the decision is 
made to modify a record, the value 92 
is POKEd into 773 to tell the Search 
routine that it is to be used in its 
modify mode. 

When the selection of the desired 
operation is made, the Catalog Master 
program goes to the appropriate 
statement and runs the necessary 
routine. 

Catalog Enter 

Catalog Enter (Listing 2) is the rou- 
tine that requests data on books to be 
added to the catalog, provides an 
opportunity to revise the data, checks 
to make sure that the data are within 
the expected range, formats the data 
as required for storage, and prints the 
data to the disk. For nonfiction books 
the determination of catalog number 
for each entry is provided by selection 
from an ever narrowing listing of 
subject areas. Provision is made for 
returning to a broader description of 
the subject if an error is made in the 
original selection. 

The listing of the catalog descriptors 
is stored in the array SC$, which has 
1000 elements. During the initial 
access to the Enter program, this array 
is filled from ten sequential text files 
stored on the Catalog Master disk. 
This read-in process takes about a 
minute and a half, during which 
descriptive material is on the screen. 
Once this data are read in, the Master 
disk is removed and replaced with the 
disk to be used for the storage of data. 

The data are stored in the file named 



Listing 5. 



336 C0LEMPN DRIUE 



130 
148 
150 
160 

170 
180 
190 
2M 

210 

220 
230 
240 
250 
260 
270 
280 
290 
300 
310 
320 



GOTO 910 
: UTRP (3)s8T = 

"00 VQU WISH TO LIST" 
SPC< 5>;"f 1 > PLL BOOKS LOPNED OUT 1 ' 
SPC< 5->i"<2'> BOOKS LOPNED TO P GIUEN PERSON" 

" OR <3) END THE SEPRCH" 

PRINT "ENTER THE NUMBER OF VOUR SELECTION ";: 



GET T»: PRINT 



1 RtM i"H lb PR0GKPM IS C0PVR16HT 1982 BV J.M. HELLMPN 

: MONROEUILLE PP 15146 : PHONE 412-372-9004 
10 REM CPTPL06 BORROW PR06RPM 
20 HIHEH: 20000 
30 POKE 770.56 
40 ON = PEEK < 771 > 
50 D* = CHR* < 4 > 

50 SM ' " •• 

70 BL* = " 

i(3 00 = 1 

*> 0NERR 

100 HOME 

tie oo ■ i 

120 PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT " 
PRINT : 
PRINT 
IF r* » 
IF T* = 
IF ** = 
GOTO 100 

REM ROUTINE TO LIST PLL BOOKS LOflNEO OUT 
REM SEPRCH IS ON BYTE 96 
HOME : UTPB <5>:HI = 0:ST » 1 

PRINT "INSERT CPTPLOG DPTP DISK « "iDOi" IN DRIUE" 

PRINT : PRINT "PRESS PNV KEV HHEN VOL' PRE REPOV "»: GET T«: PRINT : PRINT 
HOME : UTPB ^5) 

PRINT "LISTING OF PLL BOOKS OUT ON LOPN": PRINT 
PRINT D*J"0PEH LIBREC-120.L120" 
PRINT D*J'REP0 LIBREC-120.R0" 
INPUT RN 
PRINT 0* 

IF RN = THEN PRINT "NO BOOKS ON FILE ON THIS 0ISK": FOR = 1 TO 4000 
: NEXT Q: GOTO 400 
PRINT : PRINT "THIS DISK CONTPINS ";RNi" BOOK RECOROS. ": PRINT 



"1" THEN 210 
"2" THEN 430 
"3" THEN HOME 



t'TPB (4): GOTO 850 



330 
340 
350 
360 
370 
380 
381 



GOTO 810 



POR I = 1 TO RN 

PRINT 0*i"REP0 LIBREC-120.R";I;".B96" 

INPUT BS 

PRINT 0* 

IF BS » 1 THEN HI » 1: GOSUB 700 

NEXT I 
400 DO = 00 + 1 
410 IF DO > DN THEN 
420 GOTO 240 

♦30 REM SUBROUTINE TO FINO BOOKS LOPNED TO P GIUEN PERSON 
440 HOME : UTPB (5^ 

450 INPUT "ENTER BORROWER'S LPST NPMEs " ;LN* 
468 INPUT "ENTER BORROWER'S FIRST NPME: ";FM* 
470 6B* = LEFT* <<LN* + "/" ♦ FM* ♦ BL*>.15> 
480 HI = 0:DD • 1 
490 HOME : UTPB <5>: PRINT "LISTING OF BOOKS": PRINT SPC< 5>;"BORROWED BV: 

";BB* 
500 PRINT 

510 PRINT "INSERT CPTPLOG DPTP DISK • ";00;" IN DRIUE." 

520 PRINT : PRINT "PRESS PNV KEV WHEN VOU PRE REPDV. ";: GET T*: PRINT : PRINT 
530 PRINT D*j"0PEN LIBREC-120.L120" 
540 PRINT D*i"REP0 LIBREC-120.R0" 
550 INPUT RN 

560 PRINT 0* 

570 IF RN = THEN PRINT "NO BOOKS ON FILE IN THIS DISK.": GOTO 670 

580 FOR I = 1 TO RN 

590 PRINT 0*i"REP0 LIBREC-120.R";I i",B9S" 

600 INPUT BS 

610 PRINT 0* 

620 IF BS = THEN 660 

630 PRINT 0*;"REPO LIBREC-120.R";I;".B98" 

640 INPUT BHt 

650 IF BN* = BBS THEN HI = 1: GOSUB 700 

660 NEXT I 

670 DO = DD ♦ 1 

680 IF OD > ON THEN 810 

690 GOTU 510 

■fM REM SUBROUTINE TO PRINT BOOK DPTP 

710 PRINT 0*;"RER0 LIBREC-120.R"iI ;".B0" 

720 INPUT TL*: INPUT PU* 

738 IF ST » 2 GOTO 760 

740 PRINT D**"REPD LIBREC-120.R"»I j" ,B98" 

750 INPUT BN* 

760 PRINT D* 

770 PRINT : PRINT SP* 

780 PRINT "TITLE: "iTL*: PRINT "PUTHOR: ";PU»: IF ST - 1 THEN PRINT "BOR 
ROWER: "iBN* 

M "RINT : PRINT " CONTINUE SEPRCW <V"NV, » ;s GET Tt: PRINT : IF T* » 
"N" THEN POP : GOTO loo 

■■im RETURN 

810 IF HI • 1 THEN 890 



236 



March 1983 e Creative Computing 



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CIRCLE 231 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Library Catalog, continued... 

L1BREC-I20. Details of the file for- 
mat are given below. The Enter rou- 
tine opens the file and reads the first 
record, which contains the number of 
books currently stored on the disk. If 
no books are on the disk, the error 
routine is used to place a zero in the 
necessary location, and the processing 
continues. The screen then requests 
title, author, location, book height 
(remember, some of my bookshelves 
are suitable only for small books, and 
others will accommodate oversize 
books), and whether the book is fic- 
tion or nonfiction. 

The title and author are allocated 
40 characters each in the data file. The 
title can contain any characters except 
the comma or quotation mark. No 
commas, quotation marks, or spaces 
are permitted in the author list. 
Multiple author names are separated 
with slashes (/), giving the Search 
program a key to find each name 
individually. 

If the book is fiction, the program 
jumps to a series of steps that generate 
the menu for selection of the fiction 
type, e.g., novel, western, science- 
fiction, etc. If the book is nonfiction, 
the primary menu for subject classifi- 
cation is presented, showing the 10 
divisions. Upon selection from this 
menu the appropriate 10 categories for 
the division are shown, and following 
selection from this menu, the appro- 
priate 10 subcategories are shown and 
a selection is made. The routine auto- 
matically inserts in the data file the 
information that the book is not out 
on loan. The routine also computes the 
number of authors based on the input. 
This information is used in the Search 
routine. 

During data entry, each entry you 
type in is verified to be within the 
expected range. No protection can be 
given against spelling errors in the title 
or author entries, but, for example, the 
si/e entry must be either S, N, or T, 
and the location must be a letter, let- 
ter, number sequence for the entry to 
be accepted. After all necessary data 
are entered, a listing is presented of the 
total record, and an opportunity is 
presented to change incorrect entries. 
If all are correct, the data are stored in 
the arrays reserved for them. The 
operator then has the choice of con- 
tinuing to add books or to end data 
entry. 

The location of the book must be 
specified at the time it is entered into 
the catalog. When the three-character 
shelf ID is entered, the Enter routine 
checks that the ID is in the correct 
format, that the ID has been entered 
(in the Bookshelf routine) as an exist- 
ing shelf, and for an inconsistency in 



PRINT : GOTO 1011 
Slj-TO THE DRIUE" 
PRINT 



820 HOME : UTAB (5) 

838 PRINT "NO BOOKS PRE OUT ON LOAN" 

r :4M PRINT : PRINT "PRESS ANY KEV TO CONTINUE "i: GET T*: PRINT 

PRINT : PR1N1 "RETURN THE CATALOG MASTER DISK": PRINT SPO" 
860 PRINT "PRESS ANY KEV HHEN VOU ARE READY ";: GET T*: PRINT : 
870 HIMFM: 38400 

PRINT D*;"RUN CATALOG MASTER" 
830 PRINT : PRINT SP«: PRINT "ALL BOOKS ON LOAN HAUE BEEN FOUND" 
800 GOTO 840 

910 REM ERROR SUBR0UTN1E 
fe0 IF PEEK <2ZZ> < > 5 THEN PRINT "ERROR F0UN0 CODE "; PEEK <222>: POKE 

21b. 0: END 
830 PRINT "NO BOOK RECORDS FOUND ON THIS DISK": FOR K = 1 TO 2000: NEXT K 
840 IF ST = 1 8OT0 4i" 
*3Q G0TU 670 



336 COLEMAN DRIUE 



Listing 6. 

1 REM THIS PROGRAM IS COPYRIGHT 1992 BV J.M. HELLMAN 

: M0NROEUILLE PA 15146 : PHONE 412-372-90*4 
1U REM CATALOG BOOKSHELF PROGRAM 
20 POKE 770. 56 

30 BR* = " " 

40 HOME : UTAB <5> 

50 PRINT SPC< 4);: INUERSE : PRINT "BOOKSHELF IDENTIFICATION PROGRAM" 

60 N = 200 

70 DIM LC*N*I >.0Ct' N • 

80 D* = CHR* • 4 I 

90 ONERR GOTO 1210 

PRINT D*i"0PfcN SHELF" 

PRINT Of : "READ SHELF" 

INPUT NS 

PRINT 0* 

IF NS = O THEN PRINT 

: GOTO 

PRINT 0*»"REA0 SHELF" 

i = 1 TO US: INPUT l.C*(I»0): INPUT I.C*<I.1>: 
FOR I = 1 TO NS: INPUT 0C*< I >l NEXT I 
PRINT D* 
PRINT 
PRINT "DO VOU NISH TO": PRINT 

SPCf 5>i"'l> ADD SHELUES TO THE LIBRARY": PRINT 
SPC< 5">;"<2> REHOUE SHELUES FROM LIBRARY": PRINT 
SPC< 5>s"<3> GET A SHELF DIRECTORY": PRINT 
SPC< 5>*"<4> END SHELF OPERATIONS" 
PRINT "ENTER THE NUMBER OF YOUR SELECTION ";: GET T$: 



NORMAL 



100 
110 
120 
130 
140 

15U 

170 
180 
190 
200 
210 
220 
230 
240 
250 



PRINT "NO SHELF DATA IS NOH ON FILE.": PRINT 



NEXT I 



270 
230 
290 
300 
310 

330 
540 

550 
360 
370 

390 

♦ 00 
41 

I -11 

4411 
4SIJ 

460 

470 
480 
490 

510 



PRINT 

PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT Tt 
IF T* = "1" 
IF T* = "2" 
IF T* = "3" 
IF T* = "4" 
GOTO 250 
HOME : UTAB 
PRINT "NOTE 



1HEN 310 
THEN 600 
THEN 790 
THEN 1120 

(5 > 



EACH SHELF IN A BOOKSHELF MUST" 
PRINT "BE ADDED INDIUIDUALLV" 

PRINT : PRINT "TO CORRECT ERRORS-": PRINT "REHOUE THE SHELF FROM THE 
FILE": PRINT "AND REENTER IT": PRINT 

PRINT : PRINT BR«: PRINT "ENTER THE ID NUMBER OF THE NEH" 
INPUT "SHELF (LETTER LETTER NO. EG JH2) "»LC* 
IF LEN <LC*:> < > 3 THEN 360 

BSC < LEFT* <LC*.l ■> < 65 OR ASC ' LEFT* <!LC*.1>> > 90 THEN 360 

MID* (LCS.2,1)) < 65 OR ASC < MID* <LC*.2.1>> > 90 THEN 360 
RIGHT* (LC*.1)> < 48 OR ASC ( RIGHT* <LC*.1);> > 57 THEN 360 



IF 
IF 



ASC 

ASC 
<H = l.l 
IF NS = THEN 
FOR I = 1 TO NS: IF LC* I .0 > = LC* THEN HH = 1:1 = NS + 1 

IF HM = 1 THEN PRINT : PRINT "THE SHELF NUMBER VOU ENTERED HAS": PRINT 
"ALREADY BEEN ASSIGNED. PLEASE TRY AGAIN.": GOTO 350 
PRINT : PRINT "ENTER LARGEST HEIGHT BOOK THE SHELF" 

PRINT "WILL ACCEPT < S-SMALL/N-NORMAL'T-TALL ) " .: GET SZ*: PRINT SZ* 
IF SZ* = "S" THEN 520 



"M" 

"T" 



THEN 520 
THEN 520 



1:LC*<NS.0> = LC*:LC*<NS»1 ) = SZ* 



IF SZ* = 

IF SZ* - 

GOTO 460 
520 MS = NS + 
530 PRINT 

•i.40 PRINT "ENTER A SHORT DESCRIPTION OF" 
550 PRINT "THE SHELF LOCATION ";: IWtRSE 
560 PRINT : INPUT " "jOCKNS) 
570 PRINT : PRINT "ADD MORE SHELUES (Y/U)" 
580 IF T* = "V" THEN 310 
590 HOME : UTAB <3>l GOTO 200 
600 HOME : UTA8 (3) 
tie IF MS = THEN PRINT : PRINT "NO SHELF IO'S ON FILE TO REHOUE'' 

I 60T0 - 
620 t'KIrir "NuTE: EACH SHELF IN A BOOKSHELF MUST" 
630 PRINT "BE REM0"FD INDIUIDUALLV." 



PRINT "NO COMMAS'": NORMAL 
;: GET T*: PRINT T* 



PRINT 



238 



March 1983 e Creative Computing 




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Library Catalog, continued... 

the specified book height and the 
height of the specified bookshelf. For 
example, a book of "normal" height 
cannot be placed on a "short" shelf. If 
a mismatch occurs during any of the 
checks the operator is given the choice 
of reviewing a shelf directory as an aid 
in correct placement of the book. 

After five entries are made, or if the 
selection has been made to terminate 
data entry, a subroutine is called to 
write the stored data to the disk. With 
48 K memory, there is actually room to 
store a greater number of records 
between interruptions for disk stor- 
age, but five has been selected to 
minimize data loss in case of power 
interruption or other disaster. 

After all records are entered, the 
number of records on the disk, stored 
in record 0, is increased. If during the 
writing process the disk becomes full, 
the drive door is left open after a disk 
switch, or if the disk has been write 
protected, an appropriate message is 
shown and the data are saved. All of 
the information stored in the com- 
puter memory from the books that are 
to be entered is then written when the 
drive door is closed or a new disk is 
inserted. 

After the catalog classification data 
are read into the program, lines 330- 
390. HIMI-'M is set to 20000. The 
reason for this change is given below. 

When data entry is completed in- 
structions are given to reinsert the 
Catalog Master disk in the drive, and 
the Catalog Master routine is run. 

Catalog Search 

The Search routine ( Listing 3) is the 
most complex in the program and 
is used to find books based on any of 
several keys, and also to modify the 




■^^tf/ g"^ ' 



/ pirked up that thousand-item multiple 
regression analysis that you've been working 
on tor tun months. Here's the output." 



*40 

650 

660 

sto 

680 

mo 

720 

730 

740 

'50 
760 
770 
780 
790 
3>J0 
81<5 
820 

-411 

850 
960 

890 

910 
920 
930 
940 
S50 

960 
970 
980 

990 

I 000 
1010 

1020 
1030 

1040 
1050 

1070 

1080 
1U90 

1100 

1110 
1120 



PRINT : PRINT BR$: PRINT : PRINT "ENTER THE 10 NUMBER OF THE REH0UE0" 

INPUT -SHELF CLETfER LETTER NO. E'", IH2) ;LC* 

IF LEN <LC*> < > 3 THEN 640 

ir 22: ( LEFT * ' Lf - t ' 1 " « OR OSC ' LEFT* <LC*.1>) > 90 THEN 640 

IF AST ( MID* <LC*.2.1 ») 65 OR 0?r < MI0* <LC*.2.1)> > 30 THEN 640 

IF CtSC < RIGHT* (LC**1>) < 48 OR OSC < RIGHT* <LC*,1)) > 57 THEN 640 

MH = M 

iL N ? = ° THEN PRINT " m SMELf I0 '* 0N F "-E TO REMOVE'": GOTO 200 
™, .1 l J^S. IF LC *< I ' e > = LC * ™EN HH = 1:LC*I.0> = LC*<NS,0):L 
C*XI,D = LC*<NS.li:OC*I) = 0C*<NS);I = NS ♦ 2 
NEXT 1 

JL^rJ:,-? I2 EN PRINT ! PRINT " THE SHELF NUMBER VOU ENTERED HAS 
"NOT BEEN ASSIGNED. PLEOSE TRV OG01N.": GOTO 640 
NS = NS - 1 
PRINT : PRINT "REMOTE MORE SHELUES (Y/-NV? 
IF T* = "V" THFN 680 
HOME : UIAB <3>l GOTO 200 
HOME : UTA6 <5> 

miu? = LI^ N -^ RINT MN0 SHELF ,0 ' S ** '** F ILE.": PRINT : GOTO 200 
PRINT : PRINT "DO VOU WONT P LISTING fiF": print 

PRINT " u> OLL 8001 SHELF ID'S AND": PRINT SPC< 12)i"L0C0TI0NS" 



PRINT 



GET T*: PRINT Tf 



<2^ PARTICULAR SHELF* 



PRINT 

PRINT « 

PRINT 

PRINT "OR (3) END DIRECTORY" 

PPINT : PRINT "ENTER THE NUMBER OF VOUP SELECTION ";: GET T*: 

IF T* » "1" THEN 92W 

IF T* = "2" THEN 990 

IF T* = "3" THEN HOME : UT08 <3>l GOTO 200 

GOTO 790 

HOME : UTOB <5> 

FOR I = 1 TO NS 

PRINT BR* 

P ? I ?I ''1° = "*LC*<I.e>l SPC< 10>;"SIZ£= ";LC*<I.l): PRINT "LOCATION: 

FOR J = 1 TO 2U00: NEXT J 

NEXT I 

^iu,^^* 1 2?i H Jj ^ INT " EN0 ^ "STINB-l PRINT "PRESS ANY KEV TO CO 
NTINUE ";: GET T*: PRINT : HOME : "TOP. <3>l GOTO 810 
HOME : "TAB (3) 

PRINT "ENTER THE 10 NUMBER OF THE SHEI F" 

PRINT "IN THE FORMAT": INPUT " LETTER LETTER NO. EG JH2 "*LC* 

IF LEN <XC*> < > 3 THEN 990 

IF OSC < LEFT* -LC*.l » < OS OR H?r ( LEFT* <XC*.l > > > 90 THEN 990 



IF 

IF 



ASC < 

I 



MID* <LC*.2.n> < 65 OP ASC ( MID* <LC*.2.1 > > > 90 THEN 990 
RIGHT* <LC*,1 >> < 48 OR OSC < RIGHT* <LC*.I >) > 57 THEN 990 



1 TO NS: IF LC*( 1.0 > = LC* THEN HH ■ liK ■ III ■ NS ♦ I 
THEN PRINT : PRINT "SHELF 10 IS NOT ON FILE.": PRINT 



BOT0 



HSC 

HH ■ 

FOR 1 ■ 
NEXT 1 
IF HH = 

PRINT : KRINT BR*: PRINT "ID = '*LC*K.8>I SPC( 5^"SIZE= ";LC*K.l) 

: PRINT "LOCATION: "DC*' 
PRINT : PRINT "PRESS ANV KEV TO CONTINUE "»: GET T*: PRINT : GOTO 79" 
IF NS = THEN HOME : "TAB <5): PRINT "NO SHELUES ARE ON FILE'": PRINT 

: PRINT "BOOKS CANNOT BE ENTERED UNTIL": PRINT "SHELF IDS ORE ON FILP'" 

: PRINT : GOTO 200 
1130 GOSUB 1280 
1140 PRINT D*i"0PEN SHELF" 
1150 PRINT D*i "WRITE SHELF" 
1160 PRINT NS 

1170 FOR I = t TO NS: PRINT LC*<I.0>: PRINT LC*I,1): NEXT I 
1180 FOR I = 1 TO NS: PRINT DC*< 1 ): NEXT I 
1190 PRINT D*i"CL0SE" 
1208 PRINT 0*i"RUN C0T0L06 MASTER" 
1210 IF PEEK (222) < > 5 THEN PRINT "ERROR CODE "; PEEK <222>j" FOUNO 

IN LINE ": PEEK <218> ♦ PEEK <219> * 256: END 
1220 PRINT 0*;"OPEN SHELF" 
1236 PRINT 0*i"HRITE SHELF" 
1240 NH = M 
1250 PRINT NN 
1260 PRINT 0*»"CLOSE" 
1270 GOTO 100 

1280 REM SUBROUTINE TO ORDER SHELF DIRECTORY 
1290 F = 0:1 = 1 

>0 i ■ LC* I ♦ '- .0 ■ then 1350 

1310 Ti* = LC* 1 ♦ 1.0>:T2« - LC*' I + l.l>iT3* ■ DC*' 1 ♦ i ■ 
1320 LC* I * l.U ■■ = LCI ! ♦ 1 ,i i = LC* 1.1 ':D' *• I ♦ ! I = X* I • 

1330 LCtXI.O) = Tl*tLC* 1,1) ■ r2*:0< t- ■ - 1 7j 

n40 •■■ = i 

1350 I = I + 1: II- HtN 1308 
136H IF F = 1 THEN 1230 
1370 RETURN 



240 



March 1983 c Creative Computing 



HUNTINGTON COMPUTING g 





IS 
B 
B 
B 
B 
B 
B 
B 



B 

B 
B 
B 
B 
B 
B 



Softlights 

By Fred Huntington 

Time to tell you about a nitty little program 
that s been around a while that deserves some 
mention The Menu Generator is an excellent 
program that everyone should use on every 
disk to create a HELLO program to take the 
typing out ot running programs 

It creates menus quickly and painlessly The 
publisher has even given permission to pro- 
grammers to use the generated menus in com- 
mercial programs — no royalties Comes com- 
plete with a free backup disk 

The usual price is $39 95 Our price $33.89. 
But until April 30. you can have it for $27.** 
(#9380). 

MONEY TO BURN 
If you ve got money to burn and want the best 
monitor for Apple around and do a lot of word 
processing, you have no choice but The 
Genius. At only $1**3 (we II ship free in U.S.) 
it includes a special pro- 

gram to make it compatible with Word Star, and 
your choice of B/W. amber or green screen 
(only one). 

What makes this monitor so special is that it 
displays a full 57 rows. This means you can see 
a full page displayed. |ust like it will be printed 
This is unheard of for the Apple. (#113). 
ULTIMA II SPECIAL 
The hottest new game out is On-Line s Ul- 
tima II at $59.95. Here s a special you won t 
beat. Buy any item from us (no matter how 
small) and you can have the Ultima II for only 
$37.**. This special ends April 30. 1983. 

Included in Ultima II is the fanciest packaging 
ever done by On-Line. a beautiful four-color 
17x22 cloth map. suitable for framing, two 
disks (three sides) and hours of fun. (#1114) 
NEW COMPUTER 
We re in the process of installing a new Sage 
computer to run our business. This 16-bit. 
68000 computer combined with Flexware soft- 
ware (also available for the Apple) will allow us 
to have the fastest system ever installed by any 
mail order business. 

In less than the time it takes to type your 
name, we II be able to tell you the status of your 
order, call up any invoice in the last year, tell 
you shipping cost for any hardware item, when 
back-ordered items will come in and much 
more. 

We re quite excited about it and will be sell- 
ing Sage and Flexware and doing custom pro- 
gramming for it More on this later. 
RANA DRIVES 
We are now quite competitive on our Rana 
Drive prices. Give us a call for our new lower 

prices. _ , , 

We also have the new Gibson high speed 
light pen at a discount. This is a knockout item 



At press time our price was $296 Call tor latest 
pricing I #114) 

Ice Demons is a nice new arcade game from 
the talented Matthew Jew Listing at $29 95. 
our special this month is $11. *3. ( #7720) 

Omega Microwave has an excellent new 
game out called A City Dies Whenever Night 
Falls. List price is $29.95 and our special is 
$11.*S. The documentation that comes with 
this is unbelievable And it is copyable and 
hstable (#707) 

128K — $399 
Also from Omega, we're happy to be carry- 
ing their Ramex- 1 28 1 28K board for only $3** 
la bargain even at the full list price of $499) It 
requires no removing of chips to install It 
comes with powerful disk emulation software, 
which adds eight new DOS commands. It is the 
only 128K board that allows the user to load or 
save a full 136K VisiCalc file in 20 seconds 
(#708) 

NEW 
.ion Pleasure (adults only) Village $1S.3* 

#;o;o Hands On! (adults only) Village $«S.3f 

#»06i Prism (stonrbook and games) $10.8* 

»968i Sheila - HAL labs ** , " f l * 

Bedilorm Redibmder - Great! CAU 

Flexware The best, most flexible, and most expensive account 

ing software ever made lor the Apple CALL 

#«26i lovers or Strangers $35.3* 

Corona IBM PC look alike. Dynamite! CAU 

* 1 1 7 the toaster (two removable S meg 

cartridges) by Xcomp $SO**.00 

#ii8 IDS paper feeder $«3*.** 

#H9 CP/M Card (TM) - CP/M 3.0 (IM) + 641 

memory <■ 6MHi speed Call for price 

AgDisk Agricultural software • • CALL 

#12? Compu-Music - Roland $•*•••• 




• i io Iranstar 1 30 daisy wheel printer with 
boldface and underscore Six mo. 

lid warranty $70*.00 m 

iMl Taxan KB color with board I cable $3**.** J 

All Santa Clara and Davong drives available 

at discount 
«M80 Money Decisions (Eagle.) special $140.00 



The Transtar 315 is a mind-blowing printer It 
will dump any HIRES color screen in four- 
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playing a game, press the button and m a few 
seconds you II have a four color printout of the 
screen Traction or friction Unbelievable. 
Should be ready for shipment shortly. Our price 
$**9.00 complete 1 (#231 ) 



8 

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PSIO Dual Function Card Videx 

SKW Color Coder 5 different color library 

cases for carrying floppies $15.** I 

We now have the complete line of Okidata 
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Child s Play is an incredible new piece of soft- 
ware written by Mike Taylor for children three to 
seven years old. It includes an etch-a-sketch. a 
series of mazes in which the cutest ant you 
ever saw is guided to his musical reward, arid a 
series of quizzes which teach a child concepts 
of bigger than, different from. etc. Published by 
Huntington (with our daughter in mind) we have 
priced this so everyone can afford to enjoy it. 
The disk is crammed-packed and is only 
$19.**. Order #8999 



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SSM has the hottest new modems in the busi- 
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The following specials are good through April. 
#1562 Modemcard (300 baud) $339.*0 ■ 



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The following Transpaks include the 



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ModemCard and the Source 

#8544 Iranspak-I (includes Iransend I) $30*. 

#8565 Iranspak-2 (includes Iransend 2) $340.00 W 

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The following include 1 200 baud modem jea 

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#•567 Iranspak-2 • (includes Iransend 2) ... . $7**.00 2 

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The following include the Source 



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CALL 



WE HAVE HUNDREDS OF ATARI 

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The absolutely most incredible program we 
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S Call Toil-Free 800-344-5 1 06 (outside California) 



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Post Off ice Box 1297 



Corcoran. California 93212 

B Foreign Orders 209-992-4481 
In California 800-692-4146 



We take MasterCard. American Express or VISA (Include card # and 
AoM • ■ a rsosmsd iraosmam oi Aetna Con-Ms. nc expiration date) California residents add 6% tax Include S2 00 (or postage 
p!!r,ii<*ru«tat,*»™«oiCa™ooc»i Foreign and hardware extra Foreign (excluding Canada) remit U S cur 

trs so- * a ragjaiaradiraoamariioi Tandy Corp rency checks on US banks, use listed charge cards, or make direct wire 

Ann- ■ * ragswrM irarjsmarti oi Ann. mc transfers through Security Pacific Bank. Corcoran, tor a $6 00 charge All 

overseas orders shipped by air Send tor tree catalog Prices subxrct to 

change without notice 



Outside cant. 800-344-5106 




CIRCLE 181 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Library Catalog, continued... 

book records. If the routine has been 
called by the Master routine for record 
modification, address 773 will contain 
92, setting MOD=l. and bypassing 
program lines 160 through 390. The 
data needed for catalog number selec- 
tion are not read in. and the program 
proceeds directly to the request for the 
book title. If a search is to be made on 
title, subject, or author, the catalogu- 
ing data are read in from the SC SEQ 
LIST text files. 

After the necessary initializations, a 
menu is presented, and you select the 
type of search to be performed. If title 
is selected, the name of the book is 
entered, the first words or the entire 
title, and then the search is conducted 
on all data records. Instructions are 
given to insert data disks sequentially, 
with the total number of disks con- 
taining catalog data found in location 
771, where it was POK Ed by the Mas- 
ter routine. 

When a match is found, the entire 
file is presented, as shown in Figure 8, 
and you then have the opportunity to 
end the search or to continue looking 
for other books with the same title. 
When the search is completed, the 
Search menu is returned to the screen. 

Figure 8. 

Sample Results of Search program. 



TITLE: I HEAR AMERICA TALKING 

AUTHOR: FLEXNER 

LOCATION: JC1 

SIZE (SMALL-NORMAL-TALL): T 

CATEGORY: NON-FICTION 

CATALOG NUMBER: 421 

BOOK HAS NOT BEEN LOANED OUT. 



CONTINUE SEARCH (Y/N) 



The search on author is more com- 
plex since it is necessary to find all 
books by the given author or authors. 
even when they are included among 
the authors of a book with additional 
writers. The name(s) of the author is 
requested. For the case of multiple 
authors, the routine determines the 
number, and stores each name in an 
array. 

In the case of a single author, the 
search proceeds through the data- 
containing disks. Byte 94. which con- 
tains the number of authors in the 
individual record, is examined. If the 
number is I, then the name of the 
author is extracted from the record 
and compared to the given name. If the 
number on the record is greater than I . 
then each of the authors in the record 
is compared to the given name. If the 
search is for a book with more than 



Listing 7. 

RAM TO CREATE SC SEv LI! 

l 4 , 
4M FOR I » 1 TO ieOl [)| NEXT 

50 PRINT Dt»"0PEN SC SE 
S0 PRINT D*;"WRITE SC SEC LIST 0" 
70 FOR I = 1 TO 100: PRINT SC* I >: NEXT 

PRINT 0*. "CLOSE" 
180 DOTH "GENERALITIES". "KNOWLEDGE". "THE BOOK" ."SYSTEMS" ."« " 

US DATA "- ","« »,»« ',•« ,«* ■• 

MTu "BIBLIOGRAPHY", "BIBLIOGRAPHIES". "OF INDIVIDUALS". "OF WORKS BV S 

PFC CLASSES HP WRITERS", "OF ANON I PSFUDON WRIT 
'ATA "OF WORKS FROH SPFC PLACES". "SUBJECT BIBLIOS t CATALOGS" , "GEN S 

UBJECT CATALOGS" . "AUTHOR & DATE CATALOGS" . "DICTIONARY CATAL" 
146 OATA "LIBRARY t INFO SCIENCES". "LIBRARY RELATIONSHIPS" ."PHYSICAL PLA 
■PERSONNEL :;. POSITION 
.'ATA "LIBRARY OPERATIONS". "LIBRARIES FOR SPFC SUBJECTS" ."GENERAL LIB 

RARtES"»"REAOING t USE OF INFO MF r 'I'- 
160 OATA "GEN ENCYCLOPEDIC WORKS" ."AMERICAN" ."OTHERS IN ENGLISH". "IN OTH 

ER GERMANIC LANGS". "IN FRENCH- PROVENCAL- rATAlAN" 
170 OATA "IN ITAL- ROMANIAN- RAETO-ROMANIC"." IN SPANISH «- PORTUGUESE" ." I 

N SLA'IIC LANGS". "IN SCANDINAVIAN LANGS". "IN OTHER LAN' 
!«0 OATA "♦ ■•,"» "."- ","» ■',"» ■ 

DATA •'♦ ","* ","+ «,•« •,•'- " 
'wTA "GENERAL SERIAL PUBLICATIONS". "AMERICAN". "OTHERS IN ENGLISH". "I 

N OTHER GERMANIC LANGS". "IN FRENCH- PROVENCAL- CATALAN" 
210 DATA "IN ITAL- ROMANIAN-RHAETO-ROMANIC" ."IN SPANISH i PORTUGUESE "."I 

N SLAVIC LANGS". "IN SCANDINAVIAN LANGS". "IN OTHER LANS 
220 DATA "GENERAL ORGS t MUSEOLOGV"."IN NORTH AMERICA", "IN BRITISH ISLES 

"."IN CENTRAL EUROPE". "IN FRAM 
^30 DATA "IN ITALY 1 AD J TERRITORIES". "IN IBERIAN PEN «, AOJ ISL"."IN E E 

UROPE","IN OTHER AREAS "."HUSEOLOOV fHUSEUM SCI >" 
i40 DATA "JOURNALISM- PUBLISHING- NEHSPAPERS" ." Jn N AMER"."IN BRITISH IS 

LES"."IN C EUROPE". "IN FRANCE I HONAi 
250 DATA "IN ITALY I AOJ TERRS". "IN IBERIAN PEN t ADJ ISL"."!N E EUROPE" 

."IN SCANDINAVIA", "IN OTHER ORE. *unw-c 

'ATA "GENERAL COLLECTIONS" ."AMERICAN" , "OTHERS IN EN6LISH"."IN OTHFR 

GERMANIC LANGS". "IN FRENCH- PPi ATALAN" 

I'ATA "IN ITAL- ROMANIAN- RHAETO-ROHANIC" ." IN SPANISH «, PORTUGUESE"." 

IN SLAVIC LANGS". "IN SCANDINAVIAN LAMBS". "IN OTHER LAC 
280 OATA "MSS fc BOOK RARITIES". "MSS". "BLOCK BOOKS". "INCUNABULA", "PRINTED 

DATA "BOOKS NOTABLE FOR BINDINGS" ."NOTABLE ILLUST & MATLS" ."NOTABLE 
OWNERSHIP OR ORIGIN" ."WORKS NOTABLE FOR CONTENT "."BOOKS NOTABLE FOR F 
ORMAT" 



20 

50 
60 
70 

1 tin 

110 



SEQ LIST I 
DIM 

0$ = I" HKf I 4 • 

' =1 TO 1O0: READ SC* I 'I 
PRINT D*;"OPEN SC SEQ LIST 1" 
PRINT Dti "WRITE SC SEQ LIST 1" 
FOR I = 1 TO 100: PRINT SC* I >: 
PRINT 0*; "CLOSE" 
"PICT 0NAR L0$0PHV * R ! L „ ° ' ? C ' p L I NES"," THEORY OF PHIL","MISC OF PHIL". 

OATA "SERIALS ON PHIL" ."ORGANIZATIONS OF PHIL "."STUDY ». TEACHING OF 
L", "TREATMENT AMONG GROUPS OF PERSONS". "HISTORICAL TREATMENT OF P 



NEXT 



NEXT 



120 
130 

140 

150 

160 

170 

180 



:^o 



288 

218 

220 
230 

140 



250 



HIL" 
DATA 
DATA 
[TV- 
DATA 



"METAPHYSICS" . "ONTOLOGY" . "♦ " , "COSMOLOGY" . "SPACE" 

"TIME". "EVOLUTION". "STRUCTURE", "FORCE t ENERGY" ."NUMBER f, QUANT 



"CAUSATION". "DETE 



^EPSTEMLOGY-CAIJST ION- HMNK IND" . "EPISTEMOLOGV" 

SUBCONSCIOUS". "HUMANKIND". "0RI6I 



OATA •• "."THE SELF "."UNCONSCIOUS t 
N «, DESTINY OF I NO I" ml '-.hiil- 1 ;" 
OATA "PARANORMAL PHENOMENA i ARTS". "HELL-BEING- HAPPINESS- SUCCESS". 
PARAPSYCHOL'l&V | OCCULTISM","* " 

HSI?~," DReftMS \ "SERIES"."* "."ANALYTIC 8. DIVINATORV GRAPHOLOGY". "P 
HVSIOGNOMY" , "PHRENi '. 

!£I°.,J! SPE £1 FIE0 PHILOSOPHICAL VIEWPOINTS". "IDLSM I RELTO SYS t DOCTR 
NS"."CRITICAL PHILOSOPHY". "INTUITIONISM «. BERGSONISM". "HUMANISM «, REL 
hTED SVSTEMS " 

S5I?oJ'? E 2f QT .J ONflLISM *• IDEOLOGY". "NATURALISM «■ RELATED SVSTEMS". "PAN 
^J^* RELPTED SYSTEMS". "LIBERALISM t OTHER SVSTEMS". "OTHER SVSTEHS 

& OOCTRINES" 
DATA "PSYCHOLOGY"."* "."PHYSI0L06ICAL PSYCHOLOGY" ."INTELLIGENCE *, IN 
TELLECT". "SUBCONSCIOUS STATES t PF 

DATA "DIFFERENTIAL I GENETIC PSYCHOLOGY "."COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY "."A 
BNORMAL «, CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY". "APPL I FD PSYCHOLOGY". "OTHER ASPECTS" 
OATA "LOGIC". "INOUCTION". "DEDUCTION","* "."* " 

STt rSSAiS"* «*°""'"SYLLC«ISMS"..HYP0THESES".-ARGOM 

S?ZS. ZI£!!£! ( ™***- PHILOSOPHY)". "SYSTEMS I, OOCTRINES" ."POLITICAL ET 
HICS", "ETHICS OF FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS". "PROFESSIONAL & OCCUP'AL ETHIC 

D ?I5 tJ ,o! TH i C ^ 0F "EOLATION «• LEISURE". "ETHICS OF SEX «, REPRODUCTION" 
."ETHICS OF SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS". "ETHICS OF CONSUMPTION", "OTHER ETHI 

'— HL. * ' "JH rt^ 



242 



March 1983 c Creative Computing 



NEW Unlocked Apple Utility Disks 

Don't Blow Your Bucks on Locked-Up Uncopyable Apple Software. 



Frame-Up 

HI -SPEED GRAPHICS DEBPLAT 
BT TOM WMIIUI 



CREATE PROFESSIONAL PRESENTATIONS of 
itermixed hi-res, lo-res and text frames. Easy-to- 
and FAST— hires images load in 2'h- 
ondsl Paddles or Keyboard- advance frames in 
u. ward or reverse. 

UNATTENDED SHOWS are possible with each 
frame individually pre-programmed to appear on 
the screen from 1 to 99 seconds. 
TEXT SCREEN EDITOR lets you create your 
b/w text "slides". Add type "lhre" from the 
„ .oard during presentations if you want 
DISPLAY MODULE: Send entire presentations- 
l disk to your friends and associates. 
PBAMtUP: $29.90 
(InciudM Paata/Poass Choi) 



Flex Text 

70-COLUMN TEXT UTILITY 

wmmiMBmi 

PRINT VARIABLE-WIDTH TEXT on the hires 
screens with normal Applesoft commands 
(including Htab 1-70). Normal, expanded & com- 
pressed text on same screen— no hardware! 

ADD GRAPHICS TO TEXT or vice-versa. Run 
existing programs under Flex Text control. Easy 
to use and compatible with PLE« and GPLE.e 

DOS TOOL KIT* FONT compatibility, or use 
Flex Text fonts. Select up to 9 fonts with ctrl-key 
commands. Print/List/Catalog in any stylel Cus- 
tom TEXT CHARACTER EDITOR included. 
FUX TEXT: $29.80 _. 
(InciudM Paa*»/Po»M CI**. isxjuum monitor) 



Apple Mechanic 

SHAPE-WRITER. BTTB-ZAP DISK 

Binanini 

SHAPE EDITOR; Keyboard-draw shapes for hi- 
res animation in your programs. Design propor- 
I tionally-spaced typefaces with special 
I characters. 6 fonts on the disk. Listable demos 
show how to use shape tables to animate games, 
graphics and professional Charts & Graphs. 

BYTE-ZAP: Rewrite any byte on a disk for repair 
or alteration. Load entire sectors on the screen 
for inspection. Hex/Dec/Ascii displays and input. 
Complete instructions for making trick file 
names, restoring deleted files, etc. 

MORE: Useful music text and hires tricks for 
your programs. Educational documentation. 

APPli MECHANIC: $2930 

(mcludw PMki/PokM Chat a lip Boc*»S) 



Utility City 

81 UTTLXTIBS OH POT DISK 

nimnuiT 



LIST FORMATTER prints each program state- 
ment on a new line. Loops indented with printer 
page breaks. A great de- bugger! Also... 

MULTI-COLUMN catalogs for printouts, auto- 
post Run-number ft Date in programs, put invisi- 
ble commands in programs, create INVISIBLE file 
names, alphabetize/store info on disk, convert 
decimal to hex or INT to FP. renumber to 65535, 
append programs, dump text-screen to printer... 

MORE TOO: 21 Programs Total, a best-seller! 

UTILITY CITY: $29 .SO 

(InciudM PMki PokM Chat a Up took-}) 

_ V 



OOSVBB4 



4fP Typefaces 




TOR APPLE MECHANIC 



26 NEW FONTS for At 
and Hi Writer programs. 



ale Mechanic's Xtyper 
lost are full 96-charac- 



ter fonts, large ft small, of fully editable charac- 
ters. (Apple Mechanic required) 

BEAGLE MENU: Use with your disks. Display 
only the filenames you want (eg. only Applesoft 
files or only Locked files) for one-key cursor 
selection/execution. Space-on-dlsk. catalog 
scan, optional sector-number elimination. 
TYPEFACES tor Appl- Mechanic: $20.00 

(IriluOsVpSsks PcWChart » toogl* Menu Utility) 



10 



20 



FOR A = 1 TO 22: PRINT CHR$(ASC (MID$( 
•|J-'IPX(T!ZPVS!TJTUFS@". A. 1))-A/A); 
FOR B = 1 TO 4: C = PEEK(49200): NEXT B. A 



DOS Boss 

DISK COMMAND EDITOR 
BT BEET KBBBBT » JACK CAfJSXDT 




18 -GAMES- PLUS OB I OEM DISK 



RENAME COMMANDS ft ERROR MESSAGES: 
"Catalog" can be "C": "Syntax Error" can be 
"Oops" or anything you want Protect your pro- 
grams: unauthorized save-attempt can produce 
■Not Copyable" message. Also LIST-preventlon 
and one-key program-run from catalog 

CUSTOMIZE DOS: Change Disk Volume head- 
ing to your message. Omit/ alter catalog file codes. 
Fascinating documentation and tips: hours of 
juicy reading and Apple experiments. 

ANYONE USING YOUR DISKS (booted or not) 
will be formatting DOS the way you designed tt. 
DOC BOSS: $24.00 

(InciudM VMMPoM Chort a t» 8oc*«2) 



Tip Disk* 1 

lOO TIP BOOK TUB ON DISK 
BT BEET KEESET 



GOTO your 
Dole Dealer Ic 
arte Bros 



4t$* N ProntoDOS 

™ HJGH-8PEED DISK UTTXITY 
BT TOM WEIBWaaB 

HIGH-SPEED DOS! Take a look— 

Function Normal Pronto 

BLOAD HI RES IMAGE 10 sec. 3 sec. 

BSAVE HI RES IMAGE 12 sec. 6 sec. 

LOAD 60-SECTOR PROGRAM ... 16 sec. 4 sec. 
SAVE 60-SECTOR PROGRAM 24 sec 9 sec 

BLOAD LANGUAGE CARD 13 sec 4 sec 

TEXT FILES I°° <*->•=» 

BOOT PRONTO-DOS or any updated normal-3.3 
disk. Create new ProntoDos disks with the nor- 
mal INIT command. ProntoDos is compatible with 
ALL DOS COMMANDS and performs normally 
with almost ALL programs, including CopyA. 

MORE DISK SPACE ProntoDos frees-up 15- 
extra-sectors per disk, almost one full back! 
PRONTO-DOS: $29.50 

(InciudM PMkl/PokM Chart) 

Alpha Plot 

HI-RES GRAPHICS TEXT UTLLIXT 
BT BEET KBB EST ft JACK CABSXDT 

DRAW IN HI-RES. on 2 pages, using keyboard or 
laddles/ioystick. See lines before plotting. 
Mixed-colors and reverse (background opposite). 
Fast circles, boxes and ellipses: filled or outlined. 

COMPRESS HI-RES PK to 1/3 Disk-Space. 
Superimpose pages or re-locate any rectangular 
image area anywhere on either hires page 

HI-RES TEXT: Proportional spacing, adjustable 
character size and color, upper/lower case, no tab 
limits, sideways typing for graphs. 

ALPHA PLOT: $3940 m 

(InciudM Pm*i/Po»m Chart » np Book-4) 

i 




Where to Bay Beagle Bros Disks: 



MOST APPLE DEALERS carry Beadle Bros software. 

If yours doesn't, get on his case. Or order directly 

from us for IMMEDIATE SHIPMENT- 



TWELVE GREAT GAMES from the classic Bea- 

ee Bros collection- TextTrain. Slippery Digits, 
owzo Magic Pack, Buzzword... Almost all of our 
"Game Pack" games, updated and re-released on 
one jam-packed, entertaining, unprotected disk. 
COMPARE BEAGLE BAG with any one-game 
locked- up game disk on the market today. All 12 
games are ablast, the price is right, the lnstruc- 
Sons are crystal clear. AND the disk is copyable. 
You can even change the programs or list them to 
LEARN, and see what makes them tick. 
BEAGLE MENU TOO: See Typefaces" above. 
BEAOU EAO: $29.50 
(InciudM PaaM PokM Choit a toogis Manu ui«»y) 



100 LISTABLE PROGRAMS from Beagle Bros HHH MHHHMHHHBBBJpjBJ,>Bj| 
Tip Books 1-4. Make your Apple do things itsfl ■ ■ ■ «■ ■"■™ B T.TE!P.Tr!5 ™ 



never done! AU programs changeable for experi- 
mentation. Includes our Apple Command Chart: 
ALL Applesoft. Integer ft DOS Commands! 
TIP D«K#1 :Jg0.00 

(InciudM PMki PokM and Appis Commond Cham) 



Visa/MasterCard/COD. call TOLL FREE: 

Nationwide: 1-800-854-2003 ext. 827 

California: 1-800-522-1500 ext, 827 

Alaska/Hawaii: 1-800-854-2622 ext. 827 




SUCt I GO! MY 
BEAGIE BROS COMMAND 
CHAR J, IVf ACO0WED 
NEWVIMANDVIOOwl 

( an unsolicited endorsement ) 



-APPLE" Is a 

registered 

trade mark or 

You Know Who. 



CIRCLE 114 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



OR mail U.S.check. money-order or Vlsa/MC •"• 

to BEAGLE BROS. Dept. C 

4315 SIERRA VISTA / SAN DIEGO. CA 92103 

Please Mid 81.90 Pint Class shipping, any size order. 

Overseas sdd 84.00. COD add 83.00. California add 6% 

ALL ORDERS SHIPPED IMMEDIATELY. 



^'Catalog &6£ 
f Is Attracting^ | 

J}|)(A CrowdJ|)| 

s»/rS\ ^~~ -*"£ j^*c .«K a ^n >*! 




Library Catalog, continued. 



^YouCan See Why!^ 



Everyday Catalog 
Specials 



VisiCalc 
Terrapin Logo 
The Accountant 



$179.99 
$119.99 
$109.99 



IBM Everyday Catalog 
Specials 



First Class Mail 
Microsoft Flight Sim. 



$94.99 
$42.99 



Strictly Soft Won 1-800-848-5253 



I ' 1 

To receiv* your boa catalog right 
away, send this coupon to the address 
below. Do you want our O Apple or 
n IBM Catalog? 



NAME 



STREET 



CITY 

( ) - 
PHONE 



STATE 



ZIP 



Strictly So« Ware 
P.O. Bo* 338 
Granville. OH 43023 
Phone Orders & Technical 
Aasnlance: 1 800 848 5253 
In Ohio: 1 614 587 2936 

L ^_^f_ITj 

CIRCLE 265 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




280 OATA "ANCIENT- MEO'UL «• ORIENTAL PHIL"."ORIENTPL"."PRE-SOCRPTIC GREE 

K"."SOPHSTIC- SOCRATIC ?. REL 6RK". "PLATONIC" 
270 OPTA "ARISTOTELIPN". "SKEPTIC I NEOPLPTONIC"."EPICUREPN", "STOIC". "MED 

IEUAL MESTERN" 
280 UATA "M00ERN HESTtRN PHILOSOPHY" ."'.I. S. «. CPNAOA". "BRITISH ISLES". "6E 

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290 OATA "ITALY". "SPAIN I PORTUGAL". "RUSSIA t FINLPN0","SCAN0PNPUIA"."0T 

HER GEOGRAPHICAL PREP 

'•" - --PTE SC SEO LIST 2 

20 cat' sc* tee 

vl M = t.Htf* I -4 • 



40 

w 

-.11 

70 

3d 
no 






I _<0 
140 



150 
160 



170 



180 



!90 



;-iim 



210 
2?0 



230 
240 



i50 



:«0 



280 



290 



-"OR I = I TO 1»J>j: t-EMD SC* I ): NEXT 

PRINT Dt»"0PEN SC SEO LIST 2« 

PPINT Dt;"HRITE SC SEO LIST 2" 

POP I = i TO 100: PRINT SC*< I ): NEXT 

PRINT 0* J "CLOSE" 
DATA "RELIGION". "PHILOSOPHY OF CHRISTIANITY". "MISC OF CHRISTIANITY", 
"DICTIONAIES OF CHRISTIONITV"."SPCL tnplt.fi OF GEN APPLCELTV" 
OATA "SERIALS ON CHRISTIANITY". "ORGS OF CHRISTIANITY". "STUDY X. TEACH 
ING OF CHRISTIANITY". "CHRIST'ITV AMONG. GROUPS OF PERSONS" ."HISTORY I 
8E06 OF CHRISTIANITY- 
DATA "NATURAL RELIGION", "CONCEPTS OF GOO" . "NATURE OF GOO "."CREPT I ON" 
."THE OPIi 

OPto "SCIENCE t RELIGION". "GOOD » EUIL"."« ". HUMANKIND" ."ANAL OGV" 
DATA "BIBLE". "OLD TESTAMENT" ."HISTORICAL BOOKS OF 0. T. " ."POETIC BOOr 
•^ OF O.T. "."PROPHETIC BOOKS OF O.T." 

DATA "NEN TESTAMENT "."GOSPELS t ACTS" . "EPISTLES". "REOELATIOH (APOCAL 
YPSE>"," APOCRYPHA I PSEUOEPIGRAPHA" 

DPTP "CHRISTIPN THEOIOGV", "GOD". "JESUS CHRIST t HIS FAMILY" ."HUMANKI 
NO". "SAL OPTION ■ SOTER I OLOGV ) «, GRACE" 

DATA "SPIRITLIAL BEINGS". "ESCHPTOLCWW" ."♦ "."CREEDS «. CONFESSIONS OF 
FAITH". "APOLOGETICS t POLEMICS" 

DPTP "CHRSTN HORAL t DEU TONAL THEOLGV" ."MORAL THEOLOGY "."DEUOT I ONPL 
LITERPTLIRE"."EUANGLSTIC HRTGS FDR INDUALS"."* ' 

OATA "HYMNS HVO NUSIC"»"flRT IN CHRISTIANITY", "CHURCH FURNISHINGS «, A 
RTICLES". "CHRSTN EXPRNCE- PRPCT- LIFE". "CHRISTIPN OBSERUPNCES IN FPM 

DPTP "LOCAL CHURCH IS, REL ORDERS" ."PREPCH I NG ^HOMILETICS>". "TEXTS OF 

SERMONS". "SECULPR CLERGYMEN i, DUTIES" ."PPRISH GOUT «. ADMIN" 

DPTP "RELI6 CONGS t OROERS"."* ".■« ■."• » ."PPROCHICPL ACTIUITIES" 

DATA "SOCIAL & ECC'TAL THEOLOGY" ."SOCIAL THEOLOGY" ,"ECCLESI0L0GV"."T 

IMES & PLACES OF REL OBSERU". "PUBLIC WORSHIP" 

OATA "OTHER RITES- CEREMONIES- ORDS" ."MISS IONS". "ASSOC FOR RELIGIOUS 

N0RK"."RELI6 TRAINING «■ INSTRUCTION" ."SPIRITUAL RENEHPL" 
DPTP "HISTORY % GEOG OF CHURCH" ."RELIGIOUS CONGS «, ORDERS "."PERSECUT 
IONS". "DOCTRINAL CONTROUERSIES «, HERESIES" ."CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN EUROP 

DhTh "CHRISTIHN CHURCH IN ASIA". "CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN AFRICA". "CHRSTN 
CHURCH IN N AMER". "CHRISTIPN CHURCH IS S PMERICP". "CHRISTIPN CHURCH 
IN OTHER PREPS" 

OOTP "CHRISTIPN OENOMS t SECTS" ."PRIMITPUE fc ORIENTPL CHURCHES". "ROM 
AN CPTHOLIC CHURCH". "ANGLICAN CHURCHES" ."PROTESTANTS OF CONTL ORIGIN 

ESSLIeSFSlTS! ? "ELATED CHURCHES". "BAPTIST- DISCIPLES- ADUENTIST". 
"METHODIST CHURCHES" ."LINITPRIPNISM". "OTHER DFNOMS *. SECTS" 
DPTP "OTHER 8. COMPARATIUE RELIGIONS" ."COMPARATIUE RELIGION" ."CLASSIC 
AL <GRK «■ ROM) RELIGION". "GERMANIC RELIGION". "RELIGIONS OF INOIC ORIG 

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.i - HAM TO CHEATE SC SEO LIST 3 
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80 
70 
80 
100 

110 

130 



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lb0 






180 



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DATA "SOCIAL SCIENCES". "SOCIOLOGY", "SOCIAL INTERACTION" ."SOCIAL PROC 
ESSES". "RELATION OF NATURAL FACTi 

DATA "SOCIAL STRATIFICATION" ."CULTURE I INSTITUTIONS". "COMMUNITIES " 
»"« "»"• " 

DATA "STATISTICS*."* ". "STATISTICS OF POPULATIONS"."* "."GENERAL STA 
T18T ICS OF EUROPE- 
DATA "GENERAL STATISTICS OF PSIP" ."GENERAL STPTISTICS OF PFRICP"."GE 
NERPL STATISTICS OF N AMER1CP","6ENERPI STPTISTICS OF S PMERICP". "GEN 
ERPL STATISTICS OF OTHER AREAS" 

OATA "POLITICAL SCIENCE "."KINDS OF GO<<TS & STPTES"."RELPTION OF STP 
TE TO SOCIAL GROUPS". -RELATION OF STATE TO RESIDENTS" ."POLITICAL PROC 
ESS" 

OATA "INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION"."SLAt€RV r, EMANCIPATION". "INTERNATION 
PL RELATIONS". "LEGISLATION".'- " 

DATA "ECONOMICS". "LABOR ECONOMICS". "FINANCIAL ECONOMICS" ."LAND ECONO 
HICS"."COOPEPAT|H( 

OPTP "SOCIPLISM I RELPTEO SYSTEMS "."PUBLIC FINANCE". "INTERNATIONAL E 
CONOMICS". "PRODUCTION". "MACROECONOMICS ?, RELATED TOPICS" 
DPTP "LPH"." INTERNATIONAL LPH"."CON f. PDMIN LPH"."MISC PIJBLIC LPH"." 
SOCIPL LPH" 



244 



March 1983 e Creative Computing 



Inventory Reduction Sale 

Many items at cost. Order Now. 



COMPUTERS 



Apple II 48K ll065 

Atari 800 48K S855 

Chamellon Iportablt IBM typtl $'995 

Franklin ACEI000 S955 



Kaypro 



$1695 



IBM PC SCALL 

Osborne SCALL 

NECAPC S3IM 

Slimline S- 100 Under 12000 

Syscom 2 |hke Applet S725 

yiC 64 *sk lor Packaged 

PRINTERS 



Epson MX MF/T S435 

Epson MX 100 S645 

Brother /Comrex I7cps natty S745 

F-10 Slarwriter SI225 

NEC 77HJ-I $2085 

NEC 7730-1 |lor IBM PCI H095 
Olndaia Entire line at dealer cosl 

U84AP S935 

u92a rieocpsi $5*5 

Prowriter S435 

Prowrller II S655 

Smith Corona TP 1 $550 

Star Gemini- 15 S495 



VIDEO MONITORS 



The beet value In Monochrome It OYNAX 

The but value In BGB is TAXAN 

Amdek 3006 ir green SI45 

Amdek 3O0A amber SIM 

Amdek 3I0G lor IBM SI70 

Amdek 3I0A amber SIM 

Amdek Color I S325 

Amdek Color II SM5 

Oynai \T green 20MHz SI29 

Oynax 12" amber. 20MHz SI45 

Taian/JCS 12" green S135 

Taxen/JCS RGB I S345 

BMC. Sanyo. USI We expect new low pricing 
by the time this ad appears SCALL 

FOR APPLE & FRANKLIN 



Corvus >H items 

dBase II 

Z 80 Card-Applied Engineering 

1-8 pes 

10* pes 
Universities, clubs, and dealers welcome 

Hayes Mlcromodetn II 

Dana Elite I 

Rim Elite II -double 

Bona Elite Ill-quad 

8' drive. 2MByte Floppy System 



BIG DISCOUNT 
$395 



SI95 
S175 

S275 
S285 
$455 
S58S 
SI695 
Ominivion BO column with software SIB5 

Parallel Interlace with cable S5B 

Prometheus I6K RAM S75 

■Graphiltl IPrinter/Graphics Inl 1 $"0 

'Expand a Ram. up to I28K SI95 

Videx Videoterm M column S245 

Visicalc 33 *I79 

VR Oala 5MB Hard Disk with error correction S1575 

MODEMS 

Hayes Smartmodem 300 SI95 

Hayes Smartmodem 1200 S5I5 

Novation CAT SI49 

■ CAT SIM 

" 212 AutoCAT S585 

- 103 AutoCAT S2I5 

Universal 103 Line Powered SIGS 

" ". aulo answer S205 

' 202. I2M baud, hall duplex SIB5 

' 212. 1200 baud, lull duplex S445 



FOR IBM PC 

AST RESEARCH CARDS NOW INCLUDE SPOOLER ANO DISK EMULA 
TOR SOFTWARE NO EXTRA CHARGE 

AST ComboPlus 64K wilh Parallel. Serial. Clock S375 

AST MegaPlus 64K. expandable lo 5I2K. SPC $435 

Corona 5MB Hard Olsk SI495 

Parallel cable $35 

Serial cable S32 

RAM sett. 64k with parity SM 

Tandon TMM 100-2 drive S2S5 

ATARI 

Atari 800 48K $655 

810 Disk $460 

830 Modem $169 

8M Printer Interface SIM 

Printer cable $35 

Serial cable $36 

CHAMELEON "The Compatible Computer 

• Runs IBM PC 4 2 80 software 

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We also carry Mitsubishi. NEC Shugart. and Tandon 



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Olsk I. Floppy Controller $*M 

RAM 17. 64K CMOS 1?MHz $515 

RAM 21. I28K Static. 12MHz $<1M 

M Drive. 128K $»M 

S 100 Mainlrame 20 slot, rack $796 

S 100 Mainlrame 20 slot, desk $736 

System Support I I/O $335 

Interlacer 3. 8 serial SB'S 

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4164 64K Dynamic 2Mns $7 25 

4164 64K Dyanimic 160ns $7.95 

4116 16K Dynamic 20Ons $2 00 

2716 Eprom MM 

2732 Eprom $650 

6116 2K-8 Sialic RAM. 200ns $5 00 

6116 '. 160ns $5 50 



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TELEVIDEO TERMINALS 


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IRONSIDES 

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(213) 344-3563 (800) 528-9537 

18546 Sherman Way. Suite #110. 

Reseda. CA 91335 



Verify prices by phone. Shipping is extra except within the 

Continental U.S. on prepaid orders. California orders, add BVi% 

sales tax. 

CIRCLE 187 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Library Catalog, continued... 

one author, the search immediately 
proceeds to look at only books with 
that or a greater number of authors 
for a match. 

In all cases, if a match is found, the 
entire record is shown on the screen, 
and the operator has the opportunity 
to end the search or to continue the 
search for additional books by the 
author or authors. 

The search on subject goes through 
the same process as the entry pro- 
cedure in that the catalog divisions 
are shown on the screen and you have 
the opportunity to select the area of 
interest. The one change here is that 
the opportunity is given to search on 
any of the three levels of categoriza- 
tion. Once the catalog number is 
selected, the routine jumps to a sec- 
tion which searches each of the data 
records at byte 82 for a match. The 
entire record and continue/ stop op- 
tion are presented. 

In the modify usage of the Search 
program, the cataloguing data are not 
read in, and after entry of the title, the 
search proceeds for the book. When 
found, the choice of modifying the 
record, deleting the record, or leaving 
the record unchanged is presented. If 
modification is selected, the first 
choice is to check in/check out the 
book. If this is the need, the book is 
either checked in and the shelf location 
shown, or the borrower's name is re- 
quested. These data are then inserted 
in the book record. 

If the record is to be changed, each 
entry in it is presented individually, 
with the option of change/ no change 
available each time. Once again, with 
a modification, you have the oppor- 
tunity to continue the search for dif- 
ferent books with the same title or to 
end the search. 

When a record is selected for dele- 
tion, the last record on the disk is 
rewritten over the record to be deleted, 



"STOTUT 



G^ftjEl? 

'cgAJttg 




'Been a long day, huh Harry.' 



196 OATA "CRIMINAL LAH"."PRIOATE LAW","CI"IL PROCEDURE & COURTS". 

ES- REGS- COSES". "LOW OF INOIU'OL STOTES *■ NOTIONS" 
200 DOTO "PUBLIC 00MINISTROTI0N"."CENTROL GOUTS" ."LOCOL GOUTS", "US FEOER 

OL ». STOTF GOUTS". "OTHER CENTRAL GO"TS" 
210 00T0 "MILITORV ORT I SCI". "FOOT FORCES «, MORFORE"."M0UNTEO FORCES I 

MORFORE"."OPMORE0- TECH- OIR- SPOCE FORCES". "SEO FORCES «, HORFORE" 
22» 00TO "SOCIOL PROBLEMS «. SERUICES"."SOCIOL PROBLEMS t, WELFARE". "SOCIO 

L HELFORE PROBS t SERU ICES". "OTHER SOCIOL PROBS «, SERUICES"."CRIHINOL 

oev* 

230 GOTO "PENOL INSTITUTIONS" ."OSSOCIOTION"."GENEROL CLUBS"."INSURONCE". 

"MISC KINDS OF OSSO 
240 DOTO "EDUCATION". "GENERALITIES OF ED" ."ELEMENTORV ED" . "SECONOORV ED" 

."ODULT ED" 
»8 OATA "CURRICULUMS"."ED OF WOMEN "."SCHOOLS It RELIGION". "HIGHER ED"."E 

D «, THE STOTE" 
260 DOTO "COMMERCE (TRADE )"."INTERNOL COMMERCE". " INTERNATIONAL COHH"."PO 

STOL COMMUN", "OTHER SYSTEMS OF COMMUN" 
~™ P« T « "R»"LROOO TRANSPORT"," I NLONO WOTERWAV «, FERRY"." WATER- AIR- SPA 

CE TRANS "."GROUND TRANS "."METROLOGY I STANDARDIZATION" 

^.^ ^ UST0MS - ETIQUETTE- FOLKLORE" ."COSTUME 1 PERSONAL APPEARANCE". 
-.^ ^VS T V L,FE CV «. DOM LIFE". "DEATH CUSTOMS". "GENERAL CUSTOMS" 

PLOMACY" TIQUETTE BANNERS)". "* ".»* "."FOLKLORE". "CUSTOMS OF WAR «■ DI 

10 REM PROGRAM TO CREATE SC SEQ LIST 4 
2U DIM SC* tl 

i0 D* = CHKt ' 4 I 



48 

50 

60 
70 
80 
100 

110 

120 

130 



140 
150 
160 
170 
1*3 
198 
2t)0 
210 
220 
230 
240 
250 
260 
270 
280 
290 



"DICTIONARIES & ENCLYCL 



"GER ETYMOLOGY". "GER DI 



"» "NONSTANDARD GER"."STO GER USAGE" 



FOR t ■ 1 10 1001 READ SC$(I>: NEXT 
PRINT 0*S"OPEN SC SEO LIST 4" 
PRINT 0*i"WRITE SC SEQ LIST 4" 
FOR 1 = 1 TO 100: PRINT SC*< I >: NEXT 
PRINT 0*. "CLOSE" 

DATA "LANGUAGE", "PHILOSOPHY I THEORY" ."MISC" 

OPEOIAS". "SPECIAL TOPICS OF GEN OPPI II " 

2£!£ .JjS'SL Pu j^ ICQT1 0"S"."ORGONIZOT IONS". "STUDY 1 TEACHING", "TREOT 

MENT AMONG GROUPS OF PERSONS". "HIST ♦ Gf08 TREATMENT" 

SSL" "LINGUISTICS". "NOTATIONS". "ETYMOLOGY". "POLYGLOT DICTIONARIES"," 

DATA "STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS (GRAMMARS" ,"* " ."0IALECTOL0GV 8, PALEOGRAPH 
V". "USAGE 'APPLIED LIINGUISTICS->"."i€RRAL LANG NOT SPOKEN OR WRITTEN" 

LW-.-|!^DI^I0NRRI^W- LflNB8 "'" , ** ITTEN % SP ° KEN ENG "'" EN6 ETVM0 

OATA "ENG STRUCTURAL "SYSTEM"."* "."NONSTANDARD ENG"."STANOARO ENG US 

AGE"."ANGL'">-SAXON (OLD ► 

DATA "GERMANIC LANGS" ."WRITTEN » SPOKEN 9ER". 

CTIONARIES", ■- 

DATA "GER STRUCTURAL SYSTEM 

."OTHER GERMANIC LAI 

DATA "ROMANCE LANGS- FRENCH" ."WRITTEN I SPOKEN FR"."FR ETYMOLOGY" ,»F 
R DICTIONARIES",". 

DATA "FR STRUCTURAL SYSTEM"."* "."HONSTO FR"."STD FR USAGE" ."PROUENC 

UATA "ITAL- ROMANIAN- RHAETO-ROMANIC" ."WRITTEN t SPOKEN ITAL"."ITAL 

ETYM0L06V","ITAt. DICTIONARIES".'- " 

DATA "ITAL STRUCTURAL SYSTEM"."* "."NONSTD ITAL","STD ITAL USAGE", "R 

OMONIAN «. RHAETO-ROHAN 

DATA "SPANISM «, PORT LANGS", "WRITTEN I, SPOKEN SP","SP ETYMOLOGY" ,"SP 

DICTIONARIES","- " 
DATA "SP STRUCTURAL SYSTEM"."* "."NONSTO SP"."STD SP USOGE"."PORTUGU 

DATA "IT0L1C LONGS- LATIN", "WRITTEN » SPOKEN CLASSICAL LATIN", "CLASS 
LATIN ETYMOLOGY". "CL LATIN DICTIONARIES"."* " 
DATA "CL LATIN STRUCTURAL SYSTEM", "♦ "."OLD- POSTCLASSICAL- UULGOR L 
0TIN"."C1 LATIN USAGE" ."OTHER ITALIC LANGS" 

"12. «I£?!:!l EN I£ L0N 6S-CLASSICAL GREEK". "WRITTEN «. SPOKEN CLASSICAL GR 
"."CLASSICAL GR ETYMOLOGY", "CLASSICAL GR DICTIONARIES"."* ■ 
DATA "CLASSICAL GREEK STRUCTURAL SYSTEM","* "."POSTCLASSICAL GR"."a 
ASS1CAL GR USAGE". "OTHER HELLENIC LANSS" 

25I?^«°IIS^?I! 88 "i"S 8T IN0 °- E, - ,R » CELTIC". "AFRO-ASIATIC <HAHIT0-SE 
MITTC>"."HAMITIC *. CHAD LANDS" ."UROL -OLTOIC-PALEOSBRIAN-DRAUIOIAN" 
OOTO "SIN0-1IBET0N 1 OTHER". "AFRICAN LANGS". "N AMER NOTIUE LONGS". "S 
AMER NOTIUE LONGS", "OTHER LPN6S" 



10 REM PK08RAM TO CREATE SC SEQ LIST -S 

20 DIM SC*< 100 > 

30 D* " CHR* (.4) 

48 

50 

60 

70 

98 



NEXT 



100 

110 

120 
130 
140 



FOR I = 1 TO 100: REOO SC*< I ): NEXT 
PRINT D*»"0PEN SC SEQ LIST 5" 
PRINT D*J"HRITE SC SEQ LIST 5" 
FOR I = 1 TO 100: PRINT 8C*( 1 >l 
PRINT 0*i "CLOSE" 

DATA "PURE SCIENCES". "PHILOSOPHY 8. THEORY' ."MISC". "DICTIONARIES «, EN 
CV',"» " 

OATR "SERIAL PUBS". "ORON1ZOTIONS". "STUDY «. TEACHING", "TROUEL I SURUE 
VS","HIST0R1C0L t, GEOG TREOTMENT" 

DATA "MATHEMATICS". "GENERALITIES". "AU3EBRA". "ARITHMETIC". "TOPOLOGY" 
DATA "ANALYSIS". "GEOMETRY"."* "."* "."PROBABILITIES t APPLIED MOTH" 
OATA "ASTRONOMY t ALLIED SCI"."THEORETICOL ASTRONOMY". "PRACTICAL t, S 
PHERTCOL OSTRONOMY"."0ESCRIPTIUE ASTRONOMY"."* ■ 



246 



March 1983 6 Creative Computing 



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Library Catalog, continued... 

and the number of records stored in 
record zero is decreased by one. A 
message is printed to the screen when 
the disk is emptied of catalog data. 

HIMEM is changed during the run- 
ning of this routine, as in the Enter 
routine, for reasons given below. 

Catalog List, Catalog Borrow, 
And Catalog Bookshelf 

Catalog List (Listing 4) is provided 
for those times when you don't really 
know what book you want, but would 
just like to browse through your col- 
lection. The only information pro- 
vided here is the title and author, as the 
listing is scrolled on the screen. 

Catalog Borrow (Listing 5) presents 
two options. A selection is made by 
listing either all books out on loan or 
all books on loan to a given person. 
The key upon which this search is 
made is byte 96 of each record. If this 
byte is the book should be on the 
shelf, and if it is I the book is out on 
loan. 

Catalog Bookshelf (Listing 6) is the 
first routine that must be run when the 
Library Catalog program is used for 
the first time. The Enter routine will 
not permit a book to be entered on a 
non-existent shelf. 

The menu presented by this routine 
offers a choice of new shelf entry, shelf 
removal, directory of all existing 
shelves, and ending shelf operations. 
For shelf entry the information re- 
quired is the shelf ID, the tallest book 
the shelf can accommodate — in the 
form S-short, N-normal, T-tall and 
a short free-form description of where 
the shelf is. This description is placed 
in the directory for later reference. 
Only the usual commas and quotation 
marks are prohibited from this 
statement. 

The routine checks for the proper 
ID format, i.e.. Letter Letter Number: 
existence of a shelf prior to its 
removal; and duplication of a shelf ID 
prior to the addition of a new shelf. 
The routine currently allows 200 
shelves, but this can be changed by 
modifying statement 50. The last 
operation the Borrow routine does 
prior to running Master is to alpha- 
betize the shelf ID listing and restore 
it to the SHELF text file. 

Program Particulars Data 

The format for the book record file 
is shown in Table 2. Programmers are 
encouraged to modify this program to 
fit the more particular needs of their 
own library, but care must be taken, 
such as allowing space in the file for 
returns and possible variability of data 
length. As explained above, the pro- 
gram looks for certain data at given 



15* DATA "EARTH (ASTRO GEOGV, "MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY". "CELESTIAL NAUIGA 

TTON"."EPHEMERIOES (NAUTICAL ALMANACS >" ."CHRONOLOGY (TIMEV 
168 OATH "PHYSICS", "MECHANICS". "MECHANICS OF FLUIDS". "MECHANICS OF GASES 

"."SOUND I RELATED UlPRATli. 
1/0 DATA "LIGHT I PARAPHOTIC PHENOM" ."HEAT" ."ELECTRICITY t ELECTRONICS". 

"HAGNET ISM "."MODERN PH 
180 DATA "CHEM t ALLIED SCIENCES". "PHYSICAL 8. THEORETICAL CHEH" ."LABS- A 

PPORATUS- EOUPT", "ANALYTICAL CHEM" ."OHALITATIUE CHEM" 
1961 DATA "QUANT CHEM" ."INORGANIC CHEM "."ORGANIC CHEH". "CRYSTALLOGRAPHY" . 
"MINERAL' 
"1 DATA ' SCIE NCES OF EARTH 8, OTHER HORLDS". "GEOLOGY- METEOROLOGY- HVORO 
L06Y", "PETROLOGY < RCCKS)". "ECONOMIC GEOLOGY" ."TREATMENT IN EUROPE" 
210 DATA "TREATMENT IN ASIA". "TREATMENT IN AFRICA" ."TREATMENT IN N AMER" 

."TREATMENT IN S AMER" ."TREATMENT IN OTHER AREAS *- WORLDS" 
Z<& DATA "PALEONTOLGV". "PALEOBOTANY". "FOSSIL IN"ERTEBRATES"."FSL PR0T020 

A8 OTHER SIMP ANHLS". "FOSSIL MOLLUSCA 8 MOLLUSC0IDEA" 
230 DATA "OTHER FOSSIL INVERTEBRATES", "FOSSIL CHOROATA". "FOSSIL COLD-BLO 

DDED UERTEBRATES". "FOSSIL RUES (BIRDS <" ."FOSSIL MAMMALIA" 
240 DATA "LIFE SCIENCES"."* "."HUMAN RACES". "PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY". "BIO 

.ATM "ORGANIC EVOLUTION I GENETICS". "HICROBES" ."GEN NATURE OF LIFE". 

"HICPOSCOPV IN BIO". "COLL &PRES OF SPCMNS" 
260 DATA "BOTANICAL SCIENCES". "BOTANY" ."SPERMATOPHVTA" ."OICOTVLEDOHES" . " 

H0NOCOTVLEOONES" 
2/0 DATA "GVMN0SPERMAE","CRYPT0GAMIA"."PTERIDOPHVTA"."BRVOPHVTA"."-mALL0 

PHVTm" 

280 DwlA "ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCES". "ZOOLOGY". "INVERTEBRATES". "PROTOZOA 8. OTH 
ER SIMPLE ANIMALS". "MOLLUSCA AND MOLLUSCOIDEA" 

290 DATA "OTHER INVERTEBRATES" ."CHOROATA" .'COLO BLOODED "ERTEBRATES"."PU 
ES • BIROS >","HAMMI 



1 1 • r.n I 
50 0* = CHR* • 4 



RE ATE SC SEO l; 



50 
70 
1 00 

lie 
120 



130 
140 
150 

IbO 

170 

180 
190 

210 

2?0 

230 
240 
250 
260 

270 
280 
290 



FOR I = : .. {• I >. NEXT 

PRINT 0*;"OPEN SC SEC LIST 6" 
PRINT D»j"HRITE SC SEO LIST 6" 

■ 1 TO 100: PRINT SC*', I >: M 
PRINT D*»»CL0SE" 

UATA "TECHNOLOGY • APPlIED SCIENCE '"."PHILOSOPHY 8- THEORY". "HISC"."DI 

CTIONORIES t ENCVCLOS*. "GENERAL TECHI 

DATA "SERIAL PURS" ."ORGANISATIONS I MANAGEMENT". "STUDY I TEACHING"." 

INDENTIONS t PATENTS", "HISTORICAL I 6E06 TREATMENT" 

DATA "MEDICAL SCI - MEDICINE" , "HUMAN ANATOMY- CYTOLOGY- TISSUES". "HU 

MAN PHYSIOLOGY "."GENERAL I PERSONAL HYGIME". "PUBLIC HEALTH t RELATED 

TOP! 1 

DATA "PHARMACOLOGY I THERAPUTICS" ."DISEASES", "SURGERY t RELATED TOPI 
CS". "OTHER BRANCHES OF MEDIC INE" ."EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE" 
DATA "ENGINEERING « ALLIED OPERATIONS" , "APPLIED PHYSICS" ."MINING 8. R 
ELATED OPS", "MILITARY ? NAUTICAL ENB'.'CIUIL ENG" 

DATA "RR-S- ROADS- HIGHWAYS" ,"« "."HYDRAULIC ENG" ."SANITARY 8 HUNICI 
PAL EN8","0THEF BRI 

OATA "AGRICULTURE 6 RELATED TECHS". "CROPS 8. THEIR PROOUCT ION". "PLANT 
INJURIES- OISEASFS- PESTS". "FIELD CROPS "."ORCHARDS- FRUITS- FORESTRY 

OATA "GARDEN CROPS- VEGETABLES". "ANIMAL HUSBANDRY" ."DAIRY 8, RELATEO 
TECHS", "INSECT CULTURE" ."NONDOMEST I r ANIMALS t PLANTS- 
DATA "HOME EC I FAMILY LIVING" ."FOOD I DRINK". "MEAL «• TABLE SERUICE" 
."HOUSING 8 HOUSEHOLD EQUIP" . "HOUSFHOLD UTILITIES" 

OATA "FURNISHING J, DECORATING HOME" ."SEWING- CLOTHING 8, PERSONAL LIU 
IMG". "PUBLIC HOUSEHOLDS". "HOUSEKEEPING", "CHILD REARING t CARE OF SICK 

0010 "** ERVICES". "OFFICE SERUICES". "WRITTEN COMMON PROCESS 
EG", "SHORTHAND", "« " 

DATA »» ","» "."ACCOUNTING", "GENERAL M6MT","A0UERTISING 8, PR" 
DATA "CHFHICAL 8, RELATED TECHNOLOGIES"." INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS". "EXPLS 
"ES- FUELS- RLTD PROOS" ."BE"ERA6E TECH". "FOOD TECH" 

DATA "INOSTL OILS-FATS-WAXES-GASES" ."CERAMIC 8, ALLIED TECHS". "CLEAN I 
NG-COLOR- OTHER TECHS" ."OTHER ORGANIC PRODUCTS". "METALLURGY- 
DATA "MANUFACTURES". "METAL MANUFACTURES". "FERROUS METALS MAN"."NONFE 
RROUS METALS MAN" . "LUMBER- CORK- WOOD TECHS- 
DATA "LEATHER 8 FUR TECHS". "PULP 8 PAPER TECH". "TEXTILES". "ELASTOMER 
S I THEIR PRODUCTS", "OTHER PROOUCTS OF SPECIFIC MATLS" 

DATA "MANUFACTURE FOR SPECIFIC USES" ."PRECISION 8, OTHER INSTRUMENTS" 
^!?°hL F0R,3E »*«K"."HARDHARE t HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES "."FURNISHINGS 8 
HOME HI 

OATA "LEATHER >; FUR GOODS". "PRINTING 1 RELATEO ACTIUITIES"."CL0THIN6 
"."OTHER FINAL PRODS 8 PACKAGING","* 

DATA "BUILDINGS". "BUILOING MATLS", "AUX CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES "."CONS 
TRUCTION IN SPECIFIC MATLS". "WOOD CONST- CARPENTRY- 
DATA "ROOFING". "UTILITIES". "HUAC". "DETAIL FINISHING","* " 



rO CREATE SC SEQ LIST 
20 DIM SC*< 100 i 
30 0* = i_HR$ ' 4 • 

■': READ SC*< I >: NFXT 
50 PRINT D*;"0PEN SC SEO LIST 7" 
S0 PRINT 0*;" WRITE SC SEO LIST 7" 



248 



March 1983 e Creative Computing 



PC-C4-1000 




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Library Catalog, continued... 

byte locations in the file, and changes 
will destroy the input. 

Increasing Search Speed 

In working with strings, one char- 
acteristic that the Apple has that can 
become annoying is the stockpiling 
of "old" strings after they have been 
updated. As described on page 53 of 
the Applesoft manual, if the title 
variable TL$= WAR AND PEACE 
one time and GRIMM'S FAIRY 
TALES the next, the string WAR 
AND PEACE remains in the attic of 
memory, and GRIMM'S is placed 
below it. 

As dozens of strings with book 
information are manipulated and 
compared, the available memory con- 
stantly decreases until string storage 
runs into program and array storage 
which is working its way up from the 
basement. Old strings can be cleared 
away periodically in a program with 
the statement X = FRE(u). or the 
machine will do the job itself when the 
available memory is depleted. 

With the large number of strings 
that the Enter and Search programs 
require for the catalog classification 
data (approximately I5K bytes) the 
housekeeping, which examines all 
strings in memory, can take almost 

Table I. Record Structure For L1BREC-120 . 



two minutes. I found it very discon- 
certing during a search to listen to the 
hum of the disk drive looking for the 
desired book only to have the whole 
process stop dead while the machine 
cleaned house. 

The solution to this problem is 
found in the way the Apple treats the 
strings. String storage starts at 
HIMEM and works down towards the 
program and array storage area. The 
Enter and Search routines have been 
structured so that the 1000 strings of 
catalog classification data are read 
in at the beginning of the routines, 
filling the space below the original 
setting of HIMEM, 38400 ($9600). 
Recall that as Shown on the memory 
map in the DOS manual the memory 
between the top of a 48 K machine, 
49151 (SBFFF) and 38400 ($9600) is 
lost to DOS use. 

After the Enter and Search routines 
load the catalog classifications, 
HIMEM is set at 20000 ($4 E20), leav- 
ing only a few thousand locations 
available for the new strings that are 
entered and manipulated. This is 
ample room, but only requires tenths 
of a second for the Apple to house- 
clean when the need arises. Moving 
HIMEM down has eliminated the 
unnecessary search through the cata- 



log classification data strings during 
each housecleaning. Prior to running 
the Master program. HIMEM is once 
again set to the original value. 

Entering Catalog Classification Data 

The heart of the catalog classifica- 
tion routine is the selection process 
from the 1000 subcategories of the 
Dewey Decimal System. The informa- 
tion required for this classification is 
stored in ten subcategory sequential 
data files, for example, SC SEQ LIST 
3. These files can be created from the 
programs shown in Listing 7. The use 
of a file editor such as EDASM in the 
Applesoft Tool Kit greatly simplifies 
correction and entering of these files. 
The subcategory information is writ- 
ten in abbreviated form to reduce 
memory requirements. 

Key Parameters 

Table 2 lists the major parameters 
used in the program. As far as possible 
the names have been carried through 
from one routine to another to sim- 
plify the debugging process. 

Modifying The Program 

This program has been structured to 
enable you to modify easily the input 
and output to suit your special needs. 



Record 
Number Byte 







l-NR 



0-As 
Required 

0-39 



40 
41-80 



81 

82 

83 
84-86 



Contents 

NR. the number of book records 
contained in the file on this disk. 

Book title. Forty characters are 
retained. Blanks are inserted if 
title length is less than 40 
characters. 

Return 

Book author(s). Forty characters 
are retained. Slashes (/) separate 
individual names on multi-author 
books. Blanks are added as re- 
quired to fill out to 40 characters. 

Return 

Book type; N = nonfiction, F= 
fiction. 

Return 

Catalog number. Nonfiction 
books are filed under Dewey 
Decimal System, fiction books by 
a three-digit number based on 
type. 



Record 
Number 


Byte 


Contents 




87 


Return 




88-90 


Shelf location, three-character 
code. 




91 


Return 




92 


Book height, S, N. T. 




93 


Return 




94 


Number of authors. 




95 


Return 




96 


Borrow status, = on shelf, 1 = out 
on loan. 




97 


Return 




98-112 


Borrower's name, last/ first name. 
Fifteen characters, blanks added 
as required. 




113 


Return 




114-119 


Unused; saved for future use by 
individual programmer. 



250 



March 1983 e Creative Computing 



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Library Catalog, continued... 

Subroutines are used extensively for 
searching, data entry checking, and 
result presentation, localizing the 
areas that must be examined if changes 
are to be made. Space has been left on 
the book record file so that you may 
easily add other information that you 
desire to file, such as publication or 



acquisition date for each book. 

With the advent of megabyte 
capacity hard disks for use with per- 
sonal computers such as the Apple 
the necessity of using multiple disks 
for book data storage will disappear. 
'This program will then be suitable for 
use with much larger libraries. 



Acknowledgments 

I would like to thank the reference 
librarians at the Monroeville, PA 
Public Library for their help in obtain- 
ing the listing of the Dewey Decimal 
System classifications and in teaching 
me some of the particulars of cata- 
loguing books. D 



Table 2. 



Key Parameters Used In Library Catalog Program 


S$ 




Subcategory digit of catalog number 


AU$, 


AU$( ) 


Author last name, array for storing 
author's name between WRITE com- 
mands 


SC$ 




Array containing all catalog classifica- 
tion data 


BC 




Counter for books. Calls for disk 


SZ$, SZ$( ) 


Book height, array for storing book 
height 






WRITE command when BC=DC 






BLS 




String of 40 blanks, used to pad title and 


TL$, TL$( ) 


Book title, array for storing TL$ 






author strings 


TP$, TP$( ) 


Book type, fiction or nonfiction, array 


BNS 




Book borrower name, 15 characters. 






for storing TP$ 






Last/ First Name 


WF 




Flag for book fit on shelf; = book will 


BS 




Borrow status, = book on shelf; 1 = out 
on loan 






fit, 1 = book too tall for shelf 


C$ 




Category digit of catalog number 
















Additional Parameters Used In Search 


CN$, 


CN$( ) 


Catalog number, array for catalog num- 












ber; three characters 


A$ 




On author search, used to check for 
name divider (/) or end of last author's 


DC 




Limit on number of cycles between 
WRITE commands in Enter. Set at 5 in 






name (blank) 






line 80. 


AA$ 




On author search, author's name 


DD 




Counter for disks containing book data 


AH$ 




On author search, author's name as 
read from LIBREC-120 file 


DN 




Number of disks containing book data 














AM$( 


) 


Array of author's names from LIBREC- 


DV 




Division digit of catalog number 






1 20 file, for books with multiple authors 


ER 




Error code, found in PEEK(222) 


AN 




Counter for number of authors found 
on LIBREC-120 file for books with 


FC 




Catalog number for fiction books 






multiple authors 


HI 




Flag for success on search, = no suc- 
cess; 1 = success 


MOD 




Flag for MODIFY use of Search rou- 
tine, = title, author, subject search; 
1 = modify record 


LC$, 


LC$( ) 


Location ID code, array for storing ID 












codes 


NM$( 


) 


Array to store names of authors in 
search list 


MT 




Flag for error routine, if error due to 












no book data on file, 1 if disk full or 


NN 




Number of authors in search list 






other error 


SP 




Parameter used to pad the search cata- 


NA, 


NA( ) 


Number of authors of book entered. 
Limited to five for single book, array to 






log number to three digits, if necessary 






store NA 


TE 




Flag, = no book found; 1 = book found 


NS 




Number of shelves on file in shelf 
directory 








RN 




Number of records on a data disk. RN is 




Additional Parameters Used In Bookshelf 






stored in the zeroth record of LIBREC- 


DC$( 


) 


Array for storing free-form description 






120. 






of shelf locations. 



252 



March 1983 e Creative Computing 



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Library Catalog, continued... 



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S0 PRINT D*i"CL0SE" 

|0B OATA "THE ARTS". "PHILOSOPHY %, THEORY". "MISC". "DICTIONARIES *■ ENCLVCL 

OS". "SPECIAL TOPICS OF GEN APP" 
110 DATA "SERIAL PUBS". "ORGANIZATIONS %, MGMT". "STUDY * TEACHING" ."6ALLER 

IES- MUSEUMS- PRT COLLECT". "HISTORICAL «, GE06 TREATMENT" 
\d<» OATH "CIUIC I LANDSCAPE ART". "AREA PLANNING (CIVIC ART)" ."LANOSCAPE 

DESI6N". "LANDSCAPE DES OF TRAFFICHAVS" ."HATER FEATURES" 
13«l DATA "H0O0V PLANTS ".'•HERBACEOUS PLANTS". "STRUCTURES". "LANDSCAPE DES 

OF CEMETARIFS". "NATURAL LANDSCAPE?" 
140 OOTA "ARCHITECTURE". "ARCH CONSTRUCTION" ."ANCIENT «. ORIENTAL ARCH"."H 

EDIEVAL ARCH" . "MODERN WRCH" 
150 DATA "PUBLIC STRUCTURES". "BUILDIM6S FOR RELI6 PURPOSES "."BUILDINGS F 

OR ED". "RESIDENTIAL BLDGS" ."DESI6N P DECORATION" 
160 DATA "PLASTIC ARTS- SCULPTURE". "PROCESSES «. REPRESENTATIONS"."NONLIT 

ERPTE- ANCIENT- ORIENTAL "."GREEK- ETRUSCAN- ROHAN" ."HEDIEVAL SCULPTUR 

E" 
170 DATA "MODERN SCULPTURE". "CARUIN6 «. C ARU I N6S"." NUMISMATICS t, SIGILLOG 

RAPHV". "CERAMIC ARTS". "ART METALWOPK" 
180 DATA "DRAWING- DECORATIVE- MINOR ARTS". "DRAWING t- 0RAHIN6S"."PERSPEC 

TIVE"."DRWG Ii DRWG BV SUB J" "+ " 
190 DATA "DECORATIVE 8. MINOR ARTS". "TEXTILE ARTS 4 HANDICRAFTS". "INTERIO 

R DECOR". "6LASS". "FURNITURE 8. ACCESSORIES" 
200 DATA "PAINTING 8. PA I NT I N6S"." PROCESSES 8, FORMS". "COLOR". "ABSTRACT ION 

S- SVHBOLISM- LEGENO". "SUBJECTS OF EVERVOAV LIFE" 
210 DATA "RELIGION 8, RELIGIOUS SVHBOLISM" ."HISTORICAL EVENTS "."HUMAN FIG 

URES 8. THEIR PARTS" ."OTHER SUBJECTS". "HISTORICAL & GEOG TREATMENT" 
220 DATA "GRAPHIC ARTS- PRIHTS". "RELIEF PROCESSES". "• "."LITHOGRAPHIC PR 

nCESSES"."CHROMOLITHOGRAPHV % SERIGRAPHV" 
230 OATA "METAL ENGRAVIN6"."MEZZ0TNTG 8. A0UATNT6 PROC" ."ETCHING K DRVPOI 

NT"."* "."PRINTS" 
240 OATA "PHOTOGRAPHY 8, PHOTOGRAPHS" ."APPARATUS- EQUIP- MATLS" ."METALLIC 

SALT PROCESSES". "PIGMENT PROCESSES OF PRINTING". "HOLOGRAPHV 
250 DATA ■• ","* ","♦ "."SPECIFIC FIELDS OF- PHOTOG". "PHOTOGRAPHS" 
260 DATA "MUSIC". "GENERAL PRINCIPLES". "DRAMATIC MUSIC". "SACRED MUSIC". "V 

OICE 8. VOCAL MUSIC" 
»78 DATA "INST ENSEMBLES t MUSIC" ."KEYBO INST 8, MUSIC". "STRING INST * MU 

SIC". "HIND INST 8, MUSIC". "PERCUSSION- MECH- ELECT' 
280 OATA "RECREATIONAL 8, PERF ARTS". "PUBLIC PFRFS"." THEATER < STAGE )"." IN 

DOOR GAMES 8- AMUSEMENTS". "INCiOOR GHMES OF SKILL" 
MTS "GAMES IDF CHANCE". "ATHLETIC 8, OUTDOOR SPORTS 8. GAMES". "AQUATIC 

t AIR SPORTS". "EQL€STRIAN SPORTS I ANIMAL RACING". "FISHING- HUNTING- 
-.HOOTING" 

■ -in, hum rO '.PEATt SC SEQ LIST 8 
2* DIM SC*< 180) 
30 0* = CHR* < 4 I 

' = 1 TO 1601 HEAD SC*<I): NEXT 
PRINT D*»"OPEN SC SEO LIST 8" 
PRINT D*i"HRITE SC SEO LIST 8" 
FOP I = l TO 100: PRINT SC*< I ): NEXT 
PRINT D*»"CLOSE" 
OATA "LITERATURE < BELLES-LETTRES)" ."PHILOSOPHY 8, THEORY". "MISC ABOUT 

LIT", "DICTIONARIES 8 ENCLVCLU7 ." , "• 
DATA "SERIAL PUBS", M ORGANIZATONS". "STUDY 8, TEACHING*. "RHETORIC K COL 
LECTIONS", "HISTORY- DESCRIPTION- APPRAISAL" 

OATA "AMERICAN LIT IN ENG". "POETRY". "DRAMA". "FICTION" ."ESSAYS" 
DATA "SPEECHES", "LETTERS", "SATIRE t HUMOR". "MISC WRITINGS"."- " 
OATA "ENG I ANGLO-SAXON LlTS"."ENG POETRY", "ENG DRAMA". "ENG FICTION" 
»"ENG ESSAYS" 

OATA "ENG SPEECHES "."ENG LETTERS" ."ENG SATIRE 8, HUMOR". "ENG MISC WRI 
TINGS" »"ANGlO-SA::on tOLO EH6>" 

DATA "LITS OF GERMANIC LANGS". "GER POETRY". "GER DRAMA", "GER FICTION" 
."C-EP ESS" 

UATA 'GER SPEECHES", "GER LETTERS" , "GER SATIRE 8, HUMOR". "GER MISC HRI 
TINGS "."OTHER GERMA1NC L11S" 
OATA "LITS OF ROMANCE LANGS". "FR POETRY". "FR ORAHA","FR FICTION". "FR 

ESSAYS" 
fiMTA "FR SPEECHES", "FR LETTERS". "FR SATIRE % HUMOR". "FR MISC WRITING 
S"."PROi'FNCAL I CRTRLQN* 

DATA "IThL- ROMANIAN- RHAETO-ROMANIC"."ITAL POETRY". "ITAL DRAMA". "IT 
Al FICTICiN" ."ITHL ESSAYS- 
DATA "ITAL SPEECHES "."ITAL LETTERS"." ITAL SATIRE 5- HUMOR". "ITAL MISC 

WRITINGS". "ROMANIAN & RHAETO-ROMAHK " 
OATA "SPAN t PORT LITS"."SP POETRY". "SP DRAHA","SP FICTION". "SP ESSA 

OATO "iP SPEECHES". "SP LETTERS". "SP SATIRE «, HUMOR". "SP MISC WRITING 

S "^"PORTUGUESE" 

OATA "ITALIC LIT- LATIN" ."LATIN POETRY" ."LATIN DRAMATIC POETRY % DRA 

HA". "LATIN EPIC POETRY 8, FICTION" ."LATIN LYRIC POETRY" 

OATA "LATIN SPEECHES "."LATIN LETTERS". "LATIN SATIRE % HUMOR" ."LATIN 

MISC WRITINGS". "OTHER ITALIC LANGS" 

DATA "HELLENIC LITS- GREEK" ."CLASSICAL GREEK POETRY" ."CLASSICAL GREE 

K DRAMA". "CL GK EPIC POETRY". "CL GK LVRK POETRY" 

OATA "CL GK SPEECHES". "CL GK LETTERS", "CL GK SATIRE 8- HUMOR". "CL GK 

MISC WRIT TAGS". "HODERN GREfc' " 

OATA "LITS OF OTWER LANGS". "E INDO-EUR 8 CELTIC". "AFRO-ASIATIC 'WAMI 

TO-SEMITIC)". "MAMITIC 8. CHAD LITS"."VRAL-ALTAIC-PALEOSIBRN-DRAVIDIAN" 

DATA "SINO-TIBETAN t, OTHER ASIAN". "AFRICAN LITS"."N AHER NATIVE LITS 
"."S AMER NATIVE LITS". "OTHER L ITS" 



1 50 



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180 






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254 



March 1983 e Creative Computing 



EM PROGRAM TO CREOTfc SC SEO LIST 9 
20 DIM SC*< lO 
TO 0* = CHR* I 4 i 

*m FOR I » 1 TO 1001 READ SC*(I>: NEXT 
S0 PRINT D*J"OPEN Sf SEO LIST 9" 
SB PRINT 0*;"MRITE SC SEO LIST S" 
70 FOR I = 1 TO 180: PRINT SC*< I >: NEXT 
30 PRINT 0*. "CLOSE" 
100 OOTQ "OENERQL 6E06 t HIST", "PHIL OF i5FN HIST"."MISC OF GEN HISTORV". 

"niCTIONflRIES OF GEN HIST" ."COLLECTED ACCOUNTS OF EVENTS* 
110 DATA "SERIALS ON GEN HIST", "ORGANIZATIONS OF GEN HI ST "."STUDY i, TEAC 

HIN6 OF GEN HIST","* "."GENERAL HORLO HISTORV" 
120 OATA "GENERAL 6E0G- TRAUEL" ."HISTORICAL GEOG" ."GRAPHIC REPRESENTATIO 

NS OF EARTH", "GEOG OF ANCIENT MOULD", "EUROPE " 
130 OATA "ASIA", "AFRICA", "N AMERICA". "S AMERICA" ."OTHER AREAS K WORLDS" 
140 DATA "GEN BIOGRAPHY & 6ENEAL0GV "."BIOGRAPHY A-C "."BIOGRAPHY D-F ". 

"BIOGRAPHY G-I "."BIOGRAPHY J-L " 
150 OATA "BIOGRAPHY M-0 "."BIOGRAPHY P-S "."BIOGRAPHY T-U "."BIOGRAPHY H 

-Z "."GENEALOGY- NAMES- INSIGNIA" 
1G0 DATA "GEN HIST OF ANCIENT WORLD". "CHINA" ."EGYPT" ."PALESTINE" ."INDIA" 

1P0 DATA "MESOPOTAMIA 5- IRANIAN PLATEAU". "N t, W EUROPE". "ITAL PEN «, AOJ 

AREAS". "GREECE "."OTHER PARTS OF ANCIENT WORLD" 
180 DATA "GEN HISTORY OF EUROPE". "BRITISH ISLES "."ENGL AND I WALES". "CENT 

EUR- GERMANY", "FRhNlE" 
190 OATA "ITALY". "IBERIAN PEN- SPAIN". "E EUROPE- SOUIET UNION". "N EUROPE 

- SCAND". "OTHER PARTS OF EUR" 
>00 OATA "GEN HIST OF ASIA". "CHINA ANO AOJ AREAS". "JAPAN «, ADJ ISL"."ARA 

BIAN PEN «• ADJ AREAS". "s &SIA- INDIA" 
210 OATA "IRAN". "MIDDLE EAST", "SIBERIA". "CENTRAL ASIA"."SE ASIA" 
220 OATA "GEN HIST OF AFRICA". "N AFRICA" ."EGYPT t SUDAN". "ETHIOPIA". "NW 

COAST «, OFFSHORE ISL" 
230 OATA "ALGERIA", "W AFRICA t OFFSHORE ISL", "CENT AFRICA I OFFSHORE ISL 

","S AFRICA", "S INOIAN ISL" 
240 DATA "GEN HIST OF N AMERICA" ."CANADA" ."MIDDLE AMER- MEXICO" ."UNITED 

STATE? "."NE 
250 DATA "SE U^"."S CENT US"."N CENT US"."H US". "GREAT BASIN «, PACIFIC S 

LOPE" 
260 OmTA "GEN HIST OF S AMERICA" ."BRAZIL" , 'ARGENTINA" ."CHILE" ."BOLIUIA" 
970 DATA "PERU". "COLUMBIA t, ECUADOR". "UENEZUALA"."6UIANAS" ."PARAGUAY I U 

RUGUAV" 
280 DATA "GEN HIST OF OTHER AREAS"."* ","* "»"N ZEALANO *. MELANESIA"."AU 

STRAL1A" 
2* DATA "NEW GUINEA", "OTHER PRTS OF PACFC- POLVNSIA", "ATLANTIC ISL"," 

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BE A COMPUTER UTBWE 




m.»,. l i l ;.l>'^i.w > 



Computers 



A Sourcebook of ideas 



1**^1., I»..«»M 



BASIC COMPUTER 
GAMES 

Edited by Dovid Ahl, 
illustrated by George Beker 

Basic Computer Games is a com- 
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games and simulations, each com- 
plete with sample runs, program 
listings and description All games 
run in standard Microsoft :M Basic 
and are easy to use with any com- 
puter. There are games just for fun, 
games to help you develop logic 
strategies, games that teach en- 
vironmental solutions, games that 
can be played alone or with a group 
Large format paperbound, $7 95 
Add $2 00 for postage and handling 
36C 



BE A COMPUTER LITERATE 

By Marion Ball and Sylvia Charp 

Written for readers aged 10-16, this informative book discusses kinds of 
computers, what goes on inside the computer, the language of com- 
puters and how they work for us A sample program for averaging class 
grades is fully explained Be a Computer Literate has been successfully 
used as a supplemental text in many schools The glossary is particu- 
larly helpful to young readers who are learning essential computer 
terminology Softbound, BW x 11". $495 Add $100 for postage and 
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COMPUTERS IN MATHEMATICS: 
A Sourcebook off Ideas 

Edited by David Ahl 

This best-selling book contains scores of pragmatic, ready-to-use, 
classroom-tested ideas in dozens of different areas Probability, how 
many packs of gum to get a complete set of baseball cards? Problem 
solving SEND + MORE = MONEY Approximations: calculating- by 
inscribed polygons Binary counting, regression analysis, proof of geo- 
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book also mcludes a section of over 250 problems, puzzles and pro- 
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KATIE AND THE 
COMPUTER 

By Fred D'lgnazio 
and Stan Gilliam 

In this delightful full-color adven- 
ture, Katie "falls" into the imaginary 
land of Cyberma inside her daddy's 
home computer Her journey paral- 
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While the book is aimed at children 
4 to 10, parents can use supplemen- 
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the story to actual computer opera- 
tion Infosystems calls this book 
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Edited by David Ahl, 
Illustrated by George Beker 

In this sequel to Basic Computer 
Games there are 84 new games to 
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with program listings, sample runs 
and descriptions All run in Micro- 
soft Basic and are easy to use with 
any computer A Basic conversion 
table is included Talk to Eliza the 
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The Home 
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If you 're concerned about your money, it's important 
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By tracking up to 200 different budget categories,* 
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Additionally, full-scale color graphics of actual vs. 
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The Home Accountant can save you enough time 
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experts agree: 



44 Of the five I home financial 1 programs reviewed 
here THE HOME ACCOUNTANT is the most thor- 
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—Softalk, Apple, April, 1982. 



44 Personal -finance programs, have for the most 
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44 The program itself does just about everything 
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CIRCLE 147 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





LEARN 
TO TYPE 

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TO BITS. 




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Now there's a typins program for the Apple II, Atari 
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Masteiiype earns a ten-gun salute. 

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"MasterType is an excellent instructional typing game. 
We had fun reviewing it, and we highly recommend it 
to those who want to learn typing in an unconven- 
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CIRCLE 196 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Graph Paper, continued... 

ing two pixels, producing an average 
rate of one and a half)- If you wanted to 
make the object bounce back to the left, 
you would subtract DXF from $00, get- 
ting $80, and DX from $00, getting 
(with the borrow from the first subtrac- 
tion) $fe. The next DX of $FE and DXF 
of $80 would equal a movement to the 
left at a rate of one and a half pixels per 
plot. 

The ability to work with fractional 
motion adds a great deal of control to 
programs. If you add a value to the frac- 
tional portion, you produce acceleration. 
One object can be made to chase an- 
other. If the target is to the right of the 
object, add something to DXF. If the 
target is to the left, subtract something 
from DXF. The amount added or sub- 
tracted determines how accurately and 
quickly one object tracks another. List- 
ing 2 shows some common calculations 
done with fractional values. 

Another handy parameter is a status 
byte. Not all objects will be treated the 
same at all times. Something might be 
disappearing, something else might be 
appearing, while a third object is under- 
going a change such as an explosion. By 
using a byte as a flag for these con- 
ditions, one display loop can handle 
everything. Let's say you want to re- 
move an object from the screen. The dis- 
play loop would ordinarily calculate a 
new location, erase the old position, then 
draw the new position. But each portion 
first checks the status byte. If the byte 
contains a certain value, that portion is 
skipped. In this example, the status byte 
would indicate that the drawing portion 
could be skipped. Thus, the object would 
be erased but not replotted (the calcula- 
tion of its new location could also be 
skipped). 

Another independent event that ap- 
pears simultaneous is sound. Without it, 
games would be very dull. 

Buzz, Click 

The Apple has a rather limited sound 
capability, though you couldn't guess 
that from the great sound effects pro- 
duced by some programs. Basically, all 
that can be produced is a click from the 
speaker. But by playing with the rate at 
which the speaker clicks, you can get a 
wide variety of sounds. The trick is to 
integrate the sound within a program. If 
sound is handled as a separate event, 
everything will stop. This is fine for mu- 
sic on a title page, but not desirable in 
the middle of a game. Thus, the code for 
producing sound must work in conjunc- 
tion with the rest of the program. 

For instance, let's say you have a ball 
bouncing on the screen, and want a 
sound whenever the ball hits a wall. The 
wrong way would be to go to a sub- 
routine that produced the whole sound. 



1 * 


EXAMPLE OF 


USING 


2 * 


A DISPLAY FILE 


3 * 








4 * 

5 * 

6 01 


VARIABLES FOR THE FILE 


-DX 


EQU 


*BOOO 


7 OLDY 


EQU 


*8001 


8 NEWX 


EQU 


•8002 


9 NEWY 


EQU 


*8003 


10 DX 


EQU 


•B0O4 


11 DY 


EQU 


*8005 


12 SHAPE 


EQU 


»8006 


13 STATUS 


EQU 


♦8007 


14 * 








15 OBJECTS 


EQU 


*FO ; HOLDS NUMBER OF OBJECTS -1 


16 TEMP 


EQU 


*F1 


17 < 








18 * 


SAMPLE 


DISPLAY LOOPS FOLLOWS. 


19 * 


THIS IS NOT 


A WORKING PROGRAM, 


20 t 


ONLY AN EXAMPLE. 


21 * 








22 




LDA 


OBJECTS ;GET NUMBER OF OBJECTS 


23 




STA 


TEMP 


24 LOOP 


LDA 


TEMP ; MULTIPLY BY EIGHT 


25 




ASL 


;T0 GET PROPER INDEX VALUE 


26 




ASL 




27 




ASL 




28 




TAX 




29 * 


CALCULAT 


30 




LDA 


OLDX.X 


31 




CLC 




32 




ADC 


DX, X 


33 




STA 


NEWX, X 


34 




LDA 


OLDY.X 


35 




CLC 




36 




ADC 


DY.X 


37 




STA 


NEWY, X 


38 * 








39 * 


ERASING, PLOTTING, ETC WOULD 


40 * 


FOLLOW 


. ALL 


ACTIONS COMMON TO 


41 * 


ALL ITEMS IN THE LIST WOULD BE 


42 » 


HANDLED WITHIN THE LOOP 


43 * 








44 




DEC 


OBJECTS ;D0NE? 


45 




BPL 


LOOP ;NO, GO BACK FOR MORE 


46 * 


NOTE: 


IF OBJECTS HAS A STARTING 


47 « 


VALUE 


3REATER THAN *BO, BPL 


48 * 


CANNOT 


BE USED 



Listing I. 

The object is to integrate the sound. One 
way is to find some loop and insert the 
sound routine there. Most plotting 
routines occur in a loop. Let's say you 
add some code to the plotting routine. 
This code, after putting each byte on the 
screen, checks a flag. If the flag is set, it 
strobes the speaker. If not, it skips that 
code. When the ball bounces, you set the 
flag. The result will be some sound on 
every collision. The speaker is strobed at 
location $C030. Every access to that 
location causes a click. A load (such as 
LDA $C030) produces one click. A 
store actually accesses the location 
twice, thus producing two clicks. By 
experimenting with speaker strobes in 
various loops of code, you can produce 
many sounds, but this is a trial-and-error 
approach. Another method is to have a 

260 



subroutine that is called one or more 
times during each pass through the pro- 
gram. This routine, using values con- 
tained in specific variables and flags, 
would access the speaker one or more 
times (depending on values in the vari- 
ables), or it might skip right to the RTS 
(again depending on the variables and 
flags). This subroutine can actually con- 
tain a short loop or perhaps ten or 
twenty iterations without noticeably 
slowing down a program. By controlling 
frequency (number of times per second 
that the event occurs) and volume (num- 
ber of clicks in each event) your game 
can come alive with sound. The best way 
to learn is to experiment. 

It's time to take a look at overall pro- 
gram structure, followed by some 
thoughts on game design. 

March 1983 c Creative Computing 



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Graph Paper, 


continued... 




1 


* 


EXAMPLES OF 


USING 




2 


* 
* 
XL 


FRACTIONAL 


DX AND DY 




4 


.OC 


EQU 


*F0 


;X COORDINATE 


5 


XLOCF 


EOI.I 


«F1 


; FRACTIONAL COORDINATE 


6 


DX 


EOU 


SF2 


; INTEGER PORTION OF MOVEMENT 


7 


DXF 


EOU 


*F3 


FRACTIONAL PORTION 


8 


* 










9 


♦ 


EXAMPLE 


UPDATING A 


LOCATION 


10 


* 










11 






LDA 


XLOCF 


;ADD FRACTIONS FIRST 


12 






CLC 




;MUST BE CLEARED FOR FIRST ADD 


13 






ADC 


DXF 




14 






STA 


XLOCF 


; UPDATE FRACTION 


15 






LDA 


XLOC 




16 






ADC 


DX 


; LEAVE CARRY ALONE 


17 






STA 


XLOC 




18 


* 










19 


* 


CALCULATION 


FOR CHANGING I 


20 


* 


SIGN 


OF DX 


(BOUNCING) . 




21 


* 










22 






LDA 


#*oo 




23 






SEC 




; CARRY SET FOR FIRST SUBTRACT 


24 






SBC 


DXF 




25 






STA 


DXF 




26 






LDA 


#*oo 




27 






SBC 


DX 


; CARRY LEFT ALONE HERE 


28 






STA 


DX 




29 


* 










30 


( 


ACCELERATION AND DECELERATION 


31 


* 










32 






LDA 


DXF 




33 






CLC 






34 






ADC 


#*20 


; CHANGE BY ONE EIGHTH 


35 






STA 


DXF 




36 






LDA 


DX 




37 






ADC 


»*oo 




38 






STA 


DX 




39 


* 











Listing 2. 

One Big Loop 

Aside from title page and other frills, 
a game can be thought of as an infinite 
loop of code. Once the initial conditions 
have been set, the code just keeps repeat- 
ing. Some events are skipped, others 
may happen just once, but the overall 
structure is one big loop. The key is 
organizing the units within the loop. As 
mentioned, the goal is to take individual 
events and produce the illusion of 
simultaneity. The more efficient your 
code, the better the illusion. A rough 
flow chart can help in setting up the pro- 
gram. It needn't be an immaculate work 
of art. Just a rough sketch with boxes 
and arrows is a great help. This will 
show the logical sequence of events, and 
make the task of actual coding simpler. 
Many programs start by reading the 
controllers, then do the plotting, fol- 
lowed by handling any special actions 
required by the events on the screen. If 
you are reading a joystick or two pad- 
dles, place the reads at separate areas of 
the code (if you read two paddles with- 
out enough intervening delay, the first 



value will affect the second). 

Events that happen frequently are 
usually placed in line. Rare events can 
be placed in subroutines. There are no 
concrete rules here. Each program has 
its own requirements. But you'll find 
that the common tie throughout all good 
programs is logical structure. Sneakers, 
Raster Blaster, and Serpentine contain 
vastly different code, but if you mapped 
the structure of these or other games, 
you'd find elegant, logical organization, 
breaking a complex whole into simple 
units. When writing a large program, 
tackle the work one unit at a time. This 
is where the flow chart really helps. 
Each group of blocks with one entry at 
the top and one exit at the bottom can be 
thought of as a unit. By programming 
one unit at a time, and debugging it, 
you'll end up with a tight, efficient 
program. 

While whole books have been written 
on the subject of program structure, the 
best way to learn is to write programs. 

Enough probably can and has been 
said about game design, so I won't dwell 

262 



too long on the subject. But I can't resist 
a few words. Apple games have become 
very sophisticated. Certain requirements 
are almost mandatory in any new arcade 
game that hopes to make it to market. 
For starters, the graphics must be clean. 
There is also a trend these days toward 
cuteness. This may or may not last, but 
any unique or cute touch in your graph- 
ics is probably an advantage, though 
such things must make sense within the 
context of the program. All possible 
controller options should be allowed. If 
you are using a keyboard, the player 
should be able to define the keys. For a 
joystick, the player should be able to 
switch the X and Y axes (just in case his 
joystick and yours differ). 

Games can't be static. There has to be 
some increase in difficulty or some new 
level to reach. In other words, a game 
must have depth. A game must contain 
learnable skills. The average player 
should be able to notice an improvement 
in his performance — a reward for re- 
peated play. 

The best way to assure that your game 
will be fun is to have others play test it. 
No programmer can be totally objective 
about his creation. And by the time you 
have finished the game, you will be so 
good at playing it that you won't be able 
to balance the difficulty fairly. It is not 
uncommon for a programmer to make 
his game harder and harder, not realiz- 
ing that the average player will be blown 
away by the result. On the other hand, 
don't assume that no one will top your 
own performance. Add some levels or 
difficulty above the point you can reach. 
It is almost inevitable that someone will 
be better at the game than you. 

Farewell 

I could ramble on, but enough has 
been said here, and one person can't 
hope to cover everything. Fortunately, 
there are more and more graphics arti- 
cles appearing. The word is getting out. I 
hope I've filled in some of the gaps that 
existed, and shown that there is no real 
mystery to Apple graphics. 

Before signing off, I want to thank 
those who, directly or indirectly, had a 
part in this. First, special thanks to Bob 
Bishop, both for taking the time to give 
me a push in the right direction, and for 
showing all of us, from the start, that 
there is magic in the Apple. Thanks to 
Mark Pelczarski for many things. And 
thanks to all those who shared ideas or 
answered questions. Such a list, though 
far from complete, must include Mark 
Turmell, Dan Thompson, Hunter Han- 
cock, Ernie Brock, Bill Budge, and 
Frank Covitz. Finally, thanks to all of 
you who've shown interest in this series 
and taken the time to send questions and 
suggestions. It's been fun. D 

March 1983 e Creative Computing 



COMPUTING BOOKSHELF 

EVERY ASPECT OF COMPUTING! 




IMF 



APPLE 



°»«at!v« 

ATARI 



TBI 

oeat| v „ 

SS-80 




THE CREATIVE APPLE 

Edited by Mark Pelczarski and Joe Tate 

The best articles and features on the Apple from the last four years of 
Creative Computing magazine Revised and updated, this wealth of 
information gives dozens of ways to tap the tremendous potential of your 
Apple Chapters cover graphics, music, education, word processing, 
business, Applecart, software reviews and include program listings and 
tips for easier programming Whether you use your Apple for business, 
teaching, home budgeting or just having fun. The Creative Apple is an 
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$2 00 for postage and handling «18R 

THE CREATIVE ATARI 

Edited by David Small, Sandy Small and George Blank 
An invaluable guide for the average, non-expert user who knows a little 
about Basic and simple programming the Atari is one of the most 
sophisticated consumer graphics devices ever invented Yet, because it 
is so powerful, learning how to use its special features can be difficult 
for all but the most skilled users Here's where 77ie Creative Atari can 
help Taking articles, columns and tutorials from past issues of Creative 
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also included Softcover, BW x 11", illustrated, $1595 Add $200 for 
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THE CREATIVE TRS-80 

Edited by Ken Mazur 

A complete guide based on articles that appeared in Creative Comput- 
ing about the popular Radio Shack TRS-80 Covers everything from 
games to business applications, including graphics, software evalua- 
tions, educational uses, word processing and personal productivity 
Includes nine full-length games programs, programming tips arid hints 
on debugging Softcover, BW x 11". illustrated $1595 Add $2 00 for 
postage and handling *18Y 

COMPUTERS IN SCIENCE 
AND SOCIAL STUDIES 

Edited by David H. Ahl 

Interested in the physical or social 
sciences? This new book brings together 
40 science-oriented computer articles 
from the pages of Creative Computing 

Fields covered include Social Studies. 
Psychology, Chemistry, Biology, Physics, 
Health, Ecology. Astronomy. History, Eco- 
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terstellar Trade! You'll find games brief 
tutorials and programs that bring to- 
gether the many exciting uses of the 
computer in social studies and science! 
Softcover, BW x 11", $14 95 Add $2 00 for 
postage and handling «9X 



AVAILABLE AT YOUR LOCAL BOOKSTORE OR COMPUTER STORE. 



COMPUTERS 

in 

Science 

and 

Social 

Studies 

Edited by David H. Ahl 



BEST OF 

CREATIVE COMPUTING, 

VOLUME I 

Edited by David Ahl 

All the articles, stories, learning ac- 
tivities, games and puzzles that ap- 
peared in Volume I of Creative 
Computing. Contents cover com- 
puter applications in education and 
recreation. Over 200 contributors 
have helped put this book together; 
from college professor to high 
school student, U.S. Senator to un- 
derground cartoonist, corporation 
president to science fiction author 
A must for everyone concerned 
with the growth of computers and 
their increasing role in American 
society Large format paperbound, 
$8 95 Add $2 00 for postage and 
handling #6A 

BEST OF 

CREATIVE COMPUTING, 

VOLUME II 

Edited by David Ahl 

Here are the best articles, fiction, 
puzzles, programs, games and re- 
views from Creative Computing's 
Volume n It's a potpourri of infor- 
mation on languages, programming 
theory, artificial intelligence, com- 
puters in education and computers 
and the arts 67 pages are devoted 
to puzzles, programs and things to 
do with your computer Large for- 
mat paperbound, $8.95 Add $2 00 
for postage and handling *6B 



BEST OF 

CREATIVE COMPUTING, 

VOLUME III 

Edited by David Ahl 
and Burchenal Green 

Articles, activities, fiction, games, 
programs, reviews, cartoons and a 
wealth of information from the 1977 
issues of Creative Computing In- 
cludes features on technology, pub- 
lic access, educational use of 
computers, medical applications 
and computer music Also reviews 
of calculators, games, equipment, 
software and books 96 pages are 
devoted to puzzles, programs, 
problems and games Large format 
paperbound, $8.95 Add $2 00 for 
postage and handling «12C 




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Part Nine: Wrap Up 



The Graph Paper 



Up to now, we've been covering 
graphics concepts in a bit of a vacuum, 
looking at specific areas as independent 
entities. This month, in what will be the 
last of the series, we'll be concerned with 
integrating these concepts into actual 
games. A lot of what follows falls into 
the theoretical, and I should stress that 
none of this is gospel. You should al- 
ways be on the lookout for new ap- 
proaches and better techniques. 

The Illusion of Simultaneity 

Those used to programming in Basic 
wonder how arcade games can cause so 
many objects to move at the same time. 
The answer is that this is an illusion. In 
the Apple, there are no simultaneous 
events. Everything happens in sequence. 
You put a byte on the screen, then an- 
other, and so on. Thanks to the speed of 
machine language, a long series of in- 
dependent events can appear to happen 
at the same time. The trick is to organize 
these events in such a way that this illu- 
sion is maintained. If you are animating 
several objects, they should all be moved 
with the same section of code. One way 
to do this is to keep an ordered list of all 
necessary information for each item. 

Let's say your program requires the 
following information about each object: 
old X coordinate, old Y coordinate, new 
X, new Y, X velocity, Y velocity, shape 
number, and some sort of status byte 
(more about that later). If these eight 
parameters are stored sequentially in 
RAM for each object, all animation can 
be handled in one loop. The X register 
can be used to index into the list. The 
easiest way to do this is to separate each 
set of entries by some power of 2. In this 
case, eight is sufficient. If there were 



David Lubar 



nine or ten items in the list, the separa- 
tion would be 16 bytes. Suppose, in our 
example, that the list starts at $8000. 
Old X coordinate of the first item would 
be stored at $8000, old X for the second 
item would be at $8008, the third would 
be at $8010, and so on. Now, if a vari- 
able is used to keep track of the number 
of items in the list, and if the separation 
is a power of 2, the variable can be 
shifted to provide an index into the list. 
An example can be found in Listing 1 . 

The number of items in each entry 
will be determined by the program. 
Some programs require only simple 
parameters. Others can get fairly com- 
plex. Let's look at some of these 
parameters. 

Move it 

The smallest unit an object can be 
moved is a single pixel. In simple pro- 
grams, all locations can be treated as 
integers. The change in X and Y loca- 
tion (DX and DY) can be held in one 
byte each. One trick is to exploit the cy- 
clic nature of bytes and always use addi- 
tion. To move right one pixel, a DX of 
$01 is used. When moving left, DX is 
$FF (adding $FF is the same as 
subtracting $01). This is simpler than 
having separate routines for adding or 
subtracting DX and DY. Also, it makes 
changes of direction easy to calculate. 
To make an object bounce, you just sub- 
tract DX or DY from $00. The result be- 
comes the new DX or DY ($00 - $01 = 
$ffand $00 -$FF = $01). This works for 
any value of DX and DY. 

While integers are fine for simple mo- 

258 



tion, they have some limitations. If the 
change becomes too great, the object 
jumps rather than moving smoothly. 
And curved paths are difficult to pro- 
duce. The answer is to use fractional val- 
ues. While an object can't be moved a 
half or fourth of a pixel, this fractional 
portion can be kept track of. Imagine an 
object has a DX of one and a DY of one 
half. Every time it is plotted, it will move 
one pixel to the right. Every second 
time, it will move up one pixel. If both 
DX and DY have a value of one half, the 
object will move on a diagonal, but at 
half speed. Such things as gravity and 
curving paths are easily done using frac- 
tional values. I believe this is called 
"fixed point arithmetic." Whatever, let's 
take a close look at it. 

Each parameter requires two bytes, 
one for the fraction and one for the inte- 
ger portion. As before, all calculations 
can be done with addition. The trick is 
remembering that the fraction is a bi- 
nary fraction. So one half would be $80 
(.10000000 in binary), one fourth would 
be $40, and so on. As with integer val- 
ues, direction can be flipped by 
subtracting the values from $00. The 
only constraint is that the subtraction 
must be treated as a two-byte operation. 
First the carry is set and the fraction is 
subtracted from $00. The result is the 
new fractional portion. Next, without 
touching the carry, the integer portion is 
subtracted from $00 and the result saved 
as the new integer portion. For instance 
(calling the integer portion DX and the 
fractional portion DXF), suppose DX is 
$01 and DXF is $80. The object would 
move right at a rate of one and a half 
pixels per plot (actually, it would alter- 
nate between moving one pixel and mov- 

March 1983 e Creative Computing 



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COMPUTERS 



COMPUCASE 

BUSINESS MICROCOMPUTER 




IMS DESK TOP COMPUTER 

IMS has announced the 5000 IS Micro- 
computer system, which serves as a com- 
plete integral desk top computer or as the 
host computer of a multi-user, multi-pro- 
cessing system. Up to four I/O processors 
may be resident in the 5000 IS, each with 
its own Z80 Microprocessor, 64K memory 
and two Serial I/O channels. 

The 5000 IS, designed around the IEEE 
standard S-100 Bus architecture, has both 
1 MByte Floppies and 25 MByte Win- 
chesters with ECC available, extended 
RAM memory (beyond the basic 64K), 
peripheral controllers, memory parity, 
and a two year warranty. 

Operating systems for the 5000 IS are 
CP/M, MP/M, or IDOS. 




SMC Computer Corp. has introduced 
CompuCase, a portable microcomputer, 
that comes in a standard-sized attache 
case. 

CompuCase features 64K RAM mem- 
ory, an eight megabyte floppy disk drive, 
a 40x12 line plasma display screen, a 
business-oriented 128 character ASCII 
keyboard, an 80 column dot matrix 
impact printer, and an RS-232 communi- 
cations interface. 

The computer is built around dual 8085 
microprocessors making CompuCase a 
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processing speeds as high as 1.2 MIPS 
(Million Instructions Per Second). The 
entire system is built into a standard 13" x 
18" x 5 1/2" case and weighs less than 25 
pounds. 

CompuCase uses the CP/M operating 
system. 

SMC Computer Corp., 3780 Green 
Industrial Way. Atlanta, GA 30341. (404) 
452-7670. 

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Applications programs cover real 
estate, insurance, legal, medical and 
accounting professions, plus the entire 
retailing industry. 

IMS International, 2800 Lockheed 
Way, Carson City, NV 89701. (714) 978- 
6966 or (702) 883-7611. 

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SANYO PLUS 
MICROCOMPUTER 

Scottsdale Systems, Ltd. has taken 
Sanyo's new MBC-1000 Microcomputer 
and added a second drive and three soft- 
ware modules. 

The "Sanyo Plus' features an all-in-one 
64K Z-80A (4 MHz) computer with dual 5 



1/4" drives with a total formatted storage 
capacity of 624K. The 12" high resolution 
Sanyo green phosphor screen has a full 
24x80 display. 

The detached keyboard features five 
special function keys and a 10-key 
numeric pad. The system comes complete 
with a serial port, parallel port, and room 
for three additional cards. 

Free software includes CP/M 2.2, 
Sanyo Basic (a superset of Microsoft 
Basic), Diagnostics and Utilities, Wordstar 
3.0, PlannerCalc, and a games disk. 
$2295. 

Scottsdale Systems, 6730 East 
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85257. (602) 941-5856. 

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MISCELLANEOUS 

INTERNATIONAL DIRECTORY 
OF SOFTWARE 

Over 4,000 proprietary software pro- 
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the International Directory of Software. 

A special introductory price of $145 
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saving $50 on the regular price of $195 
starting July 1. 

It covers systems software for main- 
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Computing Publications, Inc., First 
Federal Building, Suite 401, Pottstown, 
PA 19464. (215) 326-5188. 



March 1983 c Creative Computing 



265 



New Products, continued.. 

TERMINALS & I/O 



TERMINAL!. APPLE CONVERTER 

Terminall is an integrated hardware 
and software system which converts the 
Apple II into a communications terminal. 

Terminal] includes computer inter- 
facing, audio demodulating. AFSK tone 




generating, and transmitter keying hard- 
ware. 

It requires an Apple II or Apple II 
Plus, 48K RAM, and disk drive. Software 
is provided on disk in DOS 3.2 format 
(Muffin to 3.3). 

Latched and buffered cable plugs into 



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any card slot (1 through 7). $499. 

Macrotronics, Inc., 1125 Golden State 
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MULTI-MODE PRINTER 

North Atlantic Industries has intro- 
duced the Qantex 7020. u high quality 
multi-mode printer. It operates at either a 
high speed draft copy print rate of 180 
cps, and a near letter quality rate of 75 
cps. Graphic resolution is 144 x 72 bit- 
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Other features include proportional 
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downloadable fonts, and an expandable 
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Qantex Division. North Atlantic 
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TSK COLOR MONITORS 




TSK Electronics Corporation has intro- 
duced Taxan RGBvision I and II color 
monitors, without interface modules, for 
the Apple III and IBM Personal Com- 
puter. The RGBvision is also fuUy com- 
patible with the Apple II through the 
Taxan RGB-II card. 

Both monitors have unlimited colors 
through a linear amplifier video circuit 
and have the 16 colors required for the 
Apple series and IBM Personal Com- 
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RGBvision I offers medium resolution 
of 380(H) lines and the RGBvision II 
630(H) lines. 
The monitors have a 12-inch, CRT dis- 



266 



March 1983 c Creative Computing 



COM-STAR F/T 



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Deluxe 

COMSTAR F/T 

PRINTER — $349.00 

The Comstar is an excellent addition to any 
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• BIDIRECTIONAL PRINTING with a LOGIC 
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• PRINTING VERSATILITY: standard 96 ASCII 
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. INTERFACE FLEXIBILITY: Centronics is 
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• THREE SELECTABLE CHARACTER 

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• 224 TOTAL CHARACTERS 

• USES STANDARD SIZE PAPER 



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New Products, continued. 

& TaMn RGBviaon I retails 
5399 and RGBvision II, $599. 
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357 9991 AVe "' DUarte ' CA 9,01 °- (213) 
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SYSTEMS 
SOFTWARE 



language. Special features include format- 
ting error-handling, shared filing system 
workspace management, and interface to 
nonAPL data. 

STSC. Inc.. 2115 East Jefferson St.. 
Rockville, MD 20852. 

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SYSTEMS 

The Infosoft C compiler includes a 
preprocessor that implements conditional 
compilation, file inclusion, and macro 
expansion. The run-time library includes 
an I/O redirection utility. The package 
requires 48K and any of the following 
operating systems: CP/M I/OS. UNI/OS 
Multi/OS. CP/M. CDOS. Infosoft Sys- 

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LANGUAGES 

APL*Plus/80 is the TRS-80 implemen- 
tation of a version of Ken Iverson's APL 



APPLICATIONS 
SOFTWARE 

GAMES AND RECREATIONAL 

Walls and Bridges is a new arcade game 
for the TI-99/4A computer, featuring hi- 
res graphics. Each player must build a 
wall, trying to avoid collision, while 
forcing the other player into collision 
Obstacles like quicksand, trees, and 
castles, add to the challenge. The game 
requires joysticks, and is available on tape 
cassette. $20. TImagination. Box 2H0S 
Fairfield. CA 94533. 

CIRCLE 435 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

EDUCATIONAL 

Krell Software has released Ben. (he 
first in a series of programs designed to 
learn from their environment. Aceom- 
panying documentation helps users create 



experimental artificial intelligence pro- 
grams: the program language allows for 
the synthesis of -memory structures" 
Available for the Apple, Commodore. 
Franklin. Radio Shack, and IBM com- 
puter $79.95. Krell Software 1320 Stony 
Brook Rd.. Stony Brook. NY 1 1790. (5161 

CIRCLE 436 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

SRA has announced Discovering Basic 
a courseware program that introduces the 
user to the Basic language. The program 
is designed to teach fundamental pro- 
gramming concepts, and includes 
examples of colorful screen graphics. The 
package consists of a workbook, a disk 
and an instructors guide. Its for the 
Apple II 48K with Applesoft and disk 
drive. Science Research Associates 155 

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Nursery Time is an open-ended elec- 
tronic book simulated on a double-sided 
disk using graphics and music. The pack- 
age is recommended for children aged 
from 3-9, with an Apple II Plus and disk 
drive. The program and accompanying 
13-page booklet cost $29.95. Merry Bee 
Communications. 815 Crest Dr.. Omaha 
NE 68046. 

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266 



March 1983 e Creative Computing 



CAROLINA MICROSYSTEMS 

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New Products, continued... 

Microsoft has made its muMath/ 
muSimp package available for the IBM 
Personal Computer. The advanced math- 
ematics package has been available for 
Apple, TRS-80, and CP/M-80 computer 
systems for some time. The muMath 
package allows complex mathematical 
functions, such as integration, differen- 
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be straightforwardly handled. The lan- 
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cations of muMath. the IBM PC version 
is priced at $300. Microsoft, 10700 

S08O Way ' BeUevue - WA 98004 - <2°<» 

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CIRCLE 273 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



BUSINESS 

The Software Fitness Program is a set 
of seven interactive financial accounting 
packages which include Sales Order Pro- 
cessing, Accounts Receivable, Inventory 
General Ledger, Accounts Payable Pay- 
roll, and Job Costing. The Coach is an 
instruction generator that allows creation 
of self-paced, on-line learning programs 
for user training of computer applications 
These applications are all written in 
Business Basic and Cobol for use on 
CP/M systems with 4K and two disk 
drives. Open Systems, Inc., Suite 409-430 
Oak Grove, Minneapolis, MN 55403. 

CIRCLE 440 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



WORD PROCESSING 

The Personal Secretary is a word 
processing program that includes a lower 
case adapter. The package also includes 
a database and a mailing list merger The 
program costs $99.95 and requires an 
Apple II with 48K and a disk drive. 
Sof/Sys Inc.. 4306 Upton Ave. South 
Minneapolis, MN 55410. 

CIRCLE 441 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

PERSONAL 

Fast Figure is a spreadsheet program 
that computes financial functions 
including net present value, internal rate 
of return, compound growth rate, etc It 
costs $110 and requires 46K and 
either CP/M or North Star DOS. Market 
Time helps investors spot market turning 
points. It includes a database of DJIA 
CBOE, and other Wall Street indices. It 
costs $70 and requires 34K and either 
CP/M or North Star DOS. High Yield 
measures the performance of investments 
made. It can sum the results of invest- 
ments, project prices, and perform what- 
■f analysis. It costs $70 and requires 38K 



and either CP/M or North Star DOS 
X r8 i a L SS 60 S , y 37 emS - P °- B ° X 3,Z G,e " 

CIRCLE 442 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Pearformance Measurement System is 

a set of VisiCalc templates that measure 
the ra, e of return of investment portfolios 
The central feature is the calculation of 
internal rate of return. Pearformance is 
pnced at $100 and requires an Apple II 
with 48K and VisiCalc. Pear Systems 
Corp 27 Briar Brae Rd., Stamford. CT 
Uo9U3. 

CIRCLE 443 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Air Navigation Trainer is a real-time 
simulation of air navigation. A high reso- 
lution display illustrates airspeed, heading 
and many other effects. The program sells 
for $40 and requires an Apple II with disk 
drive. 48K. and Applesoft. Space-Time 
Associates, 20-39 Country Club Dr.. Man- 
chester, NH 03102. 

CIRCLE 444 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

The Investor's Toolkit is a collection 
of more than 30 programs available sep- 
arately or in preconfigured packages. 
Functions include Fibonacci squares. 
MLR lines, price channels, trend lines, 
and trading system optimization. Prices 
start at $39.95. A demonstration disk can 
be bought for $5. All programs require an 
Apple II with a disk drive. Microware 
222 S. Riverside PI., Chicago, IL 60606. ' 

CIRCLE 445 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

UTILITIES AND MISCELLANEOUS 

Colortexl is a high-resolution text driver 
which displays a variety of character fonts 
and graphics on the screen simulta- 
neously. Special features include non- 
destructive overwrite, variable scrolling 
speed, a break key lock-up option, and a 
character shape editor. The program disk 
costs $79.80 and requires a TRS-80 Color 
Computer with 32K and a disk drive. 
Bertamax, Inc., 101 Nickerson, Suite 202 
Seattle, WA 98109. 

CIRCLE 446 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Plotpak. Strpak. and Malhlib are de- 
signed for engineering and scientific users. 
Plotpak is a complete plotting library 
Strpak is a collection of 135 subroutines 
for string and character processing among 
other things. Mathlib performs a variety 
of mathematical, engineering, and scien- 
tific computations. The three packages 
may be purchased together for $975, or 
separately. Individual prices are: Plotpak 
$365; Strpak, $275; Mathlib, $365. Sea 
Data Corporation, One Bridge St 
Newton, MA 02185. (617) 255-8190. 

CIRCLE 447 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



270 



March 1983 e Creative Computing 



COMSTAR skipping withik 2 days 



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HOURS NOT TO 
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NOW MASTER VISICALC" 
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HOURS INSTEAD OF DAYS 

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LITTLE, BROWN AND COMPANY 

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" "send coupon to Janet W. Carlson. Little Brown and Company 
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Please send me V(S/Ca/c ■ Programming: No Experience Necessary 

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Zip 




Iscap^. apple cart. . . apple 



Recently, games have started to in- 
clude speech. It certainly livens up any 
program, and the best part about speech 
is that it is truly easy to do. Listing 1 is a 
routine that both digitizes and replays 
voice without any extra hardware. It is 
less than 128 bytes long. 

I think I have succeeded in making a 
short yet flexible and easy to use pro- 
gram. So please type it in, use it, and en- 
joy speech in your programs. 

How It Is Done 

The program digitizes voice through 
the cassette port on the back of the Ap- 
ple. You first record the word, sound, or 
message that you want digitized on a 
cassette and then play it into the cassette 
IN port while running the recording 
routine. 

The program checks the status of the 
signal and records it in memory. Later, 
when you execute the play routine, the 
signal stored in memory is output 
through the internal speaker. 

Using Voice In Your Program 

This voice routine was designed to be 
easy for the beginner to use while offer- 
ing significant power for the ambitious. 
Therefore, I have included an assembler 
as well as a Basic listing. 

The Basic listing is in the form of data 
to be poKEd in memory to form a ma- 
chine language program. To use it 
through Basic, just type in Listing 1, be- 
ing careful not to make any errors. Once 
entered, it can be run. The last few lines 
of the program do a simple sum check 
for obvious data errors (it is possible that 
it won't catch all mistakes). If it passes 
the check sum, Voice Maker should be 
in memory. Before trying it, save the Ba- 
sic program, and save the machine lan- 
guage program by typing BSAVE 
VOICE,A$300,L$84 

Now comes the fun part. Record the 
message you want the Apple to digitize 
on tape. Actually the cassette recorder 
you use will make a tremendous dif- 



Chris Adams 



Chris Adams, 1864 Matthews. Vancouver. BC Can- 
ada V6J 2T6. 



ference in how the voice sounds. What 
you need is not the most expensive cas- 
sette recorder but a recorder designed 
for use with a computer. Of the record- 
ers I tested, the Radio Shack CTR-80 
produced the best results. 

The message should start with a count 
down such as "3...2...1...0...this is my 
message." This is so you will know how 
to start the digitizing process. 

Before you can digitize, you must set 
some pointers in memory for Voice 
Maker. The pointers indicate where to 
put the data in memory, how long the 
recording is to be, and the speed of sig- 
nal samples. The speed factor is part of a 
delay loop. The lower the speed factor, 
the clearer the voice will be at playback 
but at the expense of memory used for 
the same length of message. 

The speed can be POKEd at location 
251 and should be in the range of 1 to 
20, one being the most accurate. 

For initial experimentation, use a 
speed factor of one. Then when you 
want to start using several words in a 
program, use a higher delay such as 10 
to spare memory. The memory pointers 
are stored at 06 and 07. The LSB is 
POKEd at 6 and the MSB at 7. The LSB 
and MSB are found with this formula- 
MSB = INT (ADDRESS/256) 
:LSB = ADDRESS-(MSB*256) 
The next important location is the 
length marker. The length must be a 
product of 256 and is derived by adding 
the number of 256-byte segments to the 
MSB at location 7. The value derived 
with this method should be POKEd at 
location 252. The amount of memory 
used determines the length of the 
recording. 

( As a sample, record the message 
"3...2...1...0...I'm an Apple, what are 
you?" Put the start of the data at 24576 
by POKEing memory locations 6 and 7 
with the LSB and MSB: 
MSB = INT (24576/256) :LSB= 
24576-(MSB*256) 



POKE 6.LSB: POKE 7.MSB 
For this example use a speed of one 
and a length of 4K. That works out to be 
16 segments of 256 bytes (each KB has 
four 256-byte segments). The value 
POKEd to 252 is MSB+ 16. Since in this 
case the MSB worked out to be 96, the 
value used is 96+ 16= 1 12- 
POKE 251,1 :REM SPEED 
POKE 252, 1 1 2 :REM LENGTH 
Hook up the phone of your tape re- 
corder to the cassette IN port in the rear 
of your Apple. Now as long as the Voice 
Maker program is properly in memory 
you can call 768. It doesn't matter if 
the tape has already been positioned to 
the beginning of the message on the tape. 

Listing I. 



10 FOR M - 768 TO 899: READ 0: 
POKE M,D: NEXT M 
100 DATA 141, 16, 192, 160, 0, 

132, 255, 173 
110 DATA 96, 192, 41, 128, 197, 

255, 240, 5 
120 DATA 174, 48, 192, 133, 255 

. 173, 0, 192 
130 DATA 16, 237, 32, 51, 3, 17 

7, 253, 37 
140 DATA 8, 174, 96, 192, 16, 2 

, 5, 250 
150 DATA 145, 253, 32, 76, 3, 3 

2, 70, 3 
160 DATA 76, 29, 3, 160, 0, 162 

. 1 , 1 34 
170 DATA 250, 162, 254, 134, 8, 

166, 6, 134 
180 DATA 253, 166, 7, 134, 254, 

96, 166, 251 
190 DATA 202, 208, 253, 96, 200 

, 208, 23, 230 
200 DATA 254, 165, 254, 197, 25 

2, 208, 15, 165 
210 DATA 250, 10, 176, 11, 133, 

250, 73, 255 
220 DATA 133, 8, 166, 7, 134, 2 

54, 96, 104 
230 DATA 104, 96, 32, 51, 3, 17 

7, 253, 37 
240 DATA 250, 197, 255, 240, 3, 

174, 48, 192 
250 DATA 133, 255, 32, 76, 3, 3 

2, 70, 3 
260 DATA 234, 76, 109, 3 

299 T - 

300 FOR M - 768 TO 899tT - T ♦ 
PEEK <M> s NEXT 

305 IF T < > 16687 THEN PRINT 
"THERE MUST HAVE BEEN AN ERR 
OR IN THE DATA, THE TOTAL U 
AS "sTi" AND IT SHOULD HAVE 
BEEN 16687" 



272 



March 1983 e Creative Computing 



VIC-20 & C64 Exclusive needs . . . exclusive source . . . 

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CIE Cartridge (IEEE -488 for C64)_ 
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40/80 Col Video Pak w/16K_ 
80/80 Col Video Pak w/64K_ 



VAC Audio Cassette Interface- 
Joy Stick (Arcade Quality). 



Atari Game Interfa ce for VIC-2 0— 
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4995 
95.00 
S 139.00 
$250.00 
$325.00 
$ 25.00 
$ 25.00 
CALL 



VIC-20 Color Computer ®. 

Commodore 64 ® 

MSD Single Disk Drive 

VIC 1525 Graphic Printer — 
VMC/CMCVIC8tC64 
Monitor Cables 



_ $ 175.00 
_ $545.00 
_$ 375.00 
_ $330.00 



.$ 15.00 



VIC-20 Software Product* 

VTE/CTE Terminal Communicator 
program for VIC and C64 

Cassette 1 

Diskette ' 

VT-40 VIC 40 Col Terminal 
Communicator Cartridge 
with Downloading. 



8.95 
12.95 



QTY 



MODEL* 



NAME 



A catalog of all hardware and software 
products for the VIC-20 and Commodore 
64 Computers is available upon request. 

Immediate delivery on all Items. 
Dealer Inquiries invited. 



- IMMEDIATE DELIVERY — 

\bur Name 

PRICE T 



VIC Super Expander 

VIC Programmers Aid Cartridge 
VIC Intro to Basic Part 1 8t II 



.$ I 
.$ ■ 
.$ 

VtW II11NJ lUOW^ »^" ' *~" fS * 

Black Hole Game Cartridge^ — $ 

Trashman Game Cartridge ® $ 

Astroblltz Game Cartridge ®_ $ 

Choplifter Game Cartridge ®- — $ 
Serpentine Game Cartridge ® — $ 
Terraguard Game Cartridge ®__ $ 
Videomanic Game Cartridge ®- $ 
Apple Panic Game Cartridge ®_ $ 



|| I TOTAL 



(In Texas, odd 5% sales tax) 



Address . 
City 



payment method Check 

Master Card # 

Visa # 



_ State . 



-Zip. 



Card-Exp. Date . 



American Express # . 
Signature . 



I ®Beg«tefec1 Trademark 
t Commodore Int 



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The Sweet - Talker voice synthesizer allows you to add speech ot 
unlimited vocabulary to your computer utilizing, the Votra» SC 01 A chip 
you can output any message by programming individual phonemes 
Comes in two versions, one plugs directly into your Apple II. the other 
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• Contains 64 different phonemes ST01 
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ST02 





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CIRCLE 208 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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Apple Cart, continued... 

You can rewind and then play the tape 
to find the message. The first part of the 
program will put the signal input 
through the IN port directly to the built- 
in speaker without digitizing anything. 
The actual digitizing process isn't ac- 
tivated until you hit a key on the 
keyboard. 

Until you do, you can adjust the vol- 
ume and tone until the voice coming 
from the Apple is as you want it. If the 
Listing 2. 



volume is too low, there won't be any 
signal at all; if the volume is too high 
there will be a tremendous amount of 
static. 

Once volume and tone are satisfac- 
tory, set up the tape to begin the count- 
down. Listen until the zero is finished, 
then hit any key, and the input signal 
will be digitized until the allotted mem- 
ory is full. While digitizing, you can't 
hear what is going on. When the cursor 






«300L 

0300- 

0303- 

0305- 

0307- 

030A- 

030C- 

030E- 

0310- 

0313- 

0315- 

0318- 

031A- 

031D- 

031F- 

0321- 

0324- 

0326- 

0328- 

032A- 

032D- 

*L 

0330- 

333- 

0335- 

0337- 

0339- 

033B- 

033D- 

033F- 

0341- 

0343- 

0345- 

0346- 

0348- 

0349- 

034B- 

034C- 

034D- 

034F- 

0351- 

0353- 

»L 



8D 10 CO 
A0 00 

84 FF 
AD 60 CO 
29 80 

C5 FF 
F0 05 
AE 30 CO 

85 FF 
A0 00 CO 
10 ED 

20 33 03 
Bl FD 
25 08 
AE 60 CO 
10 02 
05 FA 
91 FD 
20 4C 03 
20 46 03 

4C ID 03 

A0 00 

A2 01 

86 FA 

A2 FE 

86 08 

A6 06 

86 FD 
A6 07 
86 FE 

60 

A6 FB 
CA 

DO FD 
60 
C8 

DO 17 
E6 FE 
A5 FE 
C5 FC 



STA 

LDY 

STY 

LDA 

AND 

CMP 

6EQ 

LDX 

STA 

LDA 

BPL 

JSR 

LDA 

AND 

LDX 

BPL 

ORA 

STA 

JSR 

JSR 

JMP 

LDY 

LDX 

STX 

LDX 

STX 

LDX 

STX 

LDX 

STX 

RTS 

LDX 

DEX 

BNE 

RTS 

I NY 

BNE 

INC 

LDA 

CMP 



«C0 10 

«*00 

»FF 

• C060 
*«80 
♦FF 
•0315 

• CO 30 

• FF 

• C000 
♦0307 

• 0333 
(•FD>,Y 
•08 
•C060 

• 0328 

• FA 

<«FD),Y 
•034C 

• 0346 

•031D 

tttoo 
«*oi 

•FA 

*»FE 

•08 

•06 

•FD 

• 07 

•FE 

•FB 

•0 348 



• 0366 
•FE 

• FE 
•FC 



0355- 

0357- 

0359- 

035A- 

035C- 

035E- 

0360- 

0362- 

0364- 

0366- 

0367- 

0368- 

0369- 

36A- 

036D- 

036F- 

0371- 

0373- 

0375- 

0378- 

*L 

037A- 

037D- 

0380- 

0381- 

0384- 

0385- 

0386- 

0387- 

0388- 

0389- 

038A- 

0388- 

038C- 

0380- 

038E- 

038F- 

0390- 

0391- 

0392- 

0393- 



DO OF 


BNE 


• 0366 




A5 FA 


LDA 


•FA 




OA 


ASL 






BO OB 


BCS 


• 0367 




85 FA 


STA 


•FA 




49 FF 


EOR 


H»FF 




85 08 


STA 


• 08 




A6 07 


LDX 


• 07 




86 FE 


STX 


• FE 




60 
68 


RTS 







68 

60 

20 33 03 
Bl FD 
25 FA 
C5 FF 
FO 03 
AE 30 CO 
85 FF 



20 4C 03 

20 46 03 

EA 

4C 6D 03 

00 

00 

00 

00 

00 

00 

00 

00 

00 

00 

00 

00 

00 

00 

00 

00 



PLA 
RTS 



JSR 


•0333 


LDA 


(•FD>,Y 


AND 


•FA 


CMP 


•FF 


BEQ 


•0378 


LDX 


•C030 


STA 


•FF 


JSR 


•034C 


JSR 


•0346 


NOP 




JMP 


•036D 


BRK 




BRK 




BRK 




BRK 




BRK 




BRK 




BRK 




BRK 




BRK 




BRK 




BRK 




BRK 




BRK 




BRK 




BRK 




BRK 





returns to the screen, the recording pro- 
cess is over, and you can stop the cas- 
sette recorder. 

To hear the results, just type call 
874. If all has gone well, you will have a 
talking Apple. If it didn't work, then 
there was a mistake either when you en- 
tered the data or during the experi- 
mental process. 

In the future when you want a pro- 
gram to use voice just bio ad voice and 
set up locations 6 and 7 with the address 
of the digitized data, put the same value 
as when you recorded into 251, and 252 
should represent the length relative to 
the position in memory. If you want 
more than one recording to be used in 
one program, load them into non- 
overlapping locations, and whenever you 
want to use a different one re-POKE the 
appropriate locations. 

To save a word or message, you must 
know how long it is in terms of bytes, as 
opposed to where in memory it ends. 
The length can be found with this 
formula: 

L = (PEEK(252)-PEEK(7))*256 
In this example, the length is 4096 
and it starts at 24576 so we can type- 
BSA VE MESSAGE # 1 , A 

24576, L 4096 
A typical program to use this is shown 
in Listing 3. 

10 PRINT CHR*<4) j'BLOAD VOICE- 
IS PRINT CHR*<4)| 

■BLOAD MESSAGE Nl ,A 24576" 
20 POKE 6,0: POKE 7,96: POKE 251,1 

POKE 252,112 
25 CALL 874 
30 END 

When you load the data, as in line 15, 
it is a good idea to specify where in 
memory you expect it to go; that is done 
with the phrase 24576. 

If the program in which you use voice 
also uses strings, it will be necessary to 
set HIMEM to avoid clobbering your 
data. q 



An In-Depth Look 

$0300 to $0319 START 

Transfers the input data directly to the speaker and 
checks for a keypress 

$031Ato$0332 RECORD 

Calls the init routine, then checks the cassette and puts 
DELAY ° n * StaCk ' thCn INCREMENTS a "d does a 

$0333 to $0345 INIT 

Sets all the pointers and scratch pad locations. Puts loca- 
tions $06 into $FD and $07 into $FE 

$0346 to $04B DELAY 

Just a simple delay loop 

$034C to $0369 INCREMENT 

This is really the heart of the program. As well as in- 
crementing the memory pointer, it sets the masks for the 
next bit position to be used. If the memory allotted has 
been exhausted, it pops the stack and ends the current 
routine. 



At The Program 

$036A to $0383 PLAY 

Starts by calling INIT and then gets a piece of data If 
that piece is different from the last, it clicks the speaker 
Afterward it does the DELAY and INCREMENT. 
Special Locations 
SOOttoJ Beginning of data pointer 

*°°° 8 Mask (one bit off) 

fOOFA Mask (one bit on) 

$O0FB speed 

S00FC Le n g th 

SS£c' E Memory pointer (from $06,7) 

WOFF Status of speaker 

The data are stored and retrieved in a strange order. First 
all the data are stored in bit of each byte, then the program 
loops back and puts the data into bit 1. This continues until 
all bits are full; then the routine ends. Data are retrieved in 
the same order. 



274 



March 1983 e Creative Computing 



^$ MMMmaWMMM 

THE TACKLER " - dual • mode parallel 

INTERFACE FOR THE APPLE' 2 BOARDS IN ONE FOR NO MORE 
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An ,ntell>eent board to provide easy control ol your printer s lull potential 
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Change printers - no need to buy another board lust plug in one of our 
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m\ 





H„n screendump software for the Epson. OKI C Itoh and Nee 8023 Use with Tymac PPC-100. 
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introductory Price $135 $99.00 Dealer i Dist Inquiries Invited 



THE UPGRADEABLE PPC-100 
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A Unrversal Centronics type parallel printer board complete with cable 
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A abdications system lor the Apple' (Requires Hayes Micro Modem 1mam*U*nummt 
type ol file between APPLES' Automatic mult, file transfer, real time clock indicating ,le transfer 
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Compatable with all DOS tile types (requires Hayes Micro Modem) man 



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Two sided lOOt plastic reference card Loaded with information ot interest to all Apple andean 
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standard printer cards to add mtelligenc MS 00 specify printer^ 




THE MIRROR FIRMWARE FOR NOVATION APPLE CAT II • 

The Data Communication Handle. ROM Emulates synta. ot an other popular Apple Modem product 

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A piggy- back board that plugs into the disk- 
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A user Inendly WORD PROCESSOR with lull |oystick control (use ol |Oystick optional) Easy edit and 
string manipulation commands that follow the standard VIC 20 ' formal full use of function keys lor 
ease of use n tu „. 

• Requires at least 8K RAM cartridge unl » »*"' 

Universal Tape Interface & Duplicator 

No need to use the VIC 20 Recorder with this device you can easily load, save or even duplicate tapes 
easily with your recorder Full LED indication ot Data transfer makes this the most reliable way to 
load Save and Duplicate A complete 10 device with eitras «"'* *«•*> 

Look out lor our NEW eicrting cartndge and tape programs, reasonably pneed memory boards and 
more lor the VIC 20 and soon for the VIC 64 Call or write for our catalog ot eicrting Vic 20 products 




Dealer and Distributor Inquiries Invited. 

/MICRO-H^RE DIST. INC. 

P BOX 113 POMPTON PLAINS. N.I. 07444 

201-838-9027 



CIRCLE 213 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Micro Power Bench" 








Single Switch Control of CPU and Peripherals 
Built in circuit breaker protects your system 
Four power expansion outlets 
Optional power surge and fan available 
Compatible with IBM, APPLE. TRS-80 and others 

Order Direct 

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CIVILIZING COMPUTERS 

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CIRCLE 121 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




DISK DRIVE WOES? 
PRINTER INTERACTION? 
MEMORY LOSS? 
ERRATIC OPERATION? 

Don't 

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Power Line Spikes. Surges & 
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CIRCLE 163 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




We will take a bit of a diversion in this 
edition of the Outpost, to take stock of a 
promising, yet somehow neglected input 
device for the Atari computer: the light 
pen. We will look at the capabilities of 
such a device, and review a pen available 
for the Atari as well as other machines. 
We shall go on to outline steps involved 
in the construction of an inexpensive but 
fully functional pen, using readily avail- 
able parts. 

If light pens don't sound to you like a 
topic that should necessarily elicit 
heated controversy or a complex and 
somewhat absurd tale, you are justified, 
but incorrect. Remember, you own an 
Atari, so anything is possible. Read on. 
In the atmosphere of inspiration that 
couched the design of the Atari 400/800 
computer, foresighted engineers built a 
great many capabilities directly into the 
hardware of the machine. Among these 
was the capability to support a light pen 
without the need for any additional 
controller boards. Even today, not too 
many other machines can make this 
claim. A light pen can be quite simply 
plugged into controller port 0, as if it 
were a paddle or joystick. It can be read 
straightforwardly with the statements 
I'M K(564) and PEEK(S65). And that is 
all there is to it. That is, from an en- 
gineering point of view, you understand. 
Those with machines of recent ac- 
quisition may not be aware that at one 
time Atari itself slated a light pen for 
production. It was to cost less than $100. 
In the second quarter of 1981, a prod- 
ucts brochure that showed the device in 
use was released. It was a stubby, fat 
hunk of plastic with a tip switch on it. 
And what pretty multicolor pictures it 
supposedly drew. 

Mail-order houses, as they are wont to 
do, accepted back orders on the Atari 
pen for some time. Though the decision 
to kill it was made over a year ago, the 



John Anderson 



product was listed in a few retail rosters 
until only a few months ago. 

At some point during its short 
development, a decision was made to 
pull the pen. The reasons for this remain 
somewhat vague. Some have suggested 
that the tip switch was flaky, making the 
device unreliable. 

Another explanation I have heard 
from more than one reliable source goes 
like this: The Atari is designed as the 
machine for everybody, including novices 
and kids. Marketing was skitterish about 
the idea of a tiny kid fooling around a 
TV tube with a big pointy stick. One 
false move and gazonga: Mommy finds 
Billy on the living room floor, a victim 
of implosion! "Think of the lawsuits," 
said the legal department. "Pull the 
pen," said marketing. 

Stop laughing. This may or may not 
have been the last straw concerning the 



Atari light pen. Whether it was or not, 
the pen was pulled from production very 
swiftly, and it is unlikely the decision 
will ever be reversed. A few did manage 
to get off the assembly line, however, 
and the few people who own them quite 
properly regard them as collector's 
items. 

Hobbyists like myself, who have read 
about the capabilities of light pens and 
know also of the built-in pen capabilities 
of Atari machines, awaited the appear- 
ance of Atari-compatible light pens from 
other sources. Surprisingly, at least to 
me, no cheap pen has become available 
in the ensuing time. It is too bad, really. 
The peripherals can do a lot to make a 
microcomputer friendlier. 

Just how can they do this? Kind of 
you to ask. First, let's find out what thev 
do. 

Light On The Subject 

A light pen, when touched to or 
aimed closely at a connected monitor or 
TV screen, will allow the computer to 



'"" »■■*■■ 



-^ ^--T- 



A 



To a cxtr iAl A NM«K^ 
A04 t 0»ou« To USiTiaJS. 
T.4C *MaJ MoVce tWoM 
LM&T To eo«r bOl-Tt-l 
I1Z 1-iAJfS To A "PA&E." 
A PMoroTis^^i^Tbij 

c«.t- 



- 



I 



MEASURE TIME FROM 
BEGINNING OF REFRESH 
TO CURRENT SCAN (A TO B) 
FOR VERTICAL POSITION 



MEASURE TIME FROM 
BEGINNING OF SCAN LINE 
TO POINT OF PEN (B TO C) 
FOR HORIZONTAL POSITION 



Figure J. 




276 



March 1983 c Creative Computing 



CALL TOLL FREE 1_800 "528"1 054 

fcomPUTER lUflREHOUSE 



$1350 
$425 

$1000 

$1025 

$800 
S775 



PRINTERS 

C-ltoh 

F-10- Parallel 
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Daisywriter 2000 w/ 16K 

Daisywriter 2000 w/48K 
Comrex 

CR-1-S 

CR-1-P 

Diablo 

620 R0 £•" 

630 R0 can 

IDS 

Microprism 480 $525 

EDSOn #» •• 

All models Call 

NEC c 4 cc 

PC-8023A S 5L 6 11 

3500 Series Call 

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Okidata 

Microline80 Call 

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Microline84 Call 

Star Micronics 

Gemini-10 Call 

MT 1601 §52$ 

MT160L S8»0 



ATARI 



s 



Special 800 System 

800 W/48K, recorder. Pac Man or 
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800 (48K) $52 

400 Call 

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Zenith •««■ 

12" Green Screen »' 13 

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All models Call 

BMC ___ 

12" Green -52= 

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Comrex •#»#»*» 

13" Color Composite 5*w 

13" RGB $455 

NEC c 1S = 

JB1201 fj?5 

JB 1260 . $115 

USI 

9" Amber S1 22 

12" Amber $150 



DISK DRIVES 

Percom -..aw* 

Atari S/D 1st Drive 5222 

Atari S/D 2nd Drive 5222 

Atari D/D 1st Drive 55?5 

Atari D/D 2nd Drive S330 

Rana (Drives tor Apple) _«-- 

Elite 1 S345 

Elite 2 5215 

Elite 3 5 552 

Controller (w/Dnve only) $79 

MODEMS 

Hayes Smartmodem $215 

Novation 
CAT $140 

D-CAT $155 

Signalman 
Mark I $85 

Prices reflect 3% to 5% cash discount 

Product shipped in factory cartons 

with manufacturers warranty 

Please add $8.00 per order tor shipping 

Prices & availability subiect to change 

without notice 

Send cashier s check or money order all othfir checks 

will delay shipping two weeks 



2222 E. Indian School Rd. • Phoenix, Arizona 85016 
-\mm LTCD Order Line: 1-800-528-1054 
VJUI I IMU I CH Other Information: 602-954-6109 
WAREHOUSE Order Line Hours: Mon.-Fri. 10-5 MST 



Saturday 9-1 MST 



CIRCLE 142 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PUT PRICES IN CHECK 



CARTRIDGE RIBBONS FOR 

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CARTRIDGE RIBBONS FOR 

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Outpost: Atari, continued. 

determine where on that screen the pen 
is aimed. The driver program may sub- 
sequently take that information and do 
various things with it, but the job of the 
pen itself is quite simply to make a time 
measurement, which will be translated 
into x and y coordinates representative 
of a position on the CRT. 

The capability may seem remarkable, 
and it is, though a simple explanation of 
how it works may dispel some of the 
awe. You may be aware that a TV or 
raster monitor typically refreshes at a 
rate of 60 frames per second. That is to 
say the electron gun or guns draw 60 
pictures on the screen in one second. But 
it is impossible to draw an entire picture 
at once. Rather, the picture is drawn by 
the scan line, starting in the upper left- 
hand corner, moving to the right. When 
a line is completed, work begins on the 
next line. The Atari standard is 192 scan 
lines per frame. (An excellent explanation 
of this mechanism was provided by Da- 
vid Small in the June and July 1981 is- 
sues of Creative.) 

Now let's imagine we have a special 
kind of transistor: one that is sensitive to 
light. We have hooked this transistor to 
our Atari, and aimed it at a point on the 
screen. By noting when a scan goes by 
and measuring the interval between scan 
lines or entire screen refreshes, we can 
get a good idea where the phototransis- 
tor is pointed on the video screen. The 
pen then allows us, through software, to 
generate x and y vectors corresponding 
to a point on the screen, which we may 
then use to draw pictures, make a choice 
from a menu of alternatives, or answer 
questions put to us by a program. Figure 
1 is a simplified diagram of the process. 
As opposed to input via the keyboard 
or even a paddle or joystick, a light pen 
can be a dramatically friendly periph- 
eral. Imagine needing merely to point 
the device at your choice on the screen, 
in order to make that choice. Or to draw 
a picture on your CRT as straight- 
forwardly as you might use a crayon on 
a piece of paper. These are the kinds of 
possibilities a light pen affords. 

By the way, you would have to work 
extremely hard to push a light pen 




through a CRT. It just isn't something 
you could do without extreme effort, 
assuming you could do it at all. 

Mightier Than The Sword 

Soon after the Atari pen bit the dust, a 
third-party pen for the Atari appeared 
from Symtec Corporation. This pen is 
about the most professional you can find 
for any machine. It is, in fact, an adapta- 
tion of the same model used in pro- 
fessional mini and mainframe 
operations. Its barrel is of heavy, ex- 
truded aluminum, with a coiled tele- 
phone handset wire leading to an 
Amphenol connector. It includes a sen- 
sitivity trimmer adjustment. Everything 
about the Symtec pen is top of the line, 
including the $150 price tag. 

Figure 2 provides an example of the 
drawing capabilities of the Symtec pen. 
The software driver I used to create the 
caricature (portrait) of our fearless lead- 
er, Mr. Ahl, appears as Figure 3. In ten 
lines, the code evidences how elementary 
a driver can be. This is an obvious bene- 
fit of the fact that so much of the work is 
already done in hardware. 

If you wish to endow your Atari with 
professional light pen capability, the 
Symtec pen is literally without rival on 
the market. The pen is also available for 
the Apple, IBM PC, and VIC-20 ma- 




Syntec Light Pen. 



chines. For more information, contact 
Symtec, 15933 West 8 Mile, Detroit, MI 
48235.(313)272-2952. 

Penlight Light Pen 

Of course, many Atari hobbyists will 
be unable to budget that kind of money 
for a light pen purchase. I believe the 
market exists for an inexpensive pen, but 
no company has yet stepped forward 
with such a product. Other inexpensive 



10 GRAPHICS 7+16 
20 SETCOLOR 4,0, 14: COLOR 3 
30 X«PE£K(564) 
40 IF X<70 THEN X=X+230 
50 Y-PEEK(56S) 
60 IF Y<17 OR Y>112 THEN 50 
70 X=X-75:Y=Y-14 
80 IF X<0 OR X>159 THEN 30 
90 TRAP 30: IF STICK<0)=15 THEN 
PLOT X,Y 
100 GOTO 30 



Figure .?. 



pens, for machines such as the Apple 
and TRS-80, can be modified for use 
with the Atari. I reasoned, however, that 
it wouldn't entail very much more work 
to start from scratch. It would also be 
much cheaper. 

The result: for a couple of hours work 
and about $10 worth of hardware, you 
can put a homemade Atari light pen to 
work with your system. While it will 




Home Brew Light Pen. 



have neither the accuracy nor the feel of 
the Symtec pen, it will be perfectly 
serviceable for many applications, and 
loads of fun to play with. It is also easy 
to make. So let's make one! 

First, you've got to stock some parts. 
Get down to the nearest Radio Shack, 
and pick up the following: one photo- 
transistor, model number 276-130, 89 
cents: % watt I00K ohm resistor, model 
number 271-045, 19 cents for two: pen- 
light, model number 61-2626, $1.99. 

You will also need a few other pieces 
of paraphernalia. These include: DE-9 
connector plug for the controller port on 
the Atari, and five-conductor shielded 
cable (you cannot use an existing Atari 
joystick, as it lacks necessary pin-outs); a 
couple of feet of insulated bell or 
strand